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PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PEER TUTORING ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN IYAN-UDO SECONDARY SCHOOL MPAT-ENIN L.G.A. AKWA IBOM STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PEER TUTORING ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN IYAN-UDO SECONDARY SCHOOL MPAT-ENIN L.G.A. AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Peer tutoring originally began because of school budget problems in England in the late eighteenth century and was used as a successful way to give impoverished boys education. The concept of peer tutoring is as old as the history of mankind. Today Peer tutoring has posed more harm than good. People of various classes participate in peer tutoring consciously or unconsciously when they do jobs of helping their peers in one way or the other, whether in domestic, classroom, professional or academics.

Zahn (2010) defined peer tutoring as “one-on–one help in technical program courses, when teaching alone does not meet your academic needs”. It is necessary to seek help from your instructor first, as peer tutoring cannot and is not expected to replace the role of the teacher, but if additional assistance is needed, a peer tutor may help. According to Topping and Hill (1996), peer tutoring can be defined as “people from similar social groups who are not professional teachers, helping each other to learn, and learning themselves by teaching.

According to Beasley (1997) Peer tutoring (or peer mentoring, proctoring, and supplemental instruction) is a cost-effective means of providing academic support to students through the use of a valuable teaching and learning resource. This involves training more experienced students to tutor novice students in a collaborative learning experience in which both parties richly benefit in various ways, including improved  understanding and performance in the subject area involved, improved confidence and study skills, as well as on-going friendships.

Hence, Peer tutoring is the method of teaching-learning. Peer tutoring method of instruction involves students teaching other students, a system of instruction in which learners help each other and learn by teaching. Paul (2006), defined peer tutoring as an instructional strategy that partners’ students to help one another learn material, reinforce skills or practice a learned task. Peer tutoring often results in academic, emotional and social gains for the students involved.

Through a structured program supervised, planned and monitored by a teacher, peer tutoring can help readers receive individualized and targeted instruction that they may not otherwise receive. Without proper study of the subject matter, one would have thought that peer tutoring is the best method of teaching-learning. But alas, peer tutoring has wagon of problems with it.  Ming and Siew (2013) noted some problems associated in peer tutoring is in the area of communication, time management, group management, interest `sustenance and lack of knowledge.

In the area of communication, peers often do not know how to effectively communicate intended knowledge to the learners even though at times they seem to have little knowledge of the subject matter. As it is known that the medium of communication is very important in passing information. Thus, the issue of paired communication has been one of the problems with peer tutoring on the academic performance of secondary school students.

Time management was another associated problem Ming and Siew spoke about. It has been observed that when student peers are engage in academic discourse, they often exceed the allocated time probably because of disorderliness and incomprehensiveness among themselves. A particular group may be grabbing what is being taught while some others may be left behind. Therefore time management is one of the associated problems with peer tutoring. Sometimes domestic chores and other relevant activities are often not done.

Group management is a more pronounced problem in peer tutoring, because of the class is always large and the diversity of socio-cultural background, information utilization, environmental factors, demographic factors, religious beliefs, attitude and value system of students could inhibit effective tutoring. Also, since peer tutoring is only in use during instruction, an ineffective behavior management could bring about great increases in disruptive behavior in general settings. It is always difficult to maintain calmness and coordination in such classes.

It is one thing to learn but another to sustain the interest of what has been learnt. Interest sustenance during classes comes has a result of proper teaching strategy and guidance; but peer tutoring has been found to be lacking in this area. Interest sustainability lacks in peer tutoring as a result of lack of seriousness often found among peers. Lack of knowledge on the part of the peer tutors is a major problem. Peer tutors do not always posses the needed knowledge that peer tutees would have learnt.

Bullying one another cannot be left behind in the act of peer tutoring. Bullying has been defined as the act of someone being victimized when he or she is exposed repeatedly to negative actions from other person or student (Olweus, 1993). In the scientific literature, bullying is generally categorized into one of three types: direct bullying, indirect bullying, and verbal aggression (Crothers and Levinson, 2004; Harachi, Catalano, and Hawkins, 1999).

Direct bullying occurs when an individual openly attacks a victim, which may include physical contact or simply threatening movements. Indirect bullying refers to isolating and intentionally excluding a victim from a group and manipulating relationships and friendships to cause the victim emotional pain (Olweus, 1999). Verbal aggression refers to behaviors such as name-calling, shouting, verbally abusing, and accusing (Crothers and Levinson, 2004).

