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PROJECT TOPIC- PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTOR AS PREDICTORS OF PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE SPORTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTOR AS PREDICTORS OF PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE SPORTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to examine psycho- social factors as predictors of competitive sport participation among secondary school students of Abakaliki Local Government Area. The population used for the study was all the students of the eleven schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area. Four  (4) secondary schools randomly selected through stratified random sampling technique  formed the sample .The main research instrument for collection of data was a structured questionnaire. Two hundred and fourty five (245) copies were distributed by the researcher to the participants to elicit their responses All the copies distributed were returned. Descriptive method of research was used in analyzing the responses of the participants. The returned and completed copies of the questionnaire were used. For the analysis, the percentages of the response in item of number was computed based on the items of questionnaire. Based on the result of the study, it was deduced that the student had interest in competitive sports, but psychological factors also predicted competitive sports participation among secondary school students of Abakaliki. In the same way, sociological factors significantly predicted competitive sports participation among secondary school students of Abakaliki Local Government Area. Suggestions were made by the researcher in the study that institutions of learning should incorporate sports participation in to their curriculum in order to educate students about the risks and benefit of made by the parents or guardians of adolescents to ensure that they cultivate positive attitude towards participation in competitive sports.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Generally, sport in considered a creator of beauty and also as an instrument of ethical values that brings about peace, unity and understanding among people of all races. which through causal or competitive participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants.

Sango, (2000) believe that relative peace in the world today is predicated on mutual understanding and respect engendered by sport. He also states that sport is highly significant in national development through leisure and recreation as it enhances a high degree of productivity and healthful living.

That make a whole man, all parts of the body must function effectively in relation to one another.

Sport provides a relatively safe avenue for converting unbridle Student into harmless competition, due to it restrained.

Mohamed, (2003) also stated that every individual must be able to excel in both recreation and competitive sports. Thus, sport provide artificial and not natural competition; for example, competing for control of football, or defending territory on a playing field is not an innate biological factor in sport and active recreation on physical health is now well accepted. Research has identified a-wide range of sport- health benefit, including improving cardiovascular health and assisting in developments of strength and balance.  In light  of this governments, at all level   have become increasingly active in encouraging to adopt physical activities as a regular part of their life style in contrast, much less is  known about the social factors.

Sport and physical recreating participation and, in recent years there has been an increasing focus on and interest in identifying such factors. Sports competition is generally broken down into three categories; individual sports, such as archery; dual ports, such as  tennis, and team sports competition, such as cricket or football. While most sports competition  there exist several major and minor professional sports leagues throughout the world. It in generally accepted that physical activity confers benefits to pycho-social health, functional ability and general quality of life and this has been proven to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and some cancers Eccles (2002).

Challenges to identify such as having to show others an unfit body, appearing incompetent are core skills and for women, appearing overly masculine were identified as barriers to participation. Participation had also been hampered by difficulty in accessing, and the poor state of facilities. A number of studies have reported participant concerns with the cost of participating in sporting activities and fitness gyms, whereby a number of authors concluded that an emphasis on the enjoyment and social benefit of physical activity has a good way to promote participation. Many studies  showed that people, could not identify with models of perfection used to promote physical activity, and that real life role model would be more effective. More variation in types of physical activity offered was seen as a way of increasing interest among school children.

During adolescence, flexibility in physical education uniform, privacy in changing rooms and greater variation in the activities offered has been important. Participation in sport is socially patterned by gender, poverty, social class and ethnicity and within different types of sports there are differences in the rate of participation related to socio-demographic variables (Sport England, 2003). Recent research has suggested that the effects of sports on well-being are mediated by psychological factors for high school. However physical self-concept played a central role by mediating the sport body image and sport instrumentality relationships. While positive body image and instrumentality, in turn predicted greater psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is a subjective concept that is generally characterized by the presence of healthy characteristics such as self-esteem and ability to cope with life demands and the absence of unhealthy characteristics such as depression and anxiety. Researchers have been particularly interested in the psychological well-being of adolescents, as this period is associated with an increase in self-consciousness, and an increased likelihood to be self critical.

Harter, (2003) understanding what factors promote positive psychological well-being in adolescents against the experience of negative effects, self doubt, and engagement in risky health behaviours.

Irwin (2003), sport is a very important aspect of Nigeria’s socio-cultural life. It impacts on many of individual’s precious personal mementoes and deepest and deepest values. Historically research into determinates of sporting activity participation has tended to adopt quantitative methods, which undertake cross-sectional surveys of predetermined questions on individuals knowledge, attitude and beliefs about sport and physical activity. Large studies have successfully assess the direction and strength of trends in participation but are unable to explain how children and adults adopt, maintain or cease to participate in sport and physical activity throughout their lives. An alternative approach in required which in sensitive to the contextual, social, economic and cultural factors which influence participation in physical activity.

PROJECT TOPIC- PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTOR AS PREDICTORS OF PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE SPORTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Gender ethnicity and the inter sections between this factors shape patterns of participation in sport ands recreation, as the do in wider society. Taylor, (2004). Points out that the important of intersections of ethnicity and gender migration affects women and men differently, depending on the social, political and cultural content of the migration decision as well as the settlement experience.

Statement the problem

Attempts at promoting active participation in sports among Senior Secondary School students in Abakaliki Local Government Area, especially competitive sports have had to contend with several problems. They include physcho-social factors which exert pressure on individuals through the immediate family, community, religion, media, peer groups and other sources of socialization to reinforce expected behavior. Sports are exemplary activity which focuses attention on the influence by allowing for the comparison of innate against learned factors.

Due to inadequate education and awareness about the benefits of participating in sports, physical activity is often not popular among secondary school students in Abakaliki Local Government Area. Physiological myths in Nigeria, like in many other parts of the world, have made many believed that physical exercise has a detrimental effect on the productive organs and that women lose their femininity through active participation in sports and also lead to low sperm count in male.

Moreover religion and religious attitude as regard the free association of male and female and the exposure of parts of the body are major constraints to both male/female participation in sports. Media, by their mode of coverage and presentation of male and female sports, tend to reinforce existing societal Gender relations maintained, negotiated and reconfigured in light of the host country’s social and cultural contexts. gender processes are further evident in the way in which migrants interact with the social institutions in the settlement country. (Taylor, 2004).

Most secondary schools encourage student to participate in recreation activities during their free time at school and often a wide range of sporting opportunities to cater for all levels and types of participant needs. School offer  encourages participation in other physical recreational activities by student who are not interested in sporting activities. Although many secondary schools spend large sums of money in supplying sporting facilities for their students to use, comparatively little is known about the factors that influence the quantity of student participation in  sporting activities and   wheather  a broad or narrow range of  sporting facilities are  necessary.

Hence, the need for participation in sport is important in the life of senior secondary school student in Ababkaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, therefore this study examines the psycho-social factors as predictors of competitive sport participation among secondary school students of Abakaliki.

Purpose of study

The main purpose of study is to determine the psycho-social factors predicting competitive sports participation among secondary school students in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically the study tends to determine:

  • If self-esteem will influence students participation in competitive sports
  • If self-efficacy will influence students participation in competitive sports
  • If school environment will influence non-participation of competitive sport by students.
  • If parental influence will determine the student participation in sports competition.
  • If pee groups influence students participation in competitive sports.

Research questions

PROJECT TOPIC- PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTOR AS PREDICTORS OF PARTICIPATION IN COMPETITIVE SPORTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 

 

 

 

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