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PROJECT TOPIC- PERCEIVED INHIBITORS TO PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AMONG AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OKPOSI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PERCEIVED INHIBITORS TO PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AMONG AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OKPOSI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF EBONYI STATE

ABSTRACT

The study focused on the perceived inhibitors to participation in sports among female students in secondary schools in Okposi development centre. The variables included; injuries associated with sports, cultural barrier, economic barrier, Academic performance and sports, sports participation and masculinity, and lack of adequate facilities and equipment. A self-structured questionnaire was used in data collection. The population comprised all female students in all senior secondary schools Okposi development centre, the sample of 300 students was selected from five secondary schools in Okposi Development centre using simple random sampling. The data collected were collated and presented in tables using frequency and percentage for description of demographic data. The inferential statistics of chi-square was used to test the six hypotheses formulated for this study at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Based on the findings, it was concluded that injuries associated with sports, cultural barrier, Economic barrier, Academic performance and sports, sports participation and masculinity, and lack of adequate facilities and equipment are significant inhibitors to participation in sports among female students in secondary schools in Okposi Development centre of Ebonyi state. It was recommended that State Government and private agencies should provide the needed financial incentives for the provision of sports facilities and equipment in secondary schools in Okposi Development centre. Secondary schools teachers should promote and share information about the positive contributions that females involvement in sports make to social, health and economic issues in secondary schools in Okposi development centre. The results showed that all the variables studied were significant inhibitors to participation in sports among female students in secondary schools in Okposi development centre.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of study

The history of mankind has always been connected with physical activities, which were not intended for their own present benefits. History has shown that certain tendencies in humans have been responsible for their formal and informal participation in sports. People participates in sport activities for the search for food to satisfy hunger, the desire for protection against enemies, the drive from mating and propagation, the urge to manipulate situation for fear of strange and unknown and the need to associate with others (Onifade, 2001).

Every nation throughout the world participate in sports. Nigeria is on exception. This is because its influence cuts across all facts of our national life. Professor Yomi Awosika, (2004), established the fact that a lot of people spend precious hours and hard earned money on sport while the various governments spends million of naira on it, prompt one to take a look at the participation of female in sports; when he said that sport obviously has become a symbol of national unity and cohesion and Governments are known to use sports to legitimize themselves.

Sports is an integral part of general education and it contributes to the intellectual growth and development of youths. Magbor and Obiyemi (2001), Opined that active sports participation by female students play an important role in the maintenance of their physical well being, health and academic excellence. Also sports helps in re-shaping the life of the youth for better future. Institutions all over the world organize sports programme to fulfill the social and other veritable objective of sports.

Intramural sports are comprehensive programme of sports competition and recreational activities carried out within the walls of an institution (Oduyale and Okundase 2002). Oduyale and Okundase (2002), stated that the programme is designed such that opportunities are provided for all the students to participate in the various sporting activities. (it provides a wide range so abilities, enjoyment, interest and funs while participation is voluntary).

Akinsemmi and Oloyede (2001), state that sports contributes to character building, discipline, economy, ideology, patriotism, education, mental development, human communication, physical fitness and health. Sports is one of the greatest endeavours in human experience. It is a celebration of physical excellence which involves health in such a situation that one would be able to walk, run, think and move the parts of the body as may be demanded.

It is a medium through which competition, friendship, tolerance, unity, discipline, endurance and diplomacy are promoted. Professor Yomi Awosika (2004), said that sports is a unifying factor when he mentioned that if there is a bond that unites the diverse people of Nigeria, it is sports. According to him sports can be a good means of removing over various biases thereby producing political stability and understanding.

Further, Bonchard and Lorties (1997), had cited sports and physical education as a programme that can reduce school dropouts and hold youngsters emotionally to the schools. They concluded that physical activities provides a conducive environment to human growth, development and behaviour which inturn contribute to the development of better citizen. Irrespective of these hinderances like (injuries associated with sports, cultural barriers, Economic barriers, Academic performance, fear of masculinity, and lack of adequate facilities and equipment) there has, now been a growing concern about participation in sports by the females.

