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PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

Abstract

These findings documented the physical, chemical and heavy metal contents in leachate, borehole water, surface stream, treated water
and soil samples around the municipal solid waste dumpsite at Uyometropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Samples were collected during
the wet and dry seasons 2010/2011. The samples were analysed for the following parameters: heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb), anions
(PO3 4,SO2- 4,Cl-, NO- 3, NH+ 4-N), essential metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), Chemical oxygen demand
(COD), pH, salinity, turbidity and conductivity. The results revealed that most of the parameters recorded for the leachate samples significantly
exceeded the WHO international standards for drinking water in both seasons. Fe (47.33 and 113.13mg(L), Cd (2.29 and 14.47mg/l), Cu (5.78
and 35.87mg/l), Cr (1.63 and 7.63mg/l), Pb (12.33 and 31.13mg/l), Z  (17.33, and 34.5mg/l), BOD (52.2 and 159.6mg/l), Cl- (284.37 and 536mg/l), NO- 3 (74.03 and 87.83mg/l), TDS (1709.5 and 2043mg/l) and DO (1.73 and 2.73mg/l). In leachate, all the heavy metals, Cl-, COD, salinity, and conductivity contents showed significant increase (P<0.05) while SO2- 4 recorded significant decrease (P<0.05) during the dry season. The physico-chemical contents recorded for the borehole water and treated water samples in both seasons agree with the international standards for drinking water, except for high PO4 – content (1.13 to 2.17mg/l) recorded for the borehole water samples in both seasons which exceeded the WHO permissible limit of 0.1mg/l for drinking water. The borehole water sample recorded significant increase (P<0.05) in Fe, Mn, Na, K. and a significant decrease in SO2- contents during the dry season. The stream water sample recorded high Fe (0.61 and 2.5mg/l) content in both seasons and high Mn (2.37 mg/l), Cr (0.42mg/l), Cd (0.46mg/l) and Cu (3.95mg/l) contents during the dry season which exceeded the WHO international standard for drinking water. The stream water samples recorded significant increase in BOD5, Cu, Mn, Cd and Cr contents during the dry season (P<0.05). The heavy metal contents recorded for soil samples from the dumpsite, from 10 and 20m east, west, south and north of the dumpsite and from the control site were all within the WHO international standards in both seasons. The heavy metal contents in the dumpsite soil sample in both seasons were significantly higher; pb (9.90 and 11.82mg/kg), Zn (1370 and 146mg/kg), Ni (12.56 and 11.82mg/kg), Cr (3.60 and 4.05mg/kg) Cd (9.05 and 12.2mg/kg) and Mn (94.0 and 91.2mg/kg) In both seasons than the control; Pb (3.78mg/kg) Zn (50.90mg/kg), Ni (2.19mg/kg), Cr (1.06mg/kg), Mn (44.27mg/kg), and Cd (1.09mg/kg). Heavy metal contents for soil samples 10 and 20m east of the dumpsite were also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. This study infer that the solid waste dumpsite is affecting the natural quality of the ambient environment. Therefore indiscriminate dumping of solid waste at the dumpsite should be prohibited.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The municipal solid waste dumpsite (MSWD) examined is located within the barrack’s road street at Uyo Metropolis; Akwa – Ibom State. The dumpsite examined contains both biodegradable and non biodegradable materials of all sorts. The different waste materials may contain different physical, chemical and biochemical properties. In the presence of atmospheric water, high temperature and high microbial populations, these waste materials may decompose and get dissolved in the presence of water to generate a waste liquid substance called leachate. This waste water produced may infiltrate into the ground water aquifer, it may be washed into a near by surface stream and it may affect the soil properties. When humans come into direct contact with such contaminated samples, it may lead to many health problems.
Pollution occurs when a product added to our natural environment adversely affects nature’s ability to dispose it off. A pollutant is something which adversely interferes with health, comfort, property or environment of the people. Generally, most pollutants are introduced in the environment as seawage, waste, accidental discharge and as compounds used to protect plants and animals. There are many types of pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, nuclear pollution and oil pollution (Misra and Mani, 1991).
Solid wastes other than hazardous and radioactive materials are often referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
Municipal solid waste is useless unwanted material discharged as a result of human activity. Most commonly, they are solids, semisolids or liquids in containers thrown out of houses, commercial or industrial premises (Nyangababo and Hamya, 1980). Municipal solid waste varies in composition, which may be influenced by many factors, such as culture affluence, location etc. Municipal solid waste management depends on the characteristics of the
solid wastes including the gross composition, moisture contents, average particle size, chemical composition and density, in which knowledge of these usually helps in disposal plans (Sally, 2000).

