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PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY NURSING MOTHERS IN PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN ONICHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY NURSING MOTHERS IN PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN ONICHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Abstract

This study focuses on problems encountered by Nursing Mothers in practice of exclusive Breastfeeding in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State with purpose of ascertaining whether education affects breastfeeding ptterns of women: that is specifically whether literacy and illiteracy influence breastfeeding patterns of women, to determine the aspects of breastfeeding patterns exhibited by literate and no-literate women in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi Sate, to determine if a significant difference exists between the breastfeeding patterns of literate and non-literate women in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi State and to identify the problems encountered in the patterns of breastfeeding and to make recommendations that will enhance the solution process. This study adopted the survey research design. The population for the study comprises all the Nursing mothers numbering about 100 and all the health care attendants in Onicha local government area numbering about 50. The purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of the 100 women and 50 health care attendants used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The findings revealed that most educated women feel shy breastfeeding their babies outside their homes and most literate women feel that exclusive breastfeeding is meant for the women who can not afford baby formula. Based on the findings it was recommended that campaign/lecturer for literate women of child/bearing age should focus on attacking those misgivings, myths and social inhibitions associated with western. Education which militate against the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding by literate women.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the study

Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant with breast milk directly from female human breasts rather than from a baby feeding bottle or any container. It is the ideal form of feeding in the neonate. Artificial feeding exposes the infant to infections and results in over a million deaths annually world wide due to its ill effects. World breastfeeding day is within the first week in August (1-7 days). The care of a child begins in the first hours of life with exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate interventions.

Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months means that the infant receives only breast milk from her mother or expressed breast milk without other foods or drinks with the exception of drops of medications during this time and after 6 months. Breastfeeding should continue along with appropriate complementary feedings. Good Nutrition is one of the basic components of health and strategies for child development, survival and maintenance through out life.

The nutritional and health status of infants depend mainly on the feeding practices of the community. Early life is a period of rapid growth with the weight of an infant doubling by 6 months and tripling by one year of age (WHO, 1979). Infants constitute 2% of Nigeria population and their chances of survival have improved by nearly 60% in the last 20 years. All new born babies who cry soon after birth and do not show any signs of illness must be kept close to their mother and put to the breast soon after birth.

This will ensure warmth, initiation of breastfeeding and emotional bonding. Breastfeeding should be initiated immediately after birth. The promotion of br\eastfeeding and the use of human milk for infant feeding gives rise to a number of benefits including health, nutritional, developmental, psychological, social, Economic and environmental benefits. Early breastfeeding of a child helps to combat the invasion of certain diseases and promotes the p\hysical wellbeing and sound brain development of the child. Exclusive breastfeeding has dramatically reduced infant deaths in developing countries by reducing cases of diarrhea and infectious diseases.

Breastfed babies also have a lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). During breastfeeding, the nutrients, antibodies and beneficial hormones in the mother’s body are passed to her baby. Breast milk contains the amino acids, cystine and taurine that are essential for the development of an infant’s brain and nervous system. Breast milk also has several anti-infective factors, including the anti-malarial factor, para amino \benzoic acid. Sucking encourages the proper development of the infant’s teeth and speech organs and helps prevent obstruction.

Breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of the following ailments: allergies, asthma, breast cancer, diabetes, obesity and urinary tract infection. Breastfeeding also strengthens the bond between baby and mother, because breastfeeding releases the hormones oxytocin and prolactin, which relax the mother and make her feel a sense of comfort and love for the baby during breastfeeding.

As fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, breastfeeding may help mothers lose weight. Exclusive breastfeeding can also delay the return of ovulation. Although some women may experience pain after breastfeeding as a result of a staphylococcal infection of the nipple, this can be easily managed with continued breastfeeding and treatment and should be of little concern for mother and child.

Mothers who breastfeed their babies also have less risk of breast and endometrial cancer. Anywhere from 6-14 times a day, with newborns consuming between 30ml and 90ml of milk daily. After the age of four weeks, babies consume around 12ml per feed. Each baby is different, but as he or she grows the amount of milk consumed generally increases. It is important to recognize the baby’s hunger signs because it is assumed that the baby knows how much milk he/she needs and it is therefore advised to let the baby dictate the frequency and length of each feed.

