PROJECT TOPIC ON EVALUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
The study is on Evaluation of the Management of Adult Education Programme in Niger State, Nigeria from 2010 – 2015. The study was carried out with five research objectives among which are to: determine the opinions of Ministry of Education Officials, head teachers and teachers on the enrolment and retention of learners in adult education programme in Niger State; ascertain the opinions of Ministry of Education Officials, head teachers and teachers on staffing in adult education programme in Niger State; examine the opinions of Ministry of Education Officials, head teachers and teachers on teaching and learning exercises of adult education programme in Niger State; assess the opinions of Ministry of Education Officials, head teachers and teachers on supervision exercise in adult education programme in Niger State and find out the opinions of ministry of education, head teachers and teachers on funding of adult education programme in Niger State.
The study adopted descriptive survey research design with a total population of 250 respondents. A total 220 respondents were sampled using simple sampling technique to select 150 teachers, 30 head teachers and 40 Ministry of Education Officials. Data were collected using structured questionnaire tagged Evaluation and Management of Adult Education Programme Questionnaire (EMAEPQ). Pilot study was carried out on the instrument and a reliability index of 0.84 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
The bio-data of respondents were analysed using simple frequency counts and percentages of the responses while mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. The five null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 significant level. Out of the five hypotheses, four were retained while one was rejected. Based on the analysis, the following findings among others emerged: that there was prevailing of enrolment and retention of learners in adult education programme in Niger state; there were qualified staff but not enough to teach all the subjects offered in the schools especially subjects like English and Mathematics; and there were no enough teaching and learning facilities, no adequate fund and regular supervision in Adult education Programme in Niger State.
In view of the findings, the study concluded that there is high rate of enrolment and retention of learners in Adult Education Programme in Niger State and qualified teachers with minimum of NCE qualifications were recruited to teach all subjects and no adequate fund to provide teaching and learning facilities. Finally, the study recommended that there should be employment of adequate number of staff at all levels to meet the ever increasing demand of Adult and Non-Formal Education in the state. Adult and Non-formal Education should be staffed with qualified personnel with proven ability so as to strengthen the system and help in the development of Adult and Non-formal Education in the State.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational (Ibeh, 2008).
Nzeneri (2002) defines an adult as one who is physically and psychologically matured and is socially, economically and politically responsible. Adult education is an inevitable instrument for the achievement of growth and development. Adult education is all-embracing as it brings about changes in information, knowledge, understanding or skill, appreciation and attitude. It enables individuals to become more useful to their society socially, economically, morally and politically (Asojo, 2001). Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. This often happens in the workplace, through ‘extension’ or ‘continuing education’ courses at secondary schools, at a college or university. Other learning places include folk high schools, community colleges, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is also often referred to as ‘Training and Development (Chijioke, 2010).‖
Adult education, as an integral aspect of education, it is a learning process whether formal, informal and non-formal which the adult person engages in for better information, self and national development (Onyenemezu, 2012). Adult education emphasizes all forms of functional education programmes for youths and adults outside the formal school system. Such educational programmes include basic literacy programme, post literacy programme, continuing
education programme and vocational education programme (F.R.N. 2008). These adult education programmes are geared towards human and national development. Onyenemezu (2012), submitted that adult education exerts enormous influence on the larger society in terms of national development. Fasokun (2006) observed that; adult education is concerned not with preparing people for life, but rather, with helping/assigning people (adults) to live more successfully as useful and acceptable members of their societies and contribute meaningfully to the development of those societies.
Management involves the coordination of human, material, technological and financial resources needed for an organization to reach its goals‘. For this coordination to take place there has to be managers and their subordinates (Daft, 2005). Inaddition, management is the attainment of organizational goals in a effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling organizational resources‘ (Siciliano in Nzeneri, 2002). From these two definitions we can see that management provides both a functional role (planning, organizing, staffing, and so on) and a synthesizing role (coordinating the various organizational resources).
In adult learning settings, managers of adult education organizations are mainly concerned with the offering of quality educational services that meet the needs of their (adult) students. Adult learners represent a special group of learners; they usually have clear goals, rich work and life experiences, and a self-directed, self-motivated attitude towards learning. The way adult education managers treat their main ‗customers‘ – the learners – will determine their success in the provision and promotion of adult education.
