PROJECT TOPIC- PARENTING CARE AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AS A PREDICTOR OF ACADEMIC STRESS COPING AMONG STUDENTS
This work focuses on the Parenting Care, Locus of Control as a Predictors of academic Stress Coping among Students. Four objectives were formulated to guide the study which were in line with the research questions. Exposit facto survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of comprised of 4,234 students in Government owned Secondary school in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State and the sample consist of 364 respondents. Instrument for data collection was structure questionnaires and was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The study found among others things that: there is no significant positive relationship between academic stress coping and locus of control, secondly, parenting care and locus of control pulled together significantly predicted academic stress coping among secondary students and finally, the revealed that parenting care made a significant contribution to the prediction of academic stress coping among secondary school students. Based on the findings: it was recommended that: Education programme of secondary schools should be restructured in such a way that much emphasis would be given to developing academic parenting care of students, School administrators, counselling psychologists and parents should work hard to develop and enhance students’ academic parenting care by providing all essential conditions and instruments for students’ success in schools and learningenvironment that is conducive and rich in high quality course curricula and offering challenges that can be met and in addition, teachers should establish and maintain supportive and appealing pedagogical environments and employ teaching and evaluation methodologies which are focused on students’ educational needs and overall development.
1.1Background to the Study
Stress is an inevitable, normal experience that is felt when an individual is not sure if he/she can meet the demands of his/her environment.Bembenutty (2007), added that depending on the context, stress can be one of these three things; that is positive and conducive to healthy development, tolerable with no strong effects or toxic and conducive to physical, emotional and mental impairment (Gindrych, 2002).
It is important to note that stress is defined not necessarily by an individual’s experience, but by his/her behavioral, emotional, cognitive, biological and interpersonal responses to that experience. This response can differ from person to person.So,an exploration of stress requires retaining both the cause of and responses to situations experienced as stressful by the individual. Therefore, this research work explores these causes and responses experienced by students with particular attention to the significant influence of parenting care and locus of control as predictors of academic stress coping among students as individuals strive to become professional in one of the numerous fields of human endeavor.
Some strive to be Lawyers, Medical Doctors, Accountants and Psychologists etc. All these motives are what form the patterns of our behavior. If we ponder a while and ask ourselves why some individuals work harder than others or that in learning situations, some learners in spite of their intelligent and availability of learning materials do not perform well. We can see that all these have been attributed to some social factors like parental care and environmental factors surrounding individuals especially during the infancy stage.
According to Seyed, Mohammed, Rzvau, Hossein and Mohammed (2015), developing and educating healthy and appropriately skillful people have constantly been one of the challenges, concerns and serious target of researcher and planner. In respect, performance and life satisfaction are among important things to indicate when it comes to the judgment of the achievement of the above goals.
As one of the significant components of individuals mental well being, life satisfaction has a specific plan in positive psychology. This concept has been defined as the cognitive evaluation of one’s life quality in a particular aspect of life such as in a family, with friends and society. Diener and Biswas- Diener (2008), added that individuals with higher level of life quality satisfaction usually try to do their duties correctly and are productive in their jobs as something that can lead these people to increased their level of satisfaction and feelings of wellness.
Adeyemo, (2007), believed that individuals with higher life satisfaction enjoy characteristics which make them more sociable as features that contribute to individual’s problem- solving abilities and peace. The literature on life satisfaction shows that low life satisfaction is related to consequences such as violent behaviors, neuroticism, depression, anxiety and social stress. Academic performance is so important in education that is why researchers consider it as an indicator of students coping with school and future successes. In addition, student’s academic performance has a large influence on all aspects of their lives such as place of residence, type of job, their responsibilities in life and society, their social relations and thinking process.
Anakwe, (2003) believed that students’ lack of academic readiness could implore large individual and social cost on the society, individual and family. Researchers show that low academic performance in middle school would be considered as the beginning of many anti- social behaviors such as drug and alcohol abuse and committing crime. Kee (2005), suggest that students with a good academic performance are more likely to enter universities, become social individuals who are able to control their own motivations and earn more income.
In this respect, the important role of academic performance and life satisfaction in educational system and students’ future has stimulated researchers to learn about the factors influencing these factors or variables. Students indicate that, parenting care and locus of control are among psychological variables which can have an effective role in improving academic performance and life satisfaction. Sheldon & Dec; (2004), regard the importance of parenting care in psychological theories.
Brockner and Hulton (1978), Adler (1927),Rogers (1951) and Sullivan (1953)believed that person-based theories present different perspective about the individuals and these theorists agree that parenting care play an effective role in one’s coping and adjustment, and this shows the importance of parental care in one’s self awareness. Another important variable in this research work is locus of control. Locus of control has internal and external sources.
