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PROJECT TOPIC- POTENTIALS OF RICE BRAN AND BROKEN RICE FROM AGRO-RICE MILLS IKWO

PROJECT TOPIC- POTENTIALS OF RICE BRAN AND BROKEN RICE FROM AGRO-RICE MILLS IKWO

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Rice (oryza sativa) is a principal cereal, a leading food crop of the world and a staple food of over approximately half of the world’s population (Singh et al., 2003). Its annual consumption is next to wheat as reported by Razavi and Farahmandfar, (2008). Approximately 600 million tons are harvested worldwide annually (Chen et al., 2012). According to Laureys, (1999) rice contains the lowest amount of sodium from all basic foodstuffs.

Rice by-products results from rice milling process which involves, cleaning, hulling and post-hulling processing (whitening, polishing and grading). Rice by-products actually have higher amount of nutrients when compared to the polished rice. In recent years, rice by-products have received increased attention as functional foods due to their phenolic base compounds in addition to having high amounts of vitamins, minerals, and fibre, which can help to lower cholesterol as stated by (Wilson et al., 2002).

Most of this by-products are used to make rice flour and as raw material to elaborate many kinds of foods by extrusion process (Dors et al., 2006; Clerici and El-dash 2008). Broken rice grains are rice fractions obtained during the milling processing of rice (Okaka, 2005). Broken rice has nutritional value and contains protein and carbohydrate (Hou et al., 2010). Hardly have attention been paid to the use of this broken rice.

However, if it is possible to make consumer acceptable rice bread,fufu,etc. from this broken rice, it would not only utilize effectively the broken rice to convert it to a value added products, but also would be a better alternative for gluten allergic patients. Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling industry. Rice bran is a good source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, essential fatty acids, dietary fiber and more than 100 antioxidant nutrients that helps to fight against disease and promote good health (Fatemehmalekean et al., 2000).

The amino acid profile of rice bran is superior to other cereal grain protein as reported by Farrell, (1994). The interesting characteristic of rice bran protein is that it is composed of high amount of lysine, an essential amino acid (Sudarat et al., 2005). According to Juliano and Bechtel, (1985) one of the factors determining the potential use of bran for food is its chemical composition.

The chemical composition of rice bran depends on several factors associated with the grain itself and the milling process. Due to its antioxidant action, it is drawing immense interest in research world as a food additive. According to Wells, (1993); Hu et al (1996); Bucci et al (2003) rice bran has been cited as oxidation inhibitor in the food additive list. Recently, the use of rice bran is gaining importance in many studies due to the fact that, during the processing of whole rice, large amounts of the grain’s outer layers are removed, raising the concentration of nutrients in the bran and rendering it an important source of nutrient for food industry and human consumption (Xu and Godber, 1999; Carvalho and Bassinello 2006; Parrado et al, 2006; Remika and Arumughan 2007; Imsanguan et al, 2008; Lilitehen et al, 2008).

 Traditionally, Ebonyi farmers as rice producers, grow many varieties. Agro-Rice mills Ikwo, mills varieties of rice grown in Ebonyi State which yields by-products.The potentials of the by-products need to be established by critical investigation of their qualities.

PROJECT TOPIC- POTENTIALS OF RICE BRAN AND BROKEN RICE FROM AGRO-RICE MILLS IKWO

   1.1.                 Objectives of This Study

            The broad objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of rice bran and broken rice from Agro-rice mills Ikwo.

            The specific objectives of this study was

  1. To identify the various rice by-products from Agro-rice mills Ikwo.

ii         To investigate the physico-chemical properties of the various by-products from the different rice varieties milled in agro-rice mills Ikwo

PROJECT TOPIC- POTENTIALS OF RICE BRAN AND BROKEN RICE FROM AGRO-RICE MILLS IKWO

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