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PROJECT TOPIC- PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE STEM BARK OF DETARIUM MICROCARPUM (CAESALPINIACEAE)

PROJECT TOPIC- PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE STEM BARK OF DETARIUM MICROCARPUM (CAESALPINIACEAE)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Felix Fontana ( 1720 – 1805)~ performed thousands of experiments on the toxicity of various crude drugs. His results suggested to hini that a crude drug contains an active principle which preferentially acts upon one or more discrete parts of the organism to provide a characteristic effect.
For the first time the active principle was isolated. The German apothecary Frederick W.A. Serturner ( 1 783 – 1841) in 1806 isolated a white crystalline substance, morphin:, from opium. This first isolation of an active Principe!e of a medicinal plant stimulated so much enthusiastic research on the vegetable drugs that magendie2 was able to publish a medical fornicator in whichever contained only pure chemical agents.
The natural forests of West and Central Africa are rich in natural resources and have tremendous biodi\,ersity, particularly in trees that provide food, fuel, fiber and medicares. Drugs derived from plants fonn the mainstay of medical treatment in the developing country (~nand)’.ln fact, grecn plants, it has been noted, appear to be reservoirs of effective chemotherapeutants and would constitute inexhaustible sources of drugs wi:h numerous activities.’.”” The remarkable contribution of plants to the drug industry was possible because of the large number of the phytochemicnl and biological studies all over the world. This progress resulted in isolation of many active components used as a good remedy for many diseases.

A wide variety of pknt materials have been shown to have a potentially interesting acti\,ity against a variety cf organisms. lwu7 has reported on the antimicrobial activity of a number of Nigerian and African plants. Other useful studies include the works of Heydrick et rr? on acaricidal and antiscabies activity, the works of Hakizamungu et rr? on anti- protozoan activity, as well as those of Gafner d 0 o n molluscicidal activity of various other African medicinal plants. In Nigeria, medicinal plants are an in~portant elen~ent of cultural heritage. They have been used in herbal remedies, providing a still expanding alternative systems of medicine. In fact, according to the June 1983 issue of “World Health,” it has been estiniated that more than one – half of the world’s population, most of then1 in the developing countries. rely mainly on traditional remedies.

1 . I Aims of Study

There is a serious need tc provide a readily available, more accessible and less costly drugs to teeming often poor sickfolks of the developing countries. The ain-is of this present research into an iridigeneous plant therefore include:
( I ) To scientifically establish the antimicrobial potentials of Derrrriirt,~
(2) To separate the extract, and
(3) To semi-characterize the rzsultant constituents.
The met hod required the reduction of Deltrrirrnr ruicr-ocut-ptrt~rs tern bark to a coarse powder and extracting with 95% CH30H. The aqueous methanolic extract was screened against a range of microorganisms and standard antibiotics. The extract was also evaporated to dryness and extracted with ethyl acetate to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions. Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate soluble, which exhibited a stronger antimicrobial activity, as well as the ethyl acetate insoluble, were also carried out.

PROJECT TOPIC- PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE STEM BARK OF DETARIUM MICROCARPUM (CAESALPINIACEAE)

 

1.2 Botanic Profile and Functional Properties of Detarirrr~r Microcarprrnr 

Dertrt-~irmtr rict.octrtprrtlt, locally called ofor by the Igbo of Nigeria, rrr~rt-ub y the Hausa, and oghogho by the Yorubas, is a leguminous plant of the leg~r/uinosrrc of flowering plants and member of sub-fanlily C(res(rlpinitrcctre. It can be found in both the rain forest zones and tlie drier savannah areas of Africa (Keay cr d).”.”De turirrnr t~rict-onit-pst,l exists in Nigerian’s geographical regions.”,” The fruits of this lesser known legume are drupe – like, circular and disc shaped with a distinctive layer of greenish, meanly pulp that is tangled with numerous network of fibers.

The seeds occur singly and are embedded within the fibrous network of the fruit. It is hard, disc shaped and wrinkled, brownish coloured husks. Thc cotyledon is white in colour (~nweluzo).’~ Hopkin et cil noted that Dei(~rit/iin~r icrocarprr~~-ias plant “without spines or thorns or latex ……I ? Dettrt-irrnr n~icroccirpunl, though indigenous to Nigeria, is traditionally neither used whole, fermented nor used because of its contribution to the / diet. It is rather used because of its fi~rictional characteristics it exhibits such as emulsification and thickening when used as food ingredients in soups and broths.

This legume has found important application as a soup thickener in parts of Abia, Imo and Anambra. Soup thickeners. Ezueh ” :toied.increase the palatability of the soup and reduce bulk in the diet. Studies have a!sa shown the seeds could be used as a stabilizer and emulsifier in food juices and other beverages. ‘x” The thicke~ing and the binding properties of the gum derivable from the riped seeds have been extensively studied. One use being advocated is as a possible tablet binder.

Okorie and Chukwu have studied the biophysical properties of such gums'(‘ 2s w l l as the micrometric properties of the drugs containing them.” Their results suggested that Dercrritrru nricroccit-pun/ gum (DMG) conipares favorably wi{h the high viscous grade sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SCMC), acacia and gelatin and would be considered replacement for these imported gums.
Trees like Defot-ilrttr ~4ict~oc~rrp1arnndr ln~i~rggiatr horterrsrrs (oghmo and l!jit-i) are included as indigenous and exotic fruits and seeds in Ononogbu’s Li~~itilns Wlrnitur ~.risrence.S’~u ch tree have remained unexplored and unexploited sources of vegetable oil. For example, though Dercrr-iiwr Microcnrprrnt produces edible fruits.

it is however, primarily managed for fuel wood production. These exotic trees can, however, be powerful scurces of oil for nutritional, lipid-based and phamaceutical industries. Ononogb~i gave the percentage oil as 1 2% for Detrrritrrtr Mio-ocitrprrnr, which compares favorabl~w~it h that of Zca 1trrq.s (niaize).” In Burkina Faso, the fn~ipi ulp can be sucked as snack, fresh or boiled after skin is r em~ \<e dI’n~ s.o me regions of Africa, the plant has been used in ethno medicinal preparations. In the South of Mali, !here are diversity of medicinal uses depending on the ethnic group. The main sympton~sa nd disease treated are stomach problems, and linked with general wellbeing, diarrhoea, malaria and 19 meningitis. Elsewhere also, decoctions of the leaves and fnrits are drunk to manage dysentery.::’ Again, they have been applied as anti – syphilitic asen:..?’

1.3 Micro-Organism and Diseases

PROJECT TOPIC- PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THE STEM BARK OF DETARIUM MICROCARPUM (CAESALPINIACEAE)

 

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