Those with external locus of control believe that events are the consequences of their acts and decisions. On the other side, those with external locus of control have poor conditions at school, achieve less and feel stress and shame. Student with internal locus of control enjoy higher self esteem level. Zafranics (1980), describe the level of school adaptation of a student’s feeling of insignificant; feeling ignored by peers; feeling threaten and socially anxious.
Also, skinner et al (1990), believed that one’s perceived control is a strong predictor of behavior, emotion, performance and success and failure indifferent domain of life. In addition, those with high level of locus of control are significantly more successful than those with low levels of locus of control.
The locus of control Research of inventory (L CR I)by Krasowics & kurzyp–wojnaraska (1950), as stated shows that Psychological variables of parenting care and locus of control play significant roles in improving academic performance and life satisfaction as was described by pong, Johnston & Chen (2010). Gudermann (2011) believed that because of biological changes during teenage years, understanding student’s levels of life satisfaction during these years helps researcher gain a better understanding and awareness of the relationship among the developmental characteristics of the period such as social adjustment, mental health and performance. In addition, Rosenberg (1965) described self esteem ascultural difference as an evidence for the complicated effect of self-esteem on behavior.
PROJECT TOPIC- PARENTING CARE AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AS A PREDICTOR OF ACADEMIC STRESS COPING AMONG STUDENTS
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is against these backdrops that this research work designed to investigate parenting care and locus of control as predictors of academic stress coping among students. When parents are controlling the limit and the amount of decisions the student can make, it also means that they are less likely to learn from their own mistakes and conflicts. They may also invade their privacy and not giving the student any psychological space.
Students need to develop many psychological resources, if they are to progress confidently and happily into adulthood. When parents are over controlling their children,their children will limit the student opportunities to develop these as they do not get to interact independently with their environment without opportunities to practice self directed independent decision making. However, students are less likely to develop a sense of control without a sense of control although they are more vulnerable to anxiety and other negative mental health.
An internal locus of control is a psychological out look where the students believe that they are largely, able to control what happens to them and in their lives. According to Barzegar, (2011)an internal locus of control is associated with the amount of parental warmth, care and emotional intimacy. Cordite& Barlow (1998), in contrast suggest that controlling and rejecting parenting is related to a child’s external locus of control.
In other words, what they do, how they behaves, the decisions they make “matters”, as they believe that their own efforts will make a real difference in their lives. Therefore,to help students develop, their parents should allow them(their children) to make decisions when they have been taught about safe choices as well as consequences e.g. which can help them make good choices and decisions.A good place for parents to start would be to have an open discussions and allow their children to express their own points of view.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to examine parenting care and locus of control as predictor of student academic stress coping strategies.Base on this, the research is aimed at achieving the following specific objectives:
- To ascertain the combined contributions of parenting care and locus of control to the prediction of academic stress coping among secondary school students.
- To determine the relative contribution of parenting and locus of control to the prediction of academic stress coping among secondary school students?
- To identify the areas parenting care and locus of control can affectstudents’ life style.
- To determine the extent in which parenting care is relatedto strategies could help to improve academic performance of student.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The enhancement of the parenting care and locus of control as predictors of academic stress coping among students is an issue, particularly Ezzangbo in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. This research was to compare parenting style and locus of control tostudents’ academic performance, with the borderline intellectual functioning (B.I.F) and how parents typically develops their peers and establish associations between parenting styles and locus of control as psychological traits which determine their academic stress coping among students?Based on self reports, students academic performance is predictive to locus of control or social adjustment. Again,
Parents and students had academic stress coping significantly in locus of control, motivation and socialization. Which can equally help students to have focus on the course of their study?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study was carried out particularly in Ezzangbo in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It was cover in the research that it’s only the relationship between parenting care and locus of control as predictors of academic stress coping among students were investigated. However,either parents and students academic social adjustment or development in Ezzangbo Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State was used.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What is the combined contributions of parenting care and locus of control to the prediction of academic stress coping among secondary school students?
- What is the relative contribution of parenting and locus of control to the prediction of academic stress coping among secondary school students?
- Does controlling of parents and mental health effect students academic performance?
- Does high level of locus of control have importance relations with low level of locus of control?
1.7 Definition of Terms
The following are the definition of terms as used in the context of this research.But other technical terms may be come across but not outlined here shall be defined where they appear.
Parenting Care: Parenting care is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood as measured by parenting care scale.
Locus of Control: Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events affecting them as measured by locus of control scale.
Academic Stress Coping: This refers to the techniques or measures adopted by a student to overcome challenges of academic stress as measured by academic stress coping scale.