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PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

Abstract

The aim of this research work was to find out the level of job satisfaction among staff nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area. The survey research design was utilized to obtain data from all the 20 male and 75 female staff nurses working in the above Local Government Area at the time of the study. The questionnaire was the tool for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using percentages to answer the research questions, chi-square test to verify the hypotheses formulated and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) to determine the

relationship between job satisfaction and the physiological need variables. The results of the study revealed that: (1) Job satisfaction existed among staff nurses in all the five dimensions of basic needs namely, physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. (2) The level of job satisfaction among staff nurses was high in all the five dimensions of basic needs investigated. (3) The findings in this study and the discussions therein have reinforced previous ones before now. They have also added impetus to divergent views expressed by previous researchers on the same or similar topics.

Finally, recommendations were made based on the findings, discussions and conclusion of the study.

PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

The successful execution of any function by any group of workers, such as nurses, calls for dedication and efficiency on the part of the workers (Lofquist and Dawis, 1985). According to Ndatsu (2001), Florence Nightingale, renowned as the founder of modern nursing, acknowledged the fact that nursing “requires as exclusive a devotion, as hard a preparation, as any painter’s or sculptor’s work… having to do with the living body- the temple of God’s Spirit”. To accomplish this ideal requires job satisfaction to serve as a motivator. Job satisfaction has been defined in many ways by different writers. Beaty and

Schneir (1977) postulated that job satisfaction is an emotional concept, a feeling, not a behaviour or activity. Locke (1994) perceived job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state resulting form the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating one’s values. Blai (1994) views job satisfaction as being an activity capable of satisfying psychological needs of a varied nature. Carvel (2000) contended that people are driven by many needs simultaneously and usually, satisfaction must occur concurrently.  Hancock (1998) defined job satisfaction as a term which is used when people, including nurses, experience

positiveness in relation to their work, lack of it can lead to low morale-burnout syndrome. Job satisfaction in staff nurses should be of great concern to any organization. Nurses hold the majority of positions in most health care settings, and replacement of licensed personnel is costly and time consuming. A newly graduated nurse has limited time but ample exposure to varying degrees of job satisfaction. A critical examination of assertions concerning job satisfaction by Lofquist and Dawis (1985), Beaty and Schneir (1977), and Locke (1994) show that they share one thing in common, namely, what

Herzberg, Manser and Synderman (1989) described as “the generalized attitude attached to the feelings an individual holds about his work”, and contended that ‘motivators’ which include achievement, promotion and recognition, lead to job satisfaction. The views of job satisfaction by Blai (1994) and Carvell (2000) show that it is the degree to which the job fulfils or allows the fulfillment of the individual needs that determine his degree of job satisfaction and this is applied in the present study.  According to Guion (1988), job satisfaction can be successfully estimated from measures of need

satisfaction. Roe (1997), asserted that there is no single situation which is potentially so capable of giving some satisfaction at all levels of basic needs as the occupation. He further noted that occupations are of extreme importance since so many needs are so well satisfied by them. Blai (1994) confirmed Guion’s (1988) assertion and went further to develop an instrument for measuring job satisfaction which was used in a study similar to the present study. One advantage of Blai’s definition of job satisfaction as drawn form Guion (1988) lies in the fact that need satisfaction has been found to be valid and logical measures of job satisfaction, hence Blai’s instrument is being adapted to suit this current study.

The Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area Comprise:

  1. General Hospital Umuguma
  2. Okuku Health Centre
  3. Ihiagwa Health Centre
  4. Nekede Health Centre
  5. Avu Health Centre
  6. Obinze Health Centre
  7. Oforola Health Centre
  8. Orokwo Health Centre
  9. Olokwu Umuosu Health Centre

It must be stated here that well over one third of all nurses employed by the Ministry of Health Owerri Headquarters are working in Owerri West Local Government Area because of its central location in the capital city. Job satisfaction has been conceptualized by many authors in different ways: Herzberg, Manser and synderman (1989) likened job satisfaction to an effect derived from the provision of situations that constitute a motivation to the worker, such as recognition and achievement. In addition, the provision of favourable environment also contributes to job satisfaction. In Vroom’s (1964) theory of job

satisfaction he contended that when the work situation is attractive, the worker derives job satisfaction and vice versa and this situation has been referred to by Vroom as valence force theory. Maslow (1970) conceptualized job satisfaction as a need satisfaction process. He conceptualized needs as occurring in levels of lesser or greater priority. These needs are physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self actualization needs. This theory of need satisfaction provides a convenient framework for the measurement and estimation of job satisfaction and has been applied to the present

study. Level of job satisfaction can be measured in a number of ways. Ashur (1997) suggested that a proportion of less than 40% indicating agreement to job satisfaction in any aspect of basic needs investigated was considered low level, 40-59% average level and 60% and above high level job satisfaction. These criteria will be used in this study to determine the level of job satisfaction of staff nurses working in Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.  The nurses of Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area consist of the Chief Nursing Officers,

assistant Chief Nursing Officers, Matrons, Senior Nursing Sisters, Nursing Sisters / Superintendents and Staff Nurses. Although the public usually refer to the student nurses as nurses, they are nurses in training. These nurses perform different functions in the hospital setting:  Some are involved in administration, some are involved in supervision and others are involved in bed-side nursing. The Chief Nursing Officers, Assistant Chief Nursing Officers and Matrons are involved in administration; the Senior Nursing Sisters and the Nursing Sisters/ Superintendents are involved in supervision while the

