PROJECT TOPIC- ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE
This work titled “Organizational Climate in Public And Private Secondary Schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State” was aimed at determining the extent to which the Open climate operates in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area, determining the extent to which the Autonomous Climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area, to find out the extent to which Controlled Climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area and to determine the extent to which the closed climates operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area. The researcher adopted survey design.The population of the study consists of all the 486 teachers in the twenty eight public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local government Area of Anambra State.. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Ten (10) schools out of the twenty eight schools in the local government were randomly sampled for the study. The instrument used to collect data in the study was a structured questionnaire. The findings revealed to a high extent open school organizational climate operates in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State, to a high extent autonomous school organizational climate operate in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State, to a high extent controlled school organizational climate operate in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State and to a low extent closed school organizational climate prevail in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Based on findings it was recommended that various arms of the government especially those in charge of secondary education in the areas and state should try to provide schools nth the necessary resources needed by the schools, since the principals are aware and have been demonstrating dynamic application of the leadership styles as evident in the prevailing number of organizational climate types in public schools, there is need for government to assist them in protecting school rules and regulations by sorting them all the time.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is widely perceived and acknowledged as an instrument per excellence for the development of the society. The priority of education as a veritable tool for development is predicted on its relevance to the needs, problems and aspirations of human society. Indeed, throughout history, societies developed and underdeveloped, complex and non complex have used education as a relevant instrument for effecting desirable social, economic, political and technological changes, ( Obanya, 2011).
Education is seen as an important channel through which development can be achieved. Education is the most important instrument of change, any fundamental change in social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014). This clearly states that education is the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources.
The avenue through which education is carried out in a more formal way is through the school. The school as an organization exists for the sole purpose of coordinating material and human resources of its environment towards the achievement of some predetermined educational goals. For the school to carry out its functions there is need to effectively organize and coordinate its various units to enable it harness the various resources towards achieving its optional goal of educating the students.
To be able to achieve this task, the school administrator faces the challenges of determining the specific set of activities, which could be taken together or separately to achieve school programmes. For the school administrator to effectively coordinate the various activities highlighted above there is need to maintain a positive organizational climate within the school. Organizational climate is the personality of the school (Halpin and Croft, 2006). It is the psychological environment that characterizes a particular organization (Unachukwu, 1999).
It is the internal quality that is unique to an organization (Ikediugwu, 2008). It is a set of attributes specific to a particular organization deals with its members and its environment (West, 2009). In general, organizational climate can be seen as the social environment or atmosphere that characterizes a particular organization. It is assumed that organizational climate consist of shared perceptions about organizational norms, beliefs, values, practices and procedures that can be observed at general or specific levels (Van, 2008, Guldenmund, 2009).
Organizational climate is described as the personality of the school. Just as individuals have personality, also do schools. It is this personality of the school that (Halpin, 2006) described as the organizational climate of the school; that is personal is to individual while organizational climate is to organization. This implies that schools and colleges can be identified with specific climate that describe the interaction and influence patterns among members in that school or college.
(Halpin and Croft, 2006), conceived climate as being a blend of two important dimensions of interpersonal interaction which is being conceived as blend of the principal’s and the teacher’s interaction. They came up with four types of climates namely: Open, Autonomous, Controlled and Closed. An Open Climate is characterized by genuineness, law hindrance, average intimacy, high Espirit of the teachers and high consideration, direction and support of the principal.
In Autonomous climate, teachers possess complete freedom to conduct their work and fulfill their social needs as they wish. The principal is hardworking and serious with supervision. Staff interaction and socialization within and outside the school is high and there is love, peace and harmony. The controlled climate is an atmosphere of hard work at the expense of socialization. Teachers work so hard and are committed to their jobs but have little personal interaction.
The principal dominate all school activities and is rarely considerate. He works so hard to see that work is going on well in the organization but he is not a model of commitment. The Closed climate is seen by lack of task accomplishment and social satisfaction. The staff is fragmented and disengaged. The principal and teachers simply appear to go through the motions with the principal.
There is teacher frustration and also no morale although some form of friendship exists as psychological defense against a hostile environment. Ikediugwu (2008) added that in this closed climate type, there is no genuineness in the behaviour of principal and teachers. Based on these climate types (Halpin and Croft, 2006), developed a questionnaire titled “Organizational Climate description Questionnaire”.
A revised version of this instrument by Patterson West, Lawthorn and Nickell (2005) will be adopted for use in the present study. Many studies reported in the literature review show that a combination of the Open, Autonomous and Controlled is vital in producing a positive or balanced organizational climate that facilitate loyalty, commitment and trust (Bolman and Deal, 2009, and Cheng, 2012).
