Our Blog

List of recently published project topics and materials




Management of learning resources in primary school have been described as a means that contribute to teaching, learning, improving academic performance of pupils and making learning real. This study is an additional knowledge to the existed knowledge. The study examines the management of learning resources in primary schools in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State. Five specific purposes, five research questions and two null hypotheses were posed to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A structure questionnaire  as developed for both head-teachers and teachers. The population of the study consists of 1, 556 head-teachers and teachers. However, 432 were sampled for the study. The research instruments were faced validated by experts. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and mean. The major findings of the study show that reading materials are the most common types of learning resources in primary schools. The study further revealed that poor findings are the major factors that militate against adequacy and availability of learning resources in primary Schools. Recommendations were made for improvement bearing the importance of learning resources in primary schools.


Background of the Study

The effectiveness of teaching and learning at all levels of educational system, especially at the primary level, depends largely on the provision and
management of learning resources. This is because teaching with learning resources makes teaching process comprehensive and learning more
permanent. Okeke (1989) defined teaching as to cause to learn and when learning cannot take place no teaching has been done. Many teaching
methods in our primary schools today have failed to cause pupil to learn.

This does not mean that most of the teachers are incompetent, but that the teaching process is carried out without the use of learning resources which has made it difficult for pupils to learn effectively. Learning resources refer to devices and equipment, whether improvised or ready-made, which can be used effectively to enhance, improve and reinforce teaching and learning activities in classroom communication. Learning resources, whether human or material resources facilitate learning and make it more permanent and retainable in pupils and that is why in most countries of the world the use of teaching aid is advocated.

Osiyale (1998) opined that learning resources encompasses all persons and things capable of convening information, values, processes experiences and techniques that could be used to actively engage pupils in the learning process. Therefore, the best way of helping pupils to learn is to  bring them face-to-face with the world of education. One way this can be achieved is by using objects in real life situation for instruction. Learning resource is anything which serves as an object used in studying and which may facilitate learning process.

It therefore, includes anything that brings about success in the classroom. School learning resources is valuable in all teaching endeavours as a result it is expected to be produced in sufficient quantity and properly managed to ensure effective teaching learning outcome.
Onyejemezi (1981) defined school resources as devices, methods or experiences used for teaching purposes including textbooks, supplementary
reading materials, audio-visuals aids – television and other sensory materials used for effective teaching and learning.

It includes all materials and equipment used in connection with the teaching and not used for production purposes. Learning resource materials refer to all materials that enhance effective teaching and learning. These materials embrace both the locally made ones and the imported materials e.g. Visual Aids. These include displays, models, motion pictures, slides, flip chart, flannel boards, chalkboard, and posters. Auditory Aids: these include record players, tape recorders etc. Unfortunately, most of these resources are poorly managed for the purpose of which they were supplied. In most cases, the poor management of such learning resources is blamed on the school authority.


Although government and public interest were centered on the need to manage these resources provided to schools, efforts have not been channeled on how resource materials are managed. Learning resources refer to devices and equipment, whether improvised or ready-made, which can be used effectively to enhance, improve and reinforce teaching and learning activities in classroom communication.
Management of resource materials refers to process of securing, supervision, judicious use, storage facilities, and preserving the available

Mama (1999) noted that when learning resources are effectively managed by a teacher they help stimulate the interest of the pupils, reduce the number of verbal responses, makes learning more permanent and provide experiences not easily secured in other ways. When effectively used resource materials offer a reality of experience which stimulates individual activity and pupils to investigate and explore thereby increasing voluntary reading pupils. Management of learning resources in this study, therefore is the efficient and effective deployment of available resource materials ,by the teacher, when they are needed.
A number of educationists have emphasized on the use of learning resources in teaching. Prominent among them are (Mkpa 1990, Ugonabo
1988, Onyejemezi 1981). According to them, the use of concrete learning resources makes teaching more realistic and better rewarding when more time is spent on it than mere theorizing. Therefore, for any meaningful teaching in any subject taught in the primary schools, teachers have been encouraged to use learning resources in teaching.
There should be active participation of pupils which may take many forms while teaching with learning resources, otherwise, performance in
educational system will be generally poor. This view is supported by the findings of Obemeata (1995), Adaralegbe (1990), Uwadiae (1997),
respectively, Onwukpa (1998) and Farombi (1998) observed that the level of students performance in JAMB and SSCE examinations are nothing to write home about due to lack of learning resources. Students recorded very low performance in English Language, Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry etc as a result of lack of and non use of learning resources for effective teaching Onwuakpa(1998).
Resources are useful and dependable in capturing pupils’ imagination.
Visual aids are those that relate to the sense of sight, feeling and touching which makes a lasting impression on the learner. Resource materials result in more effective learning of factual information and skills in less time than mere verbalization. Onwuakpa (1998) opined that learning resources make the job of the teacher easier. Despite the importance attached to learning resources, there is no evidence to show that it is appropriately managed and provided in Nsukka Education Zone.
Studies in educational psychology show clearly that learners learn differently and through different modes. Some learners are fast at learning
even when teaching is verbally presented, while others learn when learning resources are used to explain what is being taught. According to Mkpa
(2003), people remember ten percent of what they hear, twenty percent of what they see, twenty percent of what they do, and fifty percent of what they hear, see and do, hence, management of learning resources is paramount in teaching and learning.
The most pathetic event in the Nsukka education zone is that, pupils learn primary science verbally. Teaching without the use of learning resources has in a number of ways frustrated parents’ aspirations and desires due to poor performances of their wards. Learning resources increase the rate
of learning, save the teacher’s time and efforts, increase learners’ interest and facilitate attention of what is learned. Based on the emphasis placed on the use of learning resources by experts and research work one of the factors known to influence the management of learning resource is the teacher.

The teacher is the manager/facilitator in the classroom therefore, the efficient management of learning resources depends on the teacher – his level of experience exposure and ability to use the exact resource materials as at and when due. The teacher must be creative and  esourceful and be able to do the right selection of resource materials that is related to the topic or subject that is taught.
Dwyer (1992) explained that some teachers are not properly exposed to the use of some of the resources in the school and as such end up complicating the lessons for the pupils. According to him learning resources is detrimental to the pupils in situations where they are not properly used or managed. It is therefore, the duty of the teacher to select the resource materials based on the nature of the lesson and instructional objectives, the age and intellectual level of the pupils and the level of exposure of the pupils.
There are however widespread speculations on factors that influence management of learning resources in general. Awaitefe (1988), stressed that
management of learning resources are bound to be highly influenced by such factors as relevance of the resource materials, economic objectives, scarcity of personnel, availability of physical facilities and motivation. Most unfortunately little attention is paid to management of learning resources in primary schools in Nsukka Education Zone, thereby making teachinglearning tedious for teachers and pupils.

The fact remains that in order to achieve the objectives of primary education, particularly in Nsukka Education Zone, there has to be adequate provision of learning resources. Equally, to ensure the durability of the learning resources an efficient management of these resources must be exercised. Otherwise the zone will continue to witness poor performances of pupils in the schools and the blame will be on the teachers.


Was the material helpful? Comment below. Need the material? Call 08060755653.