Anyanwu (1999), Opine that it is gratifying that certain performance in sports by the Nigeria sports women in recent years have been outstanding. Their success have heightened the awareness of the state, federal government, private organization and the society at large to recognize the place of women in sports in Nigeria society. The emergence of female participation in sports has always been punctuated by a lot of mist-conceptions, false assumption, prejudice and myths.However, the female participation need to be encouraged to perform better. There are a lots of perceived inhibitors to participation in sports among female students in secondary schools in Okposi development centre of Ebonyi State.

PROJECT TOPIC- PERCEIVED INHIBITORS TO PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AMONG AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OKPOSI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF EBONYI STATE

  1. Statement of the Problem

According, to Onoja (2006), many authorities (coaches, sports administrators, and professional athletes) in physical education and sports have observed with dismay the declining interest of women in sports and physical activities or education in our institutions of learning. Most of the post primary institutions or secondary schools in Ebonyi state are co-educational. This is in realization of the equality of opportunity for both sexes. However, in terms of sports participation, woman have not been seen to be graded on the same level with their male counterparts. A concerted and documentary efforts has to be made to determine the crucial perceived inhibitors to participation in sports among female students in secondary schools in Okposi development centre these inhibitors of not participating may be because some female students are afraid of the injuries associated with sports, cultural barriers, , Economics barriers, and academic performance, fear of masculinity and, lack of adequate facilities and equipment in sports.

  1. Research Questions.

       The following research questions were raised;

  1. Does injuries associated with sports participation hinder female participation in sports in Okposi development centre of Ebonyi State.
  2. Do the issue of cultural barriers obstruct female from participating in sports in Okposi development centre of Ebonyi State.
  3. Does economics barriers prevent female from participating in sports in Okposi development centre.
  4. Does the issue of academic performance hinder female from taking part in sport in Okposi development centre
  5. Does the fear of masculinity affect female participation in sports in Okposi development centre
  6. Dose lack of adequate facilities and equipment obstruct female participation in sports in Okposi development centre 3. Hypothesis
  7. Injuries associated with sports will not be significantly perceived as inhibitors to female participation in sports.
  8. The issue of cultural barriers will not be significantly perceived as inhibitors to female participation in sports.
  9. The issue of academic performance will not be significantly perceived as inhibitors to female participation in sports.
  10. Economic barriers cannot be significantly perceived as inhibitors to sports participation among females.
  11. The fear of masculinity will not be significantly perceived as inhibitors to sports participation among females.
  12. Lack of adequate facilities and equipment will not be significantly perceived as inhibitors to female participation in sports.
  1. Delimitation of the Study

       This study was delimited to:

  1. Five selected secondary schools in Okposi development centre
  2. The use of descriptive survey research design.
  3. Variables like: injuries associated with sports, cultural barriers, Economics barriers, academic performance, fear of masculinity and lack of adequate facilities and equipment.
  4. The use of questionnaires for data collection
  5. The use of percentage frequency distribution table in analyzing the data.
  6. Limitation of the Study

       The researcher faced the problem of the attitudes of the respondents to the research work which is not very accommodating.

  1. Significance of the Study

       The findings of the study will serve as a working tool for physical Educators and coaches in training of female students participants in secondary schools and women in general by helping them to know the inhibitors to female participation in sports and how to solve the inhibitors.

       It will serve as a tool for the creation of better awareness on the need for frequent female participation in sports by helping in educating females (with the use of seminars, sports competitions and workshops) on the need to participate in sports.

       It will serve as avenue for the provision of basic information for subsequent research in similar areas by helping another researcher in finding the basic solutions to the inhibitors.

PROJECT TOPIC- PERCEIVED INHIBITORS TO PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AMONG AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OKPOSI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF EBONYI STATE

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