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Background of the Study

Te’chnical drawing is the basics of modern industrial technology and has found wide applicat~ons in the fields .of ~ngineenng and construction technology. Accurding to Okoro (19921, technical drawing is essentially a universal language by means of which technicians, enginwrs, craftsmen,
artisans and industrialists communicate. Like all visuals, it transcends all languages, tribes and cuFEures. The ability to draw clearly, descriptively and interpret same effectively, is an essential basit skill for ail those concerned with technology (Uzoagulu, 1995).

Technical drawing involves creativity, which is expressed in graphm-* ‘and arts. It starts in the mind and the initial outlet is us~~zl liny graphic representation. Hence, what is concsived in the mind is msde to fclrrn clear picture, which is then put on paper in the form, of sketches or drawings. Designs are therefore, conceptualized in the mind, drawn on paper, and produced technically to ascertain the workability or functix~alilyo f the initial concept.

It is safe therefore, to say that modern technology cannot be effective without technical drawing, since according to Ugonabo (1974), technic4 drawing is the language of technology and graphics. The importance of technical drawing for technology development is therefore, ,enormous, hence the need for effective teaching and learning of it especially among students of technical colleges.

Nwaogu (1983) described teaching as that situation whereby the professional instructor or teacher chooses from his experience the most appropriate skills, which he applies to attain the instructional objectives of the  lesson, while taking note of unanticipated learning. Effective teaching of technical drawing can then be conceived of as the ability of a professional !cchnical drawing teacher to utilize appropriate teaching strategies in guiding students to acquire and utilize technical skills, ideas and concepts with a view to attaining the instructional objective of the lesson, and at the same time lay a solid foundation for the continued interest of students in the subject.
TkLls, the extent to which the teacher is effective in SL the students can be judged from the results of his teaching on the students.
Such teaching effects are positive if they produce lasting effects for development of technical knowledge, skills, . attitude and interest in the
students. In other words, effective teaching of technical drawing should not only prepare students for success at examinations but should also create lasting effects and usable impressions on them, such a sustaining of the stucients interest in the subject, acquisition of manipulative skill: and enhancement of students academic performance amongst. other things.
In recent t~mes, technical drawing at the tech~ical college level in Nigeria has taken a new perspective in approaches. Emphasis on method has
changed from qualitative descriptions with its concomitant nature of abstractness, to manipulative, guided discovery, problem-solving, innovative
approaches that are devoid of abstractness but that make learning concrete and real. As a result, there have been repeated efforts of the government, directed towards ways by which the teaching of technical subjects, technll~al drawing inclusive, could be made effective especially at the technical college level.

These efforts include the improvements in curricdum contents and these syllabi. Hence, the reform from City and Guilds of London syllabus, to West I African Examinations Council (WAEC) Technical syllabus in the 80’s then to National Board for Technical Educarion (NBTE) modules and most recenily in the 901s, precisely in 1992 to the National Bclsiness and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB), National Technical and National Business Certificates (NTCiNBC) syllabus (based on NBTE modular curricular).

In the NABTEB (NTC) Technical drawing modules, the traditional rote memorization of sizes and scales is being discouraged. Technical drawing teachers are being challenged to make the teaching of technical drawing more effective through innovative techniques that will make the learning more iniellectually exciting. It is expected that students should . be . challenged with tasks and assignments that would lead them to experimentation and problemsolving experiences. Hence, the use of models, field trips and real objects were catego[ically recommended in the NTC module for technical drawing.
Unfortunately, technical drawing has been identified as one of the technical subjects in which the students’ achievement has been found to be
continually poor (Osuagwu, 1990), and in which very few students enlist for in external examinations (Uzoagulu, .I9 95). A study carried out by Okoro (19 922, provides evidence to suggest that many technical brawing teachers are yet to embrace and operationalize the new approaches to the teaching of technical drawing.

It is therefore, no wonder that fewer and fewer students oi engineering and construction trades offer technical drawing up to National Technical Certificate (NTC) examination. There seems to be a growing aversion and disenchantment for t~chnicadl rawing subject. Hence, decline in enrolment at the NTC exams has been progressive and students’ achievement has not been impressive (Osuagwu, 1990).
Despite the recommendations of NABTEB in the NTC technical drawing modules (NABTEB, 1992), and the suggestions of some researchers that innovative techniques and approaches be .employed in the teaching of technical drawing, it appears that little has been done if any on investigating
the effect of any’of these innovative techniques, such as the effect of models on students academic performance and interest in technical drawing. The development of skill in the performance of certain manipulative operations is one of the stated and acceptable objectives’for almost every practical arts and vocational subjects, technical drawing not left out.

However, education should lead not only to the acquisition of.cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills but also to the development of appropriate attitudes. Hence, any education that does not promote the right values, attitudes and interest to work, life and society, is of limited value. In other words, teaching of appropriate values attitudes and interest and the inculcation of manipulative skills in the learner, should form part of every well-organized education programmed such as technical drawing. .#
Models are found within the class of three dimensional instructional media. Others under this class include puppets, mock-ups, dioramas, and so
on. In Nigeria today, a striking variety of educational media have evolved and have had important influences on the improvement of the nation’s educational practices; all these aimed at improving the quality of instruction, teachers teaching effectiveness and education provided for the learner. One of the many indent~fielded ayes of achieving this aim is through effective use of model, real objects where they are available and a wide array of audio-visual materials.
Many educators regard model as an. effective means of gaining the full involvement of students in lessons. For instance, Anikweze (1988) maintained  hat the use of models adds interest, activity and novelty to the lesson. These and other advantages of the use of models for teaching technical drawing sound quite fascinating but yet to be exploited by Nigerian technical drawing teachers at the technical colleges and secoqdary school levels.