Staff Nurses are involved in bed-side nursing. Although these functions of the nurses as a whole contribute to the successful running of the wards, those who perform bed-side nursing are more directly involved in the care of the patients and their level of job satisfaction is more likely to enhance the quality of care or otherwise contribute to neglect of the patients due to frustration. Therefore, the staff nurses were utilized in the present study and were generally referred to as nurses. Those categories of nurses are all Registered Nurses (RN) in addition to their other specialized qualifications.

PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

The present world-wide economic recession has generated a lot of discontentment among many, if not all groups of workers in Nigeria. The Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area are not likely to be excluded from the frustration syndrome. What makes some so happy with their chosen profession, and others so unhappy? Aside from a change of career, is there a solution? With the current nurses shortage, and the anticipation of worsening conditions, the investigator set out to investigate the sources and level of dissatisfaction in the health care setting.

1.3  Research Questions

Answers were sought to the following research questions:

  1. Will physiological needs significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?
  2. Will availability of facilities and protective working equipment influence job satisfaction among staff nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?
  3. Will belongingness needs significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?
  4. Will esteem needs significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?
  5. Will self-actualization needs significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?
  6. Will all the five identified dimensions of basic needs make any significant difference in job satisfaction among staff nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area?

PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

1.4  Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were specifically tested:

  1. Physiological needs will not significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.
  2. Safety needs will not significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.
  3. Belongingness needs will not significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.
  4. Esteem needs will not significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.
  5. Self-actualization needs will not significantly influence job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Governments Area.
  6. All the five identified dimensions of basic needs will not significantly make any difference in job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health Hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area.

1.5  Significance of the Study

The study may provide data on the extent of job satisfaction among Staff Nurses of Imo State Ministry of Health hospitals in Owerri West Local Government Area. It is hoped that the findings from the study will enable the Ministry of Health, Owerri West Local Government Area, to identify areas where job satisfaction is lacking and take necessary actions to ameliorate them for the welfare of the nurses in particular and the generality of the patients. The study may contribute to the body of knowledge in its subject area.

1.6  Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following:

  1. Imo State Ministry of Health employed male and female staff nurses working in Owerri West Local Government Area.
  2. The use of five point Likert-scale questionnaire as instrument for data collection.
  3. Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs as the variables under study.
  4. The use of descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, mean and standard deviation as well as inferential statistics of chi-square (x2) and t-test to test all hypotheses at an alpha level of 0.05.
  5. The use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for data analysis.

1.6  Limitations of the Study

During this investigation, certain difficulties were experienced which restricted the scope of the study. The factors that limited the work of the researcher included:

  1. The questionnaire will be the instrument for data collection in this study. Thus this study was be subjected to the weaknesses inherent in a questionnaire format that requires individuals to accurately convey their internalized perceptions.
  2. The study could not cover all the nine hospitals which are located in the Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State due to the restrictions posed by the availability of time for the study which may be too short to allow for effective coverage.The attitudinal behaviour of some of the Nursing Sisters/Matrons and other staff also affected the study in some small measure. Some staff were reluctant to answer or supply the needed information.

1.7  Operational Definition of Terms.  

The following terms have been operationally defined as follows:

Job satisfaction: This pertains to the extent to which the nurses’ needs according to Maslow’s theory are realized by them while performing their official duties.

Level of job satisfaction:  Level is indicated by the proportion of respondents agreeing to the items in the questionnaire based on the criteria provided by (Ashur 1977).

Staff Nurses: These are nurses who have undergone the professional nursing training and are registered to practice as nurses (RN). They are interchangeably referred to in this study as nurses.

Chief Nursing Officer: Formerly a staff nurse but now promoted to a senior rank. He/She is an officer involved in administrative roles such as postings of staff nurses.

White-Collar Workers: These are workers that place greater values on opportunities for self-actualization.

Blue-Collar Workers: Those workers that place greater value on social and environment factors such as security and work-group relationships.

PROJECT TOPIC- LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG STAFF NURSES OF IMO STATE MINISTRY OF HEALTH HOSPITALS IN OWERRI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

 

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