In Nigeria, the importance of managing and educating adult was felt as far back as 1949 when the Department of Education in Lagos circulated a memorandum on fundamental education for adult employed in commerce and industry. In 1951 the Central Board of Education endorsed a national policy on adult education, stating clearly the aims, content and administration. Since the attainment of independence in 1960, adult education has been the concern of the Nigeria government.
This is shown in the repeated emphasis government has given it in her first, second and third National Development plans of 1962 to date respectively. Furthermore, the 1977, national policy on education stressed the need for, but also set up four agencies to foster adult and non formal education at the local, state and national levels, these agencies are the mass literacy board; the State Ministries of Education; the National Commission for adult education, universities adult and continuing education department.
Adult education programme in Niger state was introduced on the 11th April 1991 under edict No 7 of 1991. The Objectives of the agency include
- To eradicate illiteracy at all levels of the society in the state.
- To develop vocational skills of clients outside the formal system in order to enhance their proper participation in rural development.
- To promote positive attitudinal tendencies for mass mobilization, self reliance public spiritedness, political, social and economic well being in the mass. The agency is headed by Executive Director with five (5) departments namely are Administrative, Planning and monitoring, Literacy education, Continuing education and Women and vocational. Each department is headed by a director and the state has 10 zonal offices each is coordinated and headed by a coordinator. Generally the agency has 750 adult literacy centres spread across the state and each of the 25 local government areas has 30 adult literacy centres. Since then the programme have under gone a lot of development which is taking place as a result of global world. Education in Niger State generally has under gone significant reform compared to the past years of about 10 – 15 years back. Adult education deals with adults who engage in systematic
and sustained learning activities in order to gain new form of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, this form of education can take place through extension school, school of continuing education. Adult education takes place at schools, colleges, universities, libraries and lifelong learning centres (Merriam, Sharan, & Brockett, Ralph, 2007). In evaluating adult education management in Niger State some managerial duties are to be carried out such as staffing, recruiting and retention, teaching and learning, supervision, funding, planning and many others.
Evaluation is carried out in the management of adult education in Niger State to enable the facilitators to find out how some of this managerial function are carried out and also discover whose responsibility is it for evaluation, as well as dictate problems being faced and find out possible solution to those problems. Curriculum up grading by the Federal Ministry of education to go with modern ways of learning and also blend with the very societies the learning is carried out, that is the cultural norms and values of the society which is also considered in up grading the curriculum of adult education to enable them to decide on which area of learning they are to take either technical, vocational and the likes.
Niger state is one of the educationally disadvantaged states in Nigeria with about 50% – 65% of adult population who are illiterates. There is no doubt about the fact that since its inception in 1976, Niger State government has been trying to reduce the percentage of illiteracy in the state and this call for the evaluation of the management of the programme to determine the level of the state adult learners participation in the programme as well as the level of government involvement in the management of the programme and then make provision for the way forward for the betterment of our adults in the state. Initially, a huge resource commitment to the program was made by the government and other organizations like UNESCO resulting into very high learner enrolment. But support for the program has steadily decreased and attendance and dropout rates have increased (Bunyi, 2006).
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Over the years however, there has been concern that the program that once thrived was doing very badly such after the introduction of adult education, many Nigerians still lack the minimum literacy level required to participate in national development. Adult education has become low-keyed, ineffective and characterized by poor participation, making it impossible to achieve the goals of adult literacy (Aluoch, 2005) despite legislations and policy establishments that have been made to boost this sector of education. It is imperative therefore that change in the curriculum and the organization of the program if the intended goals have to be realized. In light of the above, this research work set to evaluate the management of adult education programme in Niger state with regard to the method of staffing, recruiting and retention, teaching and learning, supervision and funding.
PROJECT TOPIC ON EVALUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Adult education in Nigeria has apparently been a neglected aspect of educational activity in the country. This according to Ewuzie (2013) is attributable to several factors that include funding, supervision, staffing, departure from missionaries and colonial rule that pioneered adult education in order to achieve some social reengineering of Nigerians then. Adult Education in Nigeria has not been keeping pace with dynamic social challenges embracing the nation. Although education in general is supposed to be responsive to social challenges, Nigerian education planners lack the conscientious effort of exposing the adult education potentials in a developing nation. There are myriads of adult educational issues in the country that are hydra headed, such problems include but not limited to the challenges of creating community of learning targeting specific issues akin to a given locality.
