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PROJECT TOPIC- PLATONIC REPUBLIC AND THE CHALLENGES OF NIGERIAN STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PLATONIC REPUBLIC AND THE CHALLENGES OF NIGERIAN STATE

 

ABSTRACT

This study examines the Platonic Republic and the Challenges of the Nigerian State. There exist plethora of scholarly submissions on the aforementioned topic; most of the scholars that have explored the issue under discussion centered their argument on Platonic State and Democracy in
Africa, structure of leadership and Plato’s ideas, Plato’s Republic and leadership question in Africa. This study takes another dimension to looking into Plato’s Republic and the Challenges of the Nigerian State with emphases on Plato’s philosophy in the Republic and political charge in Nigerian State as well as accumulation of private property and the realization of a Platonian State in Nigeria. The hypotheses were validated and accepted; secondary source of data were employed in data collection while the social contract served as the lens through which the study was treated. Useful recommendations were made through the articulated conclusion

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The most comprehensive collection of Plato’s philosophical idea appears in the fundamental principles for the conduct of human life. The societies are formed for a particular purpose. Individual human beings are not self-sufficient; no one working alone can acquire all of the necessities of life. In order to resolve this difficulty, we gather together into communities for mutual achievement of our common goals. This succeeds because we can work more efficient if each of us specializes in the practice of a specific craft or job.

Thus, Plato held that separation of functions and specialization of labour are keys to the establishment of a worthwhile society (Morrow,1988). The society composed of many individuals, organized into distinct class according to the value of their role in providing some component part of the common good will lead to ideal society. But the smooth operation of the whole society will require some additional services that will guide the disputes among members of their interactions and the defense of the state against external attacks.

Therefore, carrying the principle of specialization further, Plato proposed the establishment of class of citizens; the philosophers or guardians, the auxiliaries or soldiers and the producers or workers (Mbah, 2006). The pyramid of the state is therefore made up of three layers: philosophers or guardians on top, auxiliaries or soldiers in the middle and the producers or workers to serve the numerically largest group of producers at the base. Plato insists that there should always be a clear distinction between these groups (Nwoko, 2006).
Perhaps and more importantly, Plato was convinced that the philosophers had the knowledge, intellect and training to govern. A philosopher by his grasp of the Ideal of Good is best qualified to rule. The philosopher would be able to administer Justice and act for the good of the community. The philosopher has the qualities of a ruler, namely Truthfulness, Discipline and Courage. Plato pointed out that an ideal state ruled by the philosopher ruler is a divine institution perfectly worthy of emulation and imitation (See Subrata & Sushila, 2007). Accordingly, Wolin (1960) noted that existing states were imperfect because philosophers were not rulers. The Ideal State is the Good Society. And the Good Society possesses the following qualities viz; Wisdom,  Courage, Discipline and Justice (Wolin, 1960).
Having developed a general description of the Good Society, Plato maintained that the proper functions performed by its disparate classes, working together for the common good will provide the Good society, because they develop significant social qualities.The Ideal State is the Just State. And the Concept of Justice is a permanent quality and attribute of the human soul. Therefore, the ideal state based on Justice is the earthly manifestation of the human soul (Nwoko, 2006). Plato held that every human being include three souls that correspond to the three classes of citizen in the state, each of them contributing in its own to the successful operation of the whole person.
• The rational soul (mind or intellect) is the thinking portion within each of us, which discerns what is real and not real.
• The spirited soul (will or volition) is the active portion, its function just to carry out the dictates of reason in practical life. Courageously doing whatever the intellect has determined to be best.

PROJECT TOPIC- PLATONIC REPUBLIC AND THE CHALLENGES OF NIGERIAN STATE

 

• The appetitive soul (emotion or desire) is the portion of each of us that want and feels many things (Morrow, 1988).
On Plato’s views then, any human being is properly said to be just when the three souls perform their functions in harmony with each other, working in consonance for the good of the person as a whole.As a well-organized state the justice of an individual human being emerge only from the interrelationship among its separate components. Plato’s account of a tripartite division within the self has exerted an enormous influence on the philosophy of human nature. However any adequate view of human life requires some explanation or account of how we incorporate intellect, volition and desire in the whole of our existence. Therefore, true justices are a kind of good health attainable only through the harmonious corporative effort of the three souls (Morrow, 1988).
Britain is in many ways a meritocracy after Plato’s heart. Although there is a dignified part of the constitution in which Parliament plays a key role, and democratic elections take place at intervals, power has been steadily leaking away from Westminster to Whitehall. The Dements of State pay nominal obeisance to their Ministers, and when there is an inter-departmental dispute the Cabinet can exercise real power; but for the most part the Minister has neither the time nor the knowledge to make his Department do what it does not want to do.

In that sense the real power in twentieth century Britain is substantially exercised by civil servants, themselves selected by examination after a rigorous academic course, often in philosophy. Civil servants, though sometimes said by MPs to be political eunuchs, are not real eunuchs, and have wives and families to prove it. But their wives and families play no part in their public lives and have no political power. Although the wife of a senior civil servant is addressed as “Lady”, she has much less pull than the Ladies, or even the mistresses, of previous ages.

She is kept in purdah in the suburbs, well away from the corridors of power. Nor is it any advantage to be the child of a civil servant. Britain is an enthusiastic meritocracy, and parental pull is rigidly excluded from all selection processes. We deal with the problem of sex by legitimating it but separating it from everything of public importance. A rigid separation between public and private life ensures that amorous ambitions and family loyalties have no influence on the course of events.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The thrust of this study is to examine or discuss the Platonic Republic and the challenges of Nigerian State. It is baffling that the role of leadership corruption in the Nigerian state is a challenge and had exponentially deepened that the nation Nigeria has not been able to think out a proper framework for engagement on this rapid growth of leadership failure since it gained its Independence in 1960. This was observed when the country returned to civil rule since 1999, there is no doubt that leadership failure has been the bane of democratic stability and survival.
Therefore, news about bad leadership that effect corruption is no longer stunning (Ogundiya, 2009).
Regrettably, since independence a notable surviving legacy of the successive politic

PROJECT TOPIC- PLATONIC REPUBLIC AND THE CHALLENGES OF NIGERIAN STATE

 

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