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PROJECT TOPIC- PERSONALITY TRAITS INFLUENCE CAREER ASPIRATION OF STUDENTS IN CENTRAL CROSS RIVER STATE OF NIGERIA

PROJECT TOPIC- PERSONALITY TRAITS INFLUENCE CAREER ASPIRATION OF STUDENTS IN CENTRAL CROSS RIVER STATE OF NIGERIA

Abstract

This research titled “Personality traits influence career aspiration of students in Central Cross River State of Nigeria” was aimed at how investigative (intellectual) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration, the influence of social (conforming) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores, how persuasive (enterprising) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores, the influence of realistic (motorise) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores, how conventional (conforming) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores and the influence of artistic (aesthetic) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores. The researcher adopted ex-post facto design, were was collected and analyzed. Based on the analysis it was revealed that there is a significant influence of realistic (motorise) personality trait on students’ career aspiration, there is a significant influence of investigative (intellectual) personality trait on students’ career aspiration, there is a significant influence of artistic (aesthetic) personality trait on students’ career aspiration and there is a significant influence of social personality trait on students’ career aspiration.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study

Personality is the aggregate view of people about an individual with particular references to the special characteristics and dispositions. Personality traits are the humanistic characteristics of human beings including their potentials for growth, transcendence and self-realization (Griffiths, 2009). It covers the usual behaviour of man which includes attitudes, motives, tendencies, outlook, perception of self, and emotional responses with which an individual reacts to others and to the environment (Morris, 1946).

There are different types of personality traits possessed by different individuals. These traits according to John Holland cited in Rounds (2008) include: the realistic (motorise) personality traits, the investigative (intellectual) personality traits, the social (supportive) personality traits, the conventional (conforming) personality traits, the persuasive (enterprising) personality traits and artistic (aesthetic) personality traits.

Other psychologists have also categorized personality traits differently. Jung (1998) categorized personality traits into extroverts and introverts; while Rogers (1951) talks about self-concept as a personality trait. These traits play an important role in the selection of career by individuals (Reio & Sanders-Reio, 2006). Individuals who possess most of the realistic traits are active and stable and enjoy hands-on or manual activities, such as building, mechanics, machinery operation and athletics.

Investigative individuals are analytical, intellectual and observant and enjoy research, mathematical or scientific activities. Social individuals are humanistic, idealistic, responsible and concerned with the welfare of others. They enjoy participating in group activities and helping, training, healing, counseling or developing others. Conventional individuals are efficient, careful, conforming, organized and conscientious.

They are comfortable working within an established chain of command and prefer carrying out well-defined instructions over assuming leadership roles. Enterprising individuals are energetic, ambitious, adventurous, sociable and self-confident. They enjoy activities that require them to persuade others, such as sales, and seek out leadership roles. Artistic individuals are original, intuitive and imaginative and enjoy creative activities, such as composing or playing music, writing, drawing or painting and acting in or directing stage productions.

They seek opportunities for self-expression through artistic creation (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2013). Career aspiration is one of the most important decisions in the life of an individual. It has far reaching implications on the individual’s future in terms of life-style, status, income, security and job satisfaction. The essence of work in human development has always been emphasized as a means of self-actualization, income independence, self-liberation and a good identification for a person as well as a means of structuring and directing society (Isola, Olubukoye, Eseosa & Olufemi, 2014).

The magnitude in one’s career aspiration starts from an individual having a good understanding of the potentials he or she possesses. If one’s potentials are recognized, it often serves as a vital instrument to realize the targeted dreams about the world of work (Cuningham, 2009). The perception of what one wants to become is the interplay of the type of personality traits one has (Leary, 2004).

Ferry (2006) asserted that adolescents career aspirations are influenced by factors like life context, personality aptitudes and educational attainment. He contended that meeting the challenge of this developmental milestone is critical in adolescents’ lives. Career aspiration for most people is a lifelong process of engaging the work world through choosing among employment opportunities made available to them (Thanh, 2015).

This motivates them to create an environment which reflects not only their needs and personalities, but also other skills, abilities, attitudes and values that are accepted within the six vocational personality types, namely: the realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2013). These personality traits underscore career interests and aspirations as well as constitute part of the total personality in the individual. Scivicque, (2008) posited that an individual can make career decision more effectively if he/she knows his abilities.

He added that the fulfillment of human needs is evident in gainful employment and career aspiration reflects one’s personality and needs. This stresses the influence of psychological factors such as self-concept, introversion/extroversion and sociability in career aspiration. This choice of career, subjects and courses of study in school and subsequent parts to follow is always difficult problems facing prospective students (Igbinedion, (2011).