Niger State is one of the disadvantaged states educationally. It is pertinent at this juncture to note that education is used as a major instrument for behavioural change and as a key to sustainable economic development but the situation is different in Niger State. The Niger State adult educational system is plagued with so many administrative and operational problems. In fact, the complexity of the system aids managerial evasion and avoidance. The system is so ineffective and inefficient that qualities of education can no longer be seen as an instrument for growth and as a key to sustainable economic development. These justified the need for this research work which sought to evaluate the management of adult education programme in Niger state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- determine the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the enrolment and retention of learners in adult education programme in Niger State;
- ascertain the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the staffing in adult education programme in Niger State;
- examine the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on teaching and learning exercises of adult education programme in Niger State;
- assess the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on supervision exercise in adult education programme in Niger State and;
- find out the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on funding of adult education programme in Niger State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were assured in this study:
- What is the rate of enrollment and retention of learners in adult education programme in Niger State?
- In what ways are the adult education programme staffed in Niger State?
- What are the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on Teaching and Learning processes of adult education programme in Niger State?
- What are the impacts of supervision exercise on adult education programme in Niger State?
- What are the systems of funding of adult education programme in Niger State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated:-
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the rate of enrolment and retention of learners in adult education programme in Niger State;
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of ministry of education officials, head
teachers and teachers on the staffing of adult education programme in Niger State;
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the modes of teaching and learning exercises of adult education programme in Niger State;
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the impact of supervision on adult education programme in Niger State; and
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of ministry of education officials, head teachers and teachers on the system of Funding of adult education programme in Niger State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study postulated the following as basic assumptions:
- That when there is enough enrolment and retention of learners in adult educational programme in Niger state, there will be high academic performance and rise in number of adult learners;
- Improvement in the staffing of adult education programme in Niger State will promote high standard in the management of adult education;
- Recruitment of qualified and proficient facilitators in adult education programme in Niger state will improve the teaching and learning processes and adult learners will gain more understanding of what they are taught;
- Effective supervision of adult programme in Niger state will ensure accountability and long lasting programme in the state; and
- availability, transparency and utilization, of funds, will create a conducive environment for teaching and learning of adult programme in Niger State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will assist administrators and educational planners in their allocation of funds and resources in effective management of adult education in Niger state. The findings will also help management staff to be aware of one of the important variables that can influence their administrative duties, as well as staff and adult learner performances.
It will also benefit the institutions managers to identify their available facilities and plan on how to and maintain and use them judiciously. The findings of this would help both staff and students to acknowledge the importance of availability and maintenance of facilities in creating an effective teaching and learning environment. The findings would also help government and management staff to develop meaningful strategies and methods, towards staffing and supervision of the staff for effective and efficient teaching and learning.
The research findings would further help adult facilitators, Managers and adult learners to appreciate the need to encourage hard work, and learn better through adequate utilization of their potentials and the few resources available. The study would help to appraise the past and present practices of procurement and maintenance of facilities in all adult programmes in Niger state, with a view to highlighting some of the crucial issues and problems connected therewith.
Finally, It is also hoped that the findings of this research work would contribute to the existing body of knowledge by bringing new ideas and challenges to educational management and administrator.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study aimed to cover the entire Niger geographical area with emphasis on only registered adult learners with Niger state agency for mass education. It also put in to consideration the gender participation among the enrolled adult learners. Similarly the study covers the entire adult education programme within the state which includes educational zones, namely Minna, Suleja, Bida, Kutig, Kotongora, Borgu, Wushishi, Shiroro and Agaie as in agreement with the prospectus requirements for adult learners.
It evaluates the management process such as enrolment and retention of learners, staffing, teaching, learning, supervision and funding of adult education in Niger state. For the delimitations, areas that have bearing or relevance to the study, but are not of primary concern to the researcher are delimited such as social – economic background, social prestige, family responsibility are not studied in this research and the study focuses on Niger state, the findings and recommendations therefore shall be applicable to Niger state. The study will covered a period of 5 years i.e from 2010 – 2015.
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