How then can technical drawing as a subject recover its lost image as the basics of all technical, engineering arid construction trade courses? How can the teachers of technical drawing demonstrate defensible effectiveness in the absence of innovative methods that will make lesson more inspiring and challenging to the .* students? NABTEB has called for a change in approach as to the teaching of technical drawing at the technii;al~college levels in Nigeria. It remains for the change to be effective.

One way of effecting a change in methods of teaching a s~bjectis to d~monstrateth rough experimentation and empirical evidences that such method can yield effective instructional outcomes and sustains students’ interest more than the traditional (conventional) approach.


Statement of the Problem

Many technical educators such as Osuagwu (1930), and Uzoagulu n(1995), have recently focused on identifying ways and means of reversing the
.V”I I, ll.,UV” YV UUVU I, I L U U V , ,,a la L Y V I I, IIVUI Urn Y.. I, IS. The National Business and Technical Education Basid (NAEITEB) on the other hand, have blamed the poor image of technical drawing at the technical college level in Nigeria on old-fashioned approaches to the teaching of the subject.

As an attempt to part ways with the old fashioned methods, the .* board has recommended more stimulating, problem based innovative methods, such as the use of models, field trips and real objects in teaching technical drawing. Yet, there is evidence as confirmed by Okoro (1992) that a large number of technical drawing teachers still teach conventionally.
It does appear as if these innovative approaches hava not been sufficiently portrayed as an effective alternative to the conventional method,
both for achieving better learning outcomes in technical drawing and for sustaining students interest in the subject. Therefore, the problem of this study posed as a question is: How would the use of instructional buil teaching affect students’ performance and interest in technical drawing.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of instructional Building Model on students’ academic performance and interest in technical
drawing. Specifically, the study aims at achieving the following objectives:.
1. To compare the mean performance scores of students taught using the building model with those of comparable students taught with the-conventional method.
2. To compare the mean performance scores of high ability and low ability  students taught with the two different methods within and across groups.
3. To compare the mean performance–score of students’ interest in technical drawing of those taught with the il-~constructional building model
with those taught conventionally as defined by their mean interest scores on the interest inventory after treatment.

significance of the Study

The outcome of tiis study will be of benefit in the following ways. Findings wbl lead to more effective teaching and learning of technical drawing
at the technical college level by providing teachers with alternative participate methods of instruction as against the monotonous and sometimes boring lecture method. Also findings of the study will open-up new ways of sustaining students’ interest in technical drawing through the use of model in teaching.
Findings will provide information, which could sensitize the government on the need for workshop, seminars and conferences on the best ways to
create awareness on the teachers on the strategies for the teaching of technical drawing. The study could yield convincing empirical evidence for the modem techniques of teaching technical drawing.
Findings of the study will provide information which could help technical educators particularly those at teacher training institutions, on some issues that must be given sound attention if technical drawing will recover its glorious image as the basic of all technical courses, and the language of technology.,- Findings will also provide information, which could fl~ether contribute to improved professional preparation of future technical drawing teachers.

Research Questions

To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions were asked:
1. what effects will the use of instructional Byilding model in teaching have on students’ mean performance scores in technical drawing?
What effects will the use of instructional Building model in teaching have on students’ mean interest score in technical drawing?
What e f i ~ c t sw ill the use of Instructional Building model in teaching have on the mean performance scores of the high ability and low zbility


In the execution of the ,study, the following hypotheses will be tested .at .05 level of significance.
There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of . . year II (SS II) technical drawing students taught with the use of model, ‘
compared to their counterparts taught by the conventional method after the adjustment of the mean scores from the pretest.
There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of yearly technical drawing students taught with model, as will be determined by
their scores after treatment, compared with the conventional group.
There is no significant difference in the mean performance gain of the high and low ability students taught withe the use of mcdet.
There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of the high and low ability students taught technical drawing ‘by conversational lecture method.
1 1 ., . 5. There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of the high ability students taught by moclc4 method compared to the high ability group t a ~ ~ hotting conventionally.
6. There is no significant difference in the mean performance score of the low ability students taught by model method compared by the low ability
groups taught conventionally.

Scope of the Study

This’study is an investigation, model on students’ performance and drawing (Principles of orthographic through experimentation, the effect of
interest on a projection).
s!.apposed to be an improvement on the existing .a methods (Okwo, 1996), the assessment involved a performance scores of year I1 technical drawing students taught with the use of remodel and those of a. comparable students taught with the conventional method. The study also compared the mean interest scores of those tz:_ight with model and their counterparts taught with the conventional m-method; and also the differences in the mean interest scores of the high-ability and low ability students taught with the use of model.
The Geographical Scope of the study was delimited to the Government Technical Colleges in. Enugu State. The demands of a quasi-experiment such as this h;ve constrained the researcher to purposely limit the studq to me technical college. The study was further delin:,ited to year If technical drawing students of Government Technical College Nsukka that are about entering their final year class, v~ho by their mean level of intellectual development was capable of participating realistically in the use of cont?punctual instructional
building model in teaching technical drawincj.
Fourth&bore, by considering the NABTEB (NTC) Technical drawing module, it would be seen that topics in technical drawing, which lend very
much to the use of abstract or conceptual instructional model has been sequenced for senior technical classes. The choice of SS II as the target
population of this study is therefore considered appropriate.




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