Choosing the right subject combination that would lead to the right profession can make the difference between enjoying and detesting the career in future. Engaging in a career that is unattainable leads an individual to frustration. Thus, many Nigerian students appear to regard work after school, either as a mere source of livelihood or as a means to an end rather than an end in itself.

As a result poor attitude to work and its attendant problem of low productivity becomes rampant when these students gain employment in work environments that are not suitable for them. The net effect of poor career choice is that it results in a crippling national economy (Stebnicki, 2008). The result of the above situation is that many people are unsuitable for their careers as they usually find themselves in jobs where they can not satisfy their value and ultimately become a liability to the nation.

A good career planning demands that a student makes tentative vocational commitment to provide for a sense of direction and purpose through the period of school. At the same time, sufficient flexibility must be maintained; thereby providing for appropriate shifts in plans as maturity occurs, interest stabilizes and knowledge expands. To achieve these goals, career guidance programme should first provide a clear picture of true occupational needs of a given country, as well as how these needs relate to actual educational opening with the present job.

Several studies have revealed that many factors including parental background, attitude, type of school attended, home environment peer group, significant others, available jobs, career preferences and people around all influence career aspiration of individuals (Franke, 2010; Huang, 2006). Some of these studies give little importance to personality trait. However, other studies (Aamir & Amna, 2013; Jin, Watkins & Yuen, 2009; Page, Bruch & Haase, 2008; Shafer, 2000; Wang, Jome, Haase, & Bruch, 2006) have revealed that personality trait was a factor influencing students’ career aspiration.

Personality is actually shaped by the environmental, familial, and societal influences. But personality trait can be measured by looking at the elements like sense of responsibility, commitment and the type of prestigious life you want to have (Popkins, 2001). Apart from the home and school environments factors, peer influence, significant others, and despite some indication of variation in self-efficacy beliefs, neuroticism, and negative thinking, there are other types of personality traits possessed by different individuals.

These according to Holland cited in Rounds (2008) include: the realistic (motorise) personality traits, the investigative (intellectual) personality traits, the social (supportive) personality traits, the conventional (conforming) personality traits, the persuasive (enterprising) personality traits and artistic (aesthetic) personality traits. These traits play an important role in the selection of career by individuals (Reio & Sanders-Reio, 2006).

Individuals who possess most of the realistic traits are active and stable and enjoy hands-on or manual activities, such as building, mechanics, machinery operation and athletics. Investigative individuals are analytical, intellectual and observant and enjoy research, mathematical or scientific activities. Social individuals are humanistic, idealistic, responsible and concerned with the welfare of others.

They enjoy participating in group activities and helping, training, healing, counseling or developing others. Conventional individuals are efficient, careful, conforming, organized and conscientious. They are comfortable working within an established chain of command and prefer carrying out well-defined instructions over assuming leadership roles. Enterprising individuals are energetic, ambitious, adventurous, sociable and self-confident.

They enjoy activities that require them to persuade others, such as sales, and seek out leadership roles. Artistic individuals are original, intuitive and imaginative and enjoy creative activities, such as composing or playing music, writing, drawing or painting and acting in or directing stage productions. They seek opportunities for self-expression through artistic creation (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2013).

Several investigations have shown that realistic (motorise), investigative (intellectual), artistic (aesthetic), social (supportive), persuasive (enterprising), and conventional (conforming) personality traits influence career aspirations of individuals, but the overall findings are inconclusive (Smith, 2011). For instance, Ojo (2010) observed in Akwa Ibom State that practicing teachers who have social personality trait and positive self-concept socialize most and have self-confidence with teaching.

Also, teachers who have social personality trait and positive self-concept put up smiling faces more while teaching, communicate more freely and were willing to accept and assist students. Egbochukwu (2000) observed in Anambra state that most students aspire to study Medicine, Accounting, Law, Pharmacy and Engineering not because of their personality traits but because of the high economic rewards, social value and high prestige attached to such careers.

 In addition, the location or environment where an individual resides may influence his or her career aspiration. This explains why most people who live in riverine areas are fishermen and those who live in rain forest engage in timber business. However, the focus of this study is to examine how personality traits namely: investigative (intellectual), conventional, persuasive, self-concept, extroverted and introverted personality traits influence students’ career aspiration in the central senatorial education zone of Cross River State. The study is worthwhile because it focused more on individuals, who are in their adolescence, a critical period for career development.

PROJECT TOPIC- PERSONALITY TRAITS INFLUENCE CAREER ASPIRATION OF STUDENTS IN CENTRAL CROSS RIVER STATE OF NIGERIA

Statement of Problem

The problem of career aspiration is one that has continued to affect the lives of many individuals in the Ikom (Central Education Zone) of Cross River State. Career aspiration and choice have been a major problem affecting not only the lives of adolescents in the zone, but most adults who could not locate the right careers suitable for them. Career aspirations are shaped early in life, but are modified by experience, the environment, peer group, parents, significant others, personality traits and a host of other factors.

