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This study aims at exploring the influence of professional training on administrative effectiveness of principal in Enugu state. Specifically, this study identified the professional training programmes available to principals in Enugu state, determine the extent to which the professional training of principals enhance the administrative effectiveness in instructional supervision of teachers, ascertain the extent to which the professional training of principals contributes to the interpersonal relationship in the school and determine the extent to which the professional training of principals enhances decision making in the schools. Four research questions guided the study. Three null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A researcher developed questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was face validated by three experts from the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka excluding the supervisor of this work, after which a trial testing was carried out. Sample of 243 respondents were used. The population comprised 65 principals and 4800 teachers in Nsukka Education Zone. Mean score, standard deviation and t-test were used to analyse the data obtained from the questionnaire. The study revealed that Professional training programmes available to principals include; seminar, symposia, workshops, conferences, exhibitions, mentoring and colloquial, Principals lay emphasis on the school curriculum, teachers’ lesson notes, diaries, class registers, progress registers, school objectives among others, principals also supervise teaching methods and instructional materials, encourage electronic teaching and learning, and use of SWOT analysis in dealing with challenges, when the principal listens to teachers’ complaints and give advice, good rapport with teachers is  establish, When principals seek opinions of teachers before taking decision or action on matters such as school fund, appointment, student admission, among others decision making in the school is enhanced. Some of the recommendations made include; School principals should be exposed to the different forms of professional training such as; seminars, conferences, workshops, symposia, exhibitions, mentoring and colloquial, Principals should exhibit the professional training skills when acquired, for effective decision making in the school, principals should ensure that opinion of teachers are considered before taking actions in the school.


Background of study

The 21st century school administrators face a lot of challenges in executing their administrative tasks due to globalization of the world. The task of school administrator include providing leadership for curriculum development and  instructional improvement, creating conducive environment for the realization of human potentials, influencing the behaviour of staff, supervising instructional activities and controlling the financial management of the school.
The challenges facing school administrators as Arikewuyo (1999) opines include; Insufficient interest of the principals in arresting the loitering behaviour of the teachers and students, lack of social set-up among the staff of which the principal supposed to be part of , the inability of the principal to make time, visit and communicate with members of his staff, principals not ready to listen and advice, improper supervision all through the line of responsibilities which requires the principal’s watchful eye and constant presence, lack of organized orientation for young and inexperienced teachers, lack of division of labour and monopoly of all the power, constant repetition of lesson notes, use of a particular instructional materials year after year and poor coordination of the various departments in the school due to disobedience of school rules and regulations.
Constant changes in educational policies coupled with educational and technological innovations greatly affect the speed of knowledge, production and administration and these have rendered most school administrators inadequate in discharging their duties. The tasks and challenges facing school administrator have made it necessary for school administrators to embark on training that make them professionals on the job. This training can take different forms such as: seminars,  symposia, workshops, conferences, exhibitions, mentoring, and colloquial. The
duration of these training varies from hours, days, weeks, months and years (Chabra, 2005).
Professional school administrator carry out job that requires special training and education and the society expect such an individual to exhibit some skills, attitudes and certain behavioural standards equivalent to the training given to the individual. A professional in education is one who has the skills and abilities to maintain sound interpersonal relationship through the acquired skills and also to reach students in a meaningful way, developing innovative approaches to content while motivating, engaging and inspiring young adult minds to prepare for ever advancing technology ( Onwura, 2004) A professional as regards to school administration is one who educates the students so that the students learn concepts and apply them in their lives.

The professional has a strong knowledge of the subject area and has the opportunity to concern himself with preparing innovative techniques to teach. According to Hughes (1997), the professional makes decision that allows individual students’ needs to be met more precisely. A well trained professional school administrator leads students by example. A professional has the ability to initiate and maintain effective communication with all the parties involved in education which include: students, teachers, school board, administrators, parents and community. Hughes (1997), also is of the view that school principals should involve teachers in all they do to ensure sound and healthy decision making in the school.
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules or changing attitudes and behaviours to enhance the employees’ performance on the job (Okendu, 2009). Training is a continuous learning process which transforms the employees according to the organization’s global needs. Training involves the application of knowledge which creates awareness of rules and procedures to guide behaviour. Having seen what training is all about, the already existing personnel need to be trained to enable them be acquainted with the new curriculum, methods and
techniques of work and other new trends and innovations within the system. This learning process equips an individual with the knowledge and skills to perform better on the job and be able to cope with the changing needs and technologies.
In any organization, for growth to take place there must be training. Training has been observed as part of human development. Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choice. According to Olaniyan and Ojo (2008), these choices can be infinite and change over time. In any organization, the most essential things are existence of good interpersonal relationship for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training and have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available, many other opportunity of achieving administrative effectiveness in an organization remains inaccessible. Some of the present day educational institutions lack such interpersonal relationship thereby making the administrative effectiveness of principals difficult to achieve.

