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PROJECT TOPIC- PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF GARRI FORTIFIED WITH AFRICAN YAM BEAN

PROJECT TOPIC- PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF GARRI FORTIFIED WITH AFRICAN YAM BEAN

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) is a major root crop in the tropics and its starchy roots are significant source of calories for more than 500 million people in tropical world most especially in African and in many developing countries. (FAO, 2000). Irtwange and Achimba (2009), stated that cassava appears to be the major staple food that matches the population growth in Nigeria. Cassava is diversified into different food products and these product are available year round making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria (Onabolu, 2001).

Cassava can be transformed into various product such as garri, fufu, starch, tapioca and cassava chips (Obiele et al; 2004; Afoakwa et al; 2010). Garri is the most popular roasted fermented food product made from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and is widely consumed as processed by Millions of people in West African where it forms a significant part of their diet (Edem et al; 2001; Kostinek et al; 2005; Ogiehor et al; 2007).

In the traditional manufacture of garri, harvested cassava roots are peeled, washed, grated and packed in different jute bags. This is subject to heavy weight for 3-5 days. Dewatering and fermentation occur during this period yielding a pulp cake which when rasped gives a grainy flowing mass. This mass is toasted (garrified) in a hot pot to partially gelatinized the starch, dry the product and volatilized free cyanide (HCN).The toasted garri is cooled and sieved. (Okaka, 2005).

The dry form of post processed garri is consumed without further cooking (Soaked in water) with sugar, smoked fish, roasted groundnuts, cooked cowpea and coconut, and sometimes with milk and beverages as complements. It can also prepared into a stiff paste called “Eba” by adding the granules into hot water and stirring to make a paste of varied consistency which can be consumed with local soups or stews of various types (Asegbeloyin and Onyimonyi, 2007).

African Yam Bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) also known as Uzaaku or Ijiriji as it is named among the Igbos is one of the under-utilized legume in Nigeria (Okigbo, 1973). It is a leguminous crop grown in West Africa particularly in Cameroon, Cote d’ivorie, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo. (Nunnam et al; 2011). It is produced mostly in the eastern part of the country where it is consumed in different forms such as snacks and meal etc it is used in the fortification of starchy foods like maize, cassava and garri, because of is high protein content (Eneche, 2005).

The high protein content of African Yam Bean makes it an important source of protein in the diets of populations group of many tropical countries (Borchers, 1980). African yam bean (AYB) are cheaper than animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, egg and therefore they are consumed world wide as a major source of cheap protein and especially in the developing countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural or religious factors (Olayide, 1982).

African yam bean contain 20.51% protein, 10.20% fat, 52.33% carbohydrate 6.00% crude fibre, 2.6% ash and 8.36% water while calcium and phosphorus are in trace amount (Adeyeye et al; 1994). Garri has a very low level of protein probably because of this kwashiorkor is believed to be prevalent in the area where cassava is the staple items of diet. With the prevalence of malnutrition in the society, there is need to fortified our diets with protein using a cheap source of protein that is found in legume family, (Eneche, 2005). However, there is no information or literature review on garri fortified with African yam bean. Therefore, it is the thrust of this work to produce garri fortified with African yam bean.

PROJECT TOPIC- PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF GARRI FORTIFIED WITH AFRICAN YAM BEAN

1.1 Specific Objective

  1. To determine the proximate composition of garri fortified with Africa yam bean (AYB).
  2. To determine the functional properties of garri.
  3. To determine the pasting properties

Determine the sensory evaluation.

PROJECT TOPIC- PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF GARRI FORTIFIED WITH AFRICAN YAM BEAN

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