Recent research has demonstrated that students involved in bullying either as victim or bully can experience lifelong consequences, including poor psychological and social well-being. Victims tend to blame themselves and see themselves as social failures. Potential negative effects for bullying victims include physical and psychological distress, physical unwellness, and poor social adjustment (Rigby, 2003).

Victims of bullies are at risk for developing depression, low self-esteem, and/or problems with initiating and maintaining intimate relationships (Crothers and Levinson, 2004; Olweus, 1993). There are other negative outcomes for bullies as well, including maladjusted social skills and anti-social behavior. In addition, bullies are more likely to be involved in domestic violence, criminality, and substance abuse (Crothers and Levinson 2004).

Bullying appears to be prevalent in secondary schools. All these problems associated with peer tutoring causes students to perform very poor in their academics. It is therefore expedient to note that for peer tutoring to be effective and beneficial, the information utilization skills and management capacity of the tutee should be put into consideration. This is true due to the fact that there is diversity in the level of information utilization management of peers at various times and environments.

For the fact that two people are in a peer group does not mean that they possess the same information utilization skills and management capacity. There is usually variation as a result of some factors like socio-cultural background, environmental factors, demographic factors, religious beliefs attitude and value system. A study conducted by Ayuba (2011) found that peers are more sensitive than adult readers to picking up on non-verbal cues, students being tutored may give to reveal that they may not understand what a tutor is trying to communicate. In peer tutoring class each student gets more attention from the tutor and more time to speak while others listen. This makes students to be passive in constructing their knowledge waiting to be helped by fellow student.

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PEER TUTORING ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN IYAN-UDO SECONDARY SCHOOL MPAT-ENIN L.G.A. AKWA IBOM STATE

Statement of the Problem

There is a general concern by stakeholders in education about the poor performance of secondary school students in all subjects including Economics.  One of major cause has been associated with activities of peer tutoring in secondary schools specifically in the study area- Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State .Many have queried the method of teaching, instrument for teaching and even content of the curriculum as problem of the poor performance. It was observed by the researcher that most at times students learn by themselves through peer tutoring. It is against this background that the research seeks to study the problems associated with peer tutoring as a factor on the performance of secondary school students in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State.

The problem of this study put in a question form is what are the problems associated with peer tutoring in academic performance of secondary school students in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State.?

Purpose of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the problems associated with peer tutoring on the academic performance of students in Iyan-Udo Secondary School Mpat-Enin L.G.A. Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the researcher intends:

  1. To identify the effectiveness of peer tutoring in secondary schools in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom.
  2. To determine the problems associated with peer tutoring in Secondary Schools in Mpat-Enin L.G.A of Akwa-Ibom State
  3. To recommend possible ways of ameliorating some of these problems associated with peer tutoring on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State.

Significance of the Study

The results obtain in this promising research work shall be relevance in the following way:

To students, the findings in this research work would guide them properly on peer tutoring issues. Thus students’ tutors would be properly guided.

To the curriculum developers, the result obtain herein will educate them on the problems associated with peer tutoring; because the knowledge obtained from this work would give an insight to the curriculum developers on how to streamline peer tutoring activities in our secondary schools and  particularly, in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State.

The school system exists because of students and the performance of these students is its primary targets. Hence, this work would help the school system to redirecting and setting their priority right; because many teachers before now have abused the use of peer tutoring. Thus the secondary school authorities in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom would be largely informed on a way to tackle the proliferating peer tutoring among students which seem to be caused by students associated factor, teacher-associated factor and other factors.

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the problems associated with peer tutoring on the academic performance of secondary school students in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa Ibom State. The study deals with problems affecting the use of peer tutoring in teaching secondary school students. Geographically, the study is based on secondary schools in Mpat-Enin L.G. A. of Akwa-Ibom State.

Research Questions

(1)How effective could peer tutoring programmes help in boosting students’ academic performance?

(2) What are the problems associated with peer tutoring in Secondary Schools in Mpat-Enin L.G.A of Akwa-Ibom State?

(3) What are the possible ways to ameliorate some of these problems associated with peer tutoring on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Mpat-Enin LGA of Akwa-Ibom State?

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PEER TUTORING ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN IYAN-UDO SECONDARY SCHOOL MPAT-ENIN L.G.A. AKWA IBOM STATE

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