The supply of milk from the breast is determined by the number and length of these feeds or the amount of milk expressed, as well as other factors. A baby’s birth weight may also affect their feeding habits and mothers may be influenced by what they perceive the baby’s requirements to be. For example, a newborn who weighs less than they should for their gestational age, may lead a mother to believe that her child needs to feed more than if her child was bigger. However, mothers should follow the demands of the baby rather than what they feel is necessary.

 While it can be difficult to measure how much food a breastfed baby consumes, babies normally feed to meet their own requirements. Babies who do not eat enough may fail to thrive. If necessary, it is possible to estimate feeding from wet and soiled nappies (diapers) in the sense that eight wet cloths, or five to six wet disposable nappies and two to five soiled nappies per 24 hours suggest an acceptable estimate. However, stool frequency is a less accurate measure of adequate input because it is often normal for infants to go to 2 days between stools. Babies can also be weighed before and after feeds, to determine the effect of their feeding habits on their growth.

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY NURSING MOTHERS IN PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN ONICHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Statement of the problem

Currently only 30% of Nigerian mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding which must be practiced by educating mothers regarding breastfeeding in order to improve the health of the mother and the baby. The mother of today has adapted the recent trends of life style replacing traditional ones. There are many changes one of which is changes in cultural diversity. Majority of mothers (69.3%) breastfeed on the day of delivery and while 32.7% of mothers rejected colostrums as bad for the child, 83.4% considered it as good.

Recent study from Ghana found that 22% of death of new born babies would have been prevented if they started breastfeeding within one hour of birth, irrespective of whether they were exclusively breastfeed or not. Extrapolating the data to other countries, the same researchers estimated that if 99% of infants started breastfeeding on the first day of life a total of 867,000 lives would have been saved worldwide and if they started breastfeeding within one hour of birth, then 31% of all neonatal death be prevented, which amounts to 1,1170. Nigerians can save her 200,000 babies annually by just one action which is exclusive breastfeeding.

In most communities such as Ezza, the attitude of mothers towards breastfeeding their babies exclusively has changed with time. With these developmental changes most women are worried of perhaps the breast diseases such as breast cancer and other associated breast problems which include sore nipples, breast abscess, flat nipples and so on. However, on the other hand, most educated and non-educated women exhibit different patterns of breastfeeding and these affect the life and development of their babies. This is a result of the nature of their job or their status as house wives.

Purpose of the Study  

The main purpose of the study is to determine comparatively the exclusive breastfeeding patterns of literate and non-literate women in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi state and the effect of the breastfeeding on the mothers and their children. Specifically, the researchers intends to:

  1. Ascertain whether education affects breastfeeding ptterns of women: that is specifically whether literacy and illiteracy influence breastfeeding patterns of women.
  2. Determine the aspects of breastfeeding patterns exhibited by literate and no-literate women in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi Sate with reference to:
  3. Place of feeding the baby.
  4. Period of the day the feeding of the baby is done
  1. Determine if a significant difference exists between the breastfeeding patterns of literate and non-literate women in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Identify the problems encountered in the patterns of breastfeeding and to make recommendations that will enhance the solution process.

Research Questions

The following research question was formulated to guide the study:

  1. What are the problems encountered by nursing mothers in their practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi State?
  2. What is the period of the day when literate and non-literate women breastfeed their babies?
  3. Will hygienic practices of women in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi State be a problem to exclusive breastfeeding?

Significance of the Study

The importance of a research work such as this cannot be over emphasized: To the researcher, this work is necessary because it will go along way in motivating the researcher to appropriate the importance and the need to breast-feed exclusively.

The work is also intended to create a renewed awareness to child bearing mothers towards the essence of breastfeeding their babies exclusively. The child will also benefit from the work since the knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding by the mothers will offer the child the opportunity to be emotionally secured. The work is significant to the mother because breastfeeding helps her to maintain and regain the pre-pregnancy body weight. It also reduces the risk of development of breast and ovarian cancer. Finally, the study may serve as a reference point to all other researchers who may wish to conduct further research on the problem.

Scope of the Study

This study focuses primarily on the problems encountered by nursing mothers in the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Onicha local government area in Ebonyi State. The study is delimited to all the nursing mothers in the four communities, Onicha, Isu, Oshiri and Ukawu in Onicha local government area of Ebonyi State.

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY NURSING MOTHERS IN PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN ONICHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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