PROJECT TOPIC- HOW SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE MOTIVATED AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Organization exists to achieve some of its objectives and goals with which is the pre-condition for its establishment.  It is through the combined efforts of people in an organization that such goals and objectives are realized. The school as an organization is set up with desired objectives, which can be accomplished through the combined efforts of the teaching staff on one hand, and invariably the school administration and the constituted authority on the other hand.

Education system like every other social system depends largely on their caliber of personnel (Teacher) that are found within the system for it to realize and actualize its set  objectives and goals, and for the personnel to perform optimally they have to be motivated. Based on the above premise, this study invariably posits the need for adequate motivation of secondary school teachers  as  it is currently seen lacking in our educational system.

The non motivation of secondary schools has been found to be one of the reasons for their non-performance and non chalant attitude towards teaching. Studies has shown that motivation and leadership management are central factors in the effective influencing of people at work. Subsequently, the motivation of teachers as employers depends on less attention. This primarily forms the basis upon which this is founded.

For teachers to be effective and put in their best in teaching as a profession Taylor (1991), stated that the basic motive of man at work was economic. Money was seen as a principal motivation instrument. According to Peothisberger (1978), while motivating power of money and material rewards could not be ignored, emphasis should be shifted from economic man to social man which draw attention to the effects of group membership and interaction on production, attitudes and job satisfaction.

The studies gave rise to the human relation movement which maintained that man does not just work for money, that other personal and interpersonal considerations, such as personal worth, recognition, friendship, social pressures from group members and level of job satisfaction.Osuji (1985:91), stated that it has become increasingly clear that beyond economic needs, man has some social-psychological needs that should be satisfied in order to elicit behaviour toward increased productivity.

The traditional theories of management exemplified by the scientific management movement, stress the motivating power of money and material rewards, the classical theories take note of the latter, but lay greater emphasis on satisfying the psychological needs of the workers (Ezaain, 2006).According to croft (1996:46), motivation is an impulse that stem from within a person and lead him to acct in ways that will satisfy those impulses.

It is also conscious effort or attempt by person (s), group (s) in an organization terms for developing and sustaining the desire or willingness on the part of the employers to participate on organizational activities on the organization terms or purpose as well as on the individual goal. In other word, the concept, motivation, implies that there is some driven force within individuals, which drives them to attempt to achieve a goal or objective, in order to satisfy their need or needs.

Therefore, to say that they do these things which they hope will satisfy these drives  and desires and induces the subordinates to act in a desired manner (Koontz et al, 1983:682). Motivators are factors or variables that induce, an individual to perform either positively or negatively in a work setting. They are perceived or physical conditions. They very in the form of financial benefits, institutional and societal recognition, achievement, affection, growth prospects, responsibility, working condition, environment, satisfaction of funder mental needs participation in decision making, proper channel of communication, informal relationship, policy and administration style, supervision, job security, individual and organizational goals (Bonzek, 1991).

The necessity for managers and school administrators to motivate their employees cannot be over-emphasized. Schools administrative are person considered as the administrative head of the schools. He is therefore, primarily concerned with the execution of administrative duties (Menezel, 1997).  Olowu, (1991), Education authority is the ministry changed with the responsibility of policies and implementation of rules and regulations guiding our system.

Secondary schools are the level in our school or Nigerian Educational System that falls between the primary stage and tertiary stage. It consists of tiers of three year of senior secondary. Teaching staff are one that is assigned primarily with instructional duties within the school system.There is no doubt that the ability of any organized enterprise and indeed any group, to a large extent on the motivation of its employees. Indeed, no manager or administrator can succeed in achieving optimal productivity for his or her enterprise without knowing what motivates people (Koontz et al, 1983).

Motivation of teacher as employees become very essential when it is realized that although people work in an organized enterprise or participate in all kinds of group in order to achieve some desired goals that they cannot attain as individuals, this does not imply that they will necessary put in maximum effort to ensure that these goals are accomplished (Bernard, 1933; 84). This starting observation point to the need for managers and administrators to create and maintain an environment that will elicit maximum productivity for teacher as employer.

Performance is the display of uttermost faithfulness in the discharge of one’s duties. This is, given up one’s best bear (9181). It is worthy note that effective motivation depends on organizational climate in which they operate. At time’s a climate in may repress motives; at time it may arouse them. Equally important, is the recognition of the fact that motivation must be based on situations and what an administration does to induce individual effort towards the accomplishment of enterprise objective which must clearly take into account the differences between individuals, groups time and organizational climate Salisu (2001).