In Nigeria, agencies like the Federal Environmental Protection Agencies (FEPA), Ministry of environment, Environmental Sanitation Authorities, for example Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection Agency (AKSEPA) and even local authorities are responsible for planning a defined line of action for the disposal of waste generated on daily basis in our society.

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

The report that refuse dumps have caused traffic delays in some strategic parts of our urban centers and cities is an example of poor management of refuse dumps in Nigerian towns and cities (Umaakuta and Mba, 1999). According to Eddy, Odoemelem and Mbaba (2006), the series of problems are as a result of lack of designed strategies that can be based on scientific principles and approach.
However, human endeavours, such as technology, industrialization, construction, trade, commerce, as well as nutrition have rendered the whole environment system a “throw away society”. This is true because indiscriminate disposal of waste coupled with increasing world population and urbanization have combined to worsen the situation day in, day out (Eddy et al., 2006).
According to Holmes (1992), site selection for waste disposal is generally based on geographic rather than geological and hydro geological considerations, that is the closer the site to the source of the waste the better in terms of transport cost reduction. It is not uncommon therefore to find waste disposal sites within municipal boundaries and surrounded by residential areas. Clearly such sites pose-serious health risk just in terms of
problems associated with litter, stray dogs, scavenging birds, rats and air borne contaminants from mobilization of fine particulate matter.
Despite the best attempts at waste avoidance reduction, reuse and recovery (recycling, compositing and energy recovery), landfills and waste disposal sites are still the principal focus for ultimate disposal of residual wastes and incineration residues world-wide (Waite, 1995). The placement and
compaction of municipal wastes in land fills facilitates the development of facultative and an aerobic conditions that promotes biological decomposition of land filled wastes. Hence, leachates of diverse composition are produced, depending on site construction and operational practices, age of the landfill,
landfill method, climatic and hydro geological conditions and surface water ingress in to the landfill (Campbell, 1993).
A landfill is an engineered waste disposal site facility with specific pollution control technology designed to minimize potential impacts. Landfills are usually either placed above ground or contained within quarries pits. Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachates and its migration through refuse (Christensen and Stengmann, 1992).
According to Amina, et al., (2004), leachate corresponds to atmospheric water that has percolated through waste, interacting with bacteriological activity and especially organic substances. Its composition is a function of the nature and age of the land fill, type of waste, the method of burying, the geological nature of the site and climate.
Leachate pollution is a result of mass transfer process. Waste entering the landfill reactor undergoes biological, chemical and physical transformations, which are controlled among other influencing factors, by water input fluxes. In the reactor, three physical phases are present; the solid phase (waste), the liquid phase (leachate) and the gaseous phase. In the gaseous phase, mainly carbon (prevalently in the form of CO2 and CH4) is present.
The main environmental aspects of landfills leachate are the impacts on surface water quality, ground water quality as well as soil quality, if leachate is discharging into these bodies (Christensen et al., 1992).
According to Paster, et al., (1993); De-vare and Bahadir, (1994), uncontrolled leachates may exert deleterious effects on the environment, especially the input of high concentrations of organic leachate and inorganic solutions of metals at low oxidation states into water course which apparently depletes the dissolved oxygen content of the water and ultimately lead to extinction of all oxygen depending life. Also the nonbiodegradable organic compounds in the leachate will persist for a long time.

These compounds may adversely affect aquatic species when they are assimilated into food chains.
Ground water is that portion of subsurface water which occupies that part of the ground that is fully saturated and flows into a hole under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Groundwater occurs in geological formations called aquifer. An aquifer (gravel/sand) may be defined as a geological formation that contains sufficient permeable materials that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs; this implies an ability to store and transmit water (Chae, 2000). Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for human kind.

It contains over 90% of the fresh water resources 5 and is an important reserve of good quality water. Groundwater, like any other water resource, is not just of public health and economic value it also has an important ecological function (Armon and Kitty, 1994). Groundwater contamination by landfill leachate is increasingly recognized as a serious problem (Hussan, et al., 1989; Loizidous and kapetanois, 1993; kwanchanawong and Kootlakers, 1993; Al-Muzains and Muslamani, 1994).
Soil is the collection of natural materials occupying part of the earth surface that may support plant growth, and which reflects the pedogenetic processes acting over time under the associated influences of climate, relief, living organisms, and parent materials. Soil pollution is caused by the removal or addition of substances and factors that decreases it

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

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