Udeozor (2004) noted that where there is mixed prevalence of the climates types, a conducive organizational climate is created in the school, teachers would be happier, more co-operative and have improved task performance irrespective of whether they are in private and or public school. The division of organizational climate into discrete climate types raises some controversy. For instance, Moran and Volkwein (2010), found that all the climate types could not be identified with several organizations.
Spillane (2007) found that some dimensions are common and relevant to most organizations depending on public/ private structures. Despite the importance of organizational climate on organizational efficacy issues, some investigational climate types prevailing in Public and Private Organizations needs to be empirically explored (Bozkurt, 2008) The researcher is motivated to investigate the school organizational climate types prevailing in Private and Public Secondary Schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State.
Over the past years, the state had witness an influx of people into the area and this had lead to the increase in the number of public and private secondary school in the State. There is also increase in the enrollment figures in these schools. This has generally increased the workload of principals and staff. It is likely that the environment value, social standards, beliefs and traditions established within the individual schools.
Ogbuage, (2009) noted that strained principal-staff relations exist in many public schools in the State and the personnel are demoralized. Onofeghara (2000) and Edozie (2008), reported serious cases of truancy among teachers, non-compliance with directives, laxity towards class-work, loitering and absenteeism from classes and private practices during school hours. Staff in private schools spend their work time judiciously on classroom engagement and work extra school hours to help students pass examinations (Ogbuage, 2009).
They manifest continuous obedience to constituted heads, compliance with directives, punctuality and dedication to work, good principal-staff relations and other such positive work behavior that optimally affect the school system. Although, these speculations have mainly been assumptions, climate in public and private schools continued to be important till date. One is worried that the variations in the performance of the public and private school might be due to prevailing organizational climate types in these schools.
One wonders if the organizational climate of public and private secondary schools in the State can be classified into some discrete climate types and how many types can be identified as prevalent. It is against this background that it becomes necessary to empirically investigate the organizational climate prevailing in public and private secondary school in Anambra State, hence the present study.
PROJECT TOPIC- ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Reports of school administration in private schools in Idemili South Local Government Area have shown an appreciable level of teacher commitments, productivity, discipline and high academic performance for students (Edozie, 2008; Edaffiogho, 2007). Parents are involved in school administration and a cordial relationship exists between the teachers and the parents in most private schools.
In contrast public schools teachers appear to be nonchalant and not committed. Lateness to school, absence from classes, inadequate lesson notes and in subordinate by teachers are common in these schools (Ogbuagu, 2009). Some teachers in public schools are not dedicated to their jobs and some take to some other business during school hours. Because of the above principals, teachers and students exist in some public schools.
It appears that the existence of these problems in the system might be as the result of prevailing organizational climate in the schools. The problem of this study is, what organizational climate types are prevalent in public and private secondary schools in Idemili SouthLocal Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to find out the types of organizational climate prevailing in public and private secondary school in Idemili South Local Government Area. The study seeks to:
- Determine the extent to which the Open climate operates in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area.
- Determine the extent to which the Autonomous Climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area.
- Find out the extent to which Controlled Climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area.
- Determine the extent to which the closed climates operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study would be useful to educational planners, the management of public and private secondary schools, policy makers, principals, teachers, students and future researchers. By identifying the various types of organizational climate in the management of public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area.
The result could serve as a data base from which educational planners and policy makers would get information in terms of school organizational climate type. Findings would motivate other researchers who would want to study other areas of organizational climate situations. Policy maker might benefit from the findings of this study in the sense that the findings could guide them in formulating relevant policy that may help in improving the organizational climate of the schools.
The findings would be of significance to the principals and teachers in private and public schools in the State towards fostering a balance organizational climate for adequate school productivity. The findings could increase the understanding of organizational climate in the secondary school and be helpful to school principals who wish to improve the performance of their schools through organizational developments.
Similarly, findings would be of importance to the students. Principals in public and private schools could see the need to foster adequate organizational climate in schools, so that students learning environment would be made very pleasant and conducive.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to the types of organizational climate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili SouthLocal Government Area. The content was delimited to four types of climates: Open, Autonomous, Controlled and Closed as modified by Patterson, West, Lawthom and Nickell (2005).
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- To what extent does Open Climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area?
- To what extent does Autonomous climate operate in public and private secondary schools in Idemili SouthLocal Government Area?
- To what extent does Controlled climate operate in public and private secondary school in Idemili SouthLocal Government Area?
To what level does closed Climate prevail in public and private secondary school in Idemili SouthLocal Government Area?