 For administrative effectiveness of principals to be achieved, all hands must be on desk, as Oguntimehin (2001), obviously noted that, organization cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained administrators. Hence, the need for educational institutions to embark on principals’ professional training and development has become obvious. Absence of these training according to Oribabor (2000) often manifest tripartite: problems of competence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness in decision making. Isyaku (2000) postulates that professional training aims at developing competencies such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for future growth and development of both the individual and the


Professional training are planned activities that are concerned with increasing and enlarging the capabilities of employees so that they can successfully handle greater office and occupy higher positions in the organization’s hierarchy to better handle current responsibilities (Peretomode, 2005). Professional training are those training given to administrators who are concerned with tasks that need special skill or development especially those ones that need high level of Education.

This professional training is geared towards improving upon worker’s performance with 
the ultimate aim of achieving set organizational goals. Thus, professional training of secondary school principals is aimed at enhancing their capabilities so that they can effectively handle their administrative responsibilities as chief administrators in secondary schools. As already seen what professional training is all about, principal’s professional training focuses on the acquisition of skills needed to carryout one’s current job and
this professional training is future oriented, that is, it deals with preparing principals for future positions that will require special skills, knowledge and abilities.

This professional training also focuses mainly on the areas of instruction, finances, research and public service (Okendu, 2009). Although professional training involves researches and development of knowledge through conferences and seminars, such provisions are neglected in secondary school administration due to lack of fund to organize such programmes. This is in line with Adeniyi (1995) that observed that principal professional training and development are neglected and is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. The principal is the chief executive and the educational administrator of the school. The principal occupies a central position in ensuring administrative  effectiveness in school.

Igwe (2006, p.150) states that “the central purpose of administration in general is the coordination of human and material resources for the attainment of some predetermined objectives”. The principal is the chief supervisor of the school. The most supervisory work of the principal is that of instruction. The vice principals see that the lesson is thoroughly prepared by checking the lesson and unit  plans, and supervising the actual teaching activities and making necessary constructive corrections.

The principal sees that the classes are enriched with learning materials, well ventilated, not overcrowded and has good teaching arrangement. The vice principals with the help of the furniture masters, deans, heads of department and guidance counselors, supervise the infrastructural materials, co-curricular activities, neatness of the compound and personnel as well as their health services. Not only supervision of instruction, the principal has to be very knowledgeable in record keeping and encourage the teachers to keep the pupils records accurately. Since
keeping all school records consistently and accurately, minimizes problems, training is required in those areas for accuracy of record and data operation.
Administration is the ability to make people, activities and things function so that objectives are achieved. This means that administration is the process of working with and through others to efficiently accomplish predetermined goals of an organization as Mgbodile (2004) deduces. The principal being an educational leader, working in an organization which is a social system, is tasked with a whole lot of challenges which include supervision, staff management, decision making,  curriculum development, assignment of tasks to carefully selected trained teachers, providing instructional materials needed for teachers to carryout effective teaching and learning. Based on this, the principal needs professional training so as to systematically arrange these resources and attain the set goals.
Administrative effectiveness involves achievement in many of the day to day management issues which are practical and are of paramount importance to the organization. In this case, the principal sees that the school environment maintains  absolute quietness and good learning situation (Condy, 1998). This moves the principal from administrative role to an effective leadership position where teachers’ motivation and needs are integrated through harnessing their potentials which include division of labour, hierarchy of authority and effective managerial behaviour in
attainment of the predetermined objectives of the organization. 

The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore, lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore, that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals, need to acquire relevant skills and knowledge. The neglect of professional training and development programme need affect the level of manpower performance of principals especially in areas of instructional supervision of teachers.

According to Kayode (2001), professional training and development programmes have to be conducted for the different levels of administration. Usually, before such training are organized, efforts are being made  through individuals and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the needs, which had been identified.
Unavailability of fund has been a major constraint to administrative effectiveness.

In some cases where the government refuses to provide for fund, no such training exists. Some of the principals occupy the position through illegal means and are unqualified for the post as noted by Akinpeju (1999). Some principals lack education qualifications and use the privilege of having people in government to secure the position above their colleagues who in most cases merit the position, in such cases, if training is not given, the organization is going to have problem.
Professional training of secondary school principals has so many advantages, common knowledge alone tells us that nothing in life remain the same. Every thing is flux. Education is not in isolation, new rules and regulations must be formulated to be in line with the new trend in development. Professional training of principals encourages professional development and also network of professional colleague is built through professional training.

For effective administration to take place there must be facilities, equipment and training of principals. Ezikanyi (2007) noted that three main factors enhance any educational endeavour. These are finance, physical facilities and equipment. These three are indispensable if any education pursuit is to  be achieved. For administrative effectiveness to be achieved in schools, the basis for appointment of principals is basically on the educational qualification and some years of experiences. In some cases, principals without educational qualification are appointed without years of experience.

It is worth knowing that if principals recruited do not have the experience and skills needed for administrative effectiveness, the aim of change will not come. Some of the appointed principals have no knowledge of information communication and technology, which is almost the eye and ear of every dynamic and growing organization. The study is therefore to find out competencies
needed by the principals through professional training which will enhance administrative effectiveness in secondary schools in Enugu state.


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