This being the case, the challenge on management is to recognize and understanding the significance of motivation.In other word administrators of secondary schools should lay emphasis and pay greater attention on proper motivation of the teaching staff as this engender greater performance and create an enabling. Environment in which teachers will perform willingly and optimally.

Statement of the Problem

In recent time, people from all spheres of life in Nigeria have from time to time made remarks on the apparent falling standards of education, both in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Consequently, some attributes this current phenomenon to incompetent teachers and apparent lack of education, while some attribute this falling standard to the fact that teachers are not well provided for in Nigeria.

This later school of thought further alleges that defect still exist in the area of motivation of their teachers (Ezeani 2006). The aforementioned views cast some doubts on actual motivation of secondary school teachers. Thus, this study points to the existing gap, that is, lack of teachers motivation. This problem, if not properly addressed and handled by responsible authority would hinder teachers performance and input.

Scroft (1996; 48), noted that there are numerous problems confronting secondary school teachers. Some of these problem according to him, include, lack of motivation, lack of promotion, the lack of recognition and respect and low salary scale as a take home pay. (Consequently, upon the above problems, the teachers tend to develop neutral or zero willingness to intense unwillingness or opposition or total hatred towards teaching profession instead of the possible intense willingness as a teacher.

They hardly indicate interest in teaching as a profession and life career, which is the primarily means of impacting and transferring knowledge to students for proper development and training of future leaders, is defeated. It is therefore, imperative that something should be done to arrest this ugly trend. This is because, if the problem is not properly identified, checked and curbed, teachers may likely develop apathy for teaching even at a higher level.

If such a situation is allowed to be, nation building which is the target of teachers will be difficult to come – by. It is against this backdrop, that the researcher is motivated to study the motivation of staff and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi with a view to proffering solutions on how to improve teacher’s welfare and motivational package.

Therefore, the problem of this study is, what is teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students in seconding schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

PROJECT TOPIC- HOW SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE MOTIVATED AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is find out how secondary school teachers are motivated and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state with a view to evolving ways of improving the motivational package of teachers in secondary schools. Specifically, the study is designed to:

  1. Find out to what extent the secondary school teachers are motivated in secondary school in Afikpo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
  2. Find out how motivation of secondary school teachers could lead to improved academic performance of secondary school students in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
  3. Find out how teachers’ motivation promotes students’ punctuality and interest in secondary school in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
  4. Examine how motivation could boost the morale of teachers for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

Significance of the study       

The findings of this study will be immense benefit to the ministry of education, school administrators and administrators at the policy – making level. It will as well intimate on the need to motivate the secondary school teachers to perform optimally and also to use the result of this study as a guide to practicing teachers in the field of education for maximum performance. The result of the study will equally draw the interest of teachers closer to teaching as a hobby and develop appropriate teaching methods instructional materials needed to facilitate teaching and learning in the area.

If the suggestions therein are adopted, the students will benefit maximally from their teachers, as they will put in their best to improve students’ performance, skills and values necessary for socio- cultural, political and economic development of the community.The result of this study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who would wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the problem.Therefore, it is hoped that, the study will be of immense assistance to individuals, organizations/ companies and authorities with the administration of education. 

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. The study seeks to find out the extent secondary school teachers are motivated, social benefits provided for school teachers, how motivation promotes students’ punctuality and interest in secondary schools, proper motivation of teachers and provision of relevant instructional materials, modern classroom, library, laboratory, information technology centre (1TC), and social amenities for students for efficient punctuality and interest in their academics.

The study also seeks to find ways of boosting teachers’ morale for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools through provision of instructional materials, current textbooks and teaching aids, presentation of merit awards and rewards to the best teachers, rehabilitation and re-construction of dilapidated classroom and staff room; provision of welfare packages, respect and recognition for professional teachers so as to boost the morale of teachers for effective teaching and learning and this as well promote education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state and Nigeria as a nation.

The study is delimited to public secondary schools in Akfikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

Research question

There are questions designed primarily to unfold the unknown and make it serve as a material for guiding others in subsequent moments.  In essence, research questions help research work readers to gather investigated ingredients concerning a particular subject matter.  The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.

  1. To what extent are secondary school teachers motivated in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
  2. How does motivation of secondary school teachers lead to high academic performance of students in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

 How can teachers’ motivation promote students’ punctuality and interest in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.

PROJECT TOPIC- HOW SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE MOTIVATED AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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