Thus, aspirations tend to decline as a child matures, in response to their growing understanding of the world and what is possible, and to constraints imposed by previous choices and achievements (Gutman & Akerman, 2008). Psychologists have researched into the problem of career aspiration and found that a lot of factors impinged on career choice. People enter into different types of occupations for different reasons.

Most students aspiration is to be employed just to receive salaries at the end of the month. This group of workers have been observed doing the work without enthusiasm (Hartwell, Lightly & Maxwell, 2005). In central senatorial education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria, some students are faced with the problem of making career choices. The end result is that they go into employments where they work without enthusiasm and commitment that gives job satisfaction.

Since they derive little or no satisfaction from the job, they might end up exhibiting all sort of maladaptive behaviours ranging from truancy, taking of unnecessary sick leaves and permission, absenteeism, lateness to work, loitering and sleeping on duty among others. These maladaptive behaviours might be prevented if student make good career decisions relating to their personality traits during career choice.

There is need for a concerted effort to be directed at investigating the influence of these personality traits on the career aspirations of people in the midst of the fact that value orientation, gender, peer group, home background, and a whole lot of other factors also, influence peoples’ choice of careers. Hence, the major problem of this study therefore is, “how do personality traits influence students’ career aspiration?”

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine how personality traits influence career aspiration of students in Central Cross River State of Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study will be to examine:

  1. How investigative (intellectual) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration.
  2. The influence of social (conforming) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores.
  3. How persuasive (enterprising) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores.
  4. The influence of realistic (motorise) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores.
  5. How conventional (conforming) personality traits influence students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores.
  6. The influence of artistic (aesthetic) personality traits on students’ career aspiration as measured by their mean scores.

1.4       Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to school counsellors and teachers, students, parents, the government and private employers, workers, the general public and future researchers. School counsellors and teachers:- The result of this study will help school counsellors and teachers to direct students in their career aspirations. They will be in a better position to implement more result oriented intervention strategies during counselling to enable students pursue and actualize career aspirations that are suitable for them.

Students will through the result of this study learn to take up jobs that are right and suitable for them so that they would not exhibit maladaptive behaviours such as truancy, lateness to work and absenteeism due to lack of job satisfaction in their jobs. The government, non-governmental organization (NGOs) and private employers of labour will benefit from the results of this study because they will learn to employ capable hands into suitable jobs as a result of the better understanding of personality traits possessed by each individual that they are likely to employ into their ministries and work environment.

Also, results of the study will serve as an eye opener for parents, guardians and significant others as they will learn not to impose careers on their children and wards without determining the relevance of such careers to the child’s personality traits. Workers will also benefit from the study because they will learn to aspire into suitable careers that will give them job satisfaction with full knowledge of their potentials as will be revealed in this study.

 In addition, the study will be of immense benefit to the general public as it will enable individuals to know their personality traits and those of other people such that they will understand why people exhibit certain behaviours and attitudes to work. Future researchers into the subject matter of personality traits and students’ career aspirations will benefit from the findings of this study because it will serve as a reference material to them.

1.5       Scope of the Study

This study would be delimited to determining the influence of personality traits on students’ career aspirations of secondary school students in the Central Education zone of Cross River state. The sub variables of the study are investigative, social, enterprising, realistic, conventional and artistic personality traits. It will be limited to SSS I students in Central senatorial education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria.

1.6       Research Questions

           The study aims at providing relevant answers to the following questions:

  1. How does investigative (intellectual) personality trait influence students’ career aspiration?
  2. What is the influence of social (supportive) personality trait ion students’ career aspiration?
  3. How does persuasive (enterprising) personality trait influence students’ career aspiration?
  4. What is the influence of realistic (motorise) personality trait on students’ career aspiration?
  5. How does conventional (conforming) personality trait influence students’ career aspiration?
  6. What is the influence of artistic (aesthetic) personality trait on students’ career aspiration?

1.7       Hypotheses

            The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study:    

  1. There is no significant influence of investigative (intellectual) personality trait on students’ career aspiration.
  2. There is no significant influence of social personality trait on students’ career aspiration.
  3. There is no significant influence of enterprising (persuasive) personality trait on students’ career aspiration.
  4. There is no significant influence of realistic (motorise) personality trait on students’ career aspiration.
  5. There is no significant influence of conventional (conforming) personality trait on students’ career aspiration.

There is no significant influence of artistic (aesthetic) personality trait on students’ career aspiration.

PROJECT TOPIC- PERSONALITY TRAITS INFLUENCE CAREER ASPIRATION OF STUDENTS IN CENTRAL CROSS RIVER STATE OF NIGERIA

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