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PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTED SECURITY OUTFITS IN CONTROL OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTED SECURITY OUTFITS IN CONTROL OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU

 

ABSTRACT

Being propelled by the increasing emphasis on the security of an environment as a core determinant of the development of the same environment, this study set out to understand and show how the perceptions of the people can influence their use of the services of the security outfits in any place. This study had as its objectives to answer four research questions that pertain to the perception of the public with respect to the security outfits existing in Enugu and how such perceptions affect utilisation of the services of the outfits. The study therefore employed the use of well-structured research questionnaires aimed at eliciting information from Enugu residents. Some of the questions were answered with the application of simple percentages and ratios. On the other hand, the question of the socio-economic determinants of public perceptions of security outfits was answered with the adoption of logit model. The logit model established that the area of residence, and age have a role to play in determining how effective or otherwise the public feel the security outfits are. Another important finding of this study is that since area of residence (layouts) has a role to play in determining how effective or otherwise the public perceive the security outfits were, it may not be out of place to conclude that it could have been as a result of the level of prevalence of crime in such areas or layouts. The reason for such conclusion is that the study established that there were varying degrees of crime prevalence in the various layouts of Enugu.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Crime is as old as man and has increased over the years in magnitude and intelligence due to the technological progress and development of the
world today. Crime could be considered as the greatest societal ills and is dominated in areas with low employment rates, high poverty, high
inequality, racial discrimination and general disequilibrium of available resources. Crime is a universal phenomenon that is threatening the
security of various countries in varying degrees (Aremu and Ahmed, 2011). Crimes at all levels have been and continue to be a danger to general peace and comfort. It increases uncertainty and scares away foreigners or investors to a particular region. The world at large has always put in place strict security measures to minimize criminal activities and promote protection of life and property.
Security is the state or feeling of being safe and protected. Security measures have been put in place at national and international levels to ensure the protection of life and property at sub regional and cross border regions, otherwise defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, nation, or organization. The importance of security cannot be overemphasized.The violence perpetrated in some parts of the country in recent time constitutes public disorder which makessecurity very important for all human beings regardless of one’s status in the country (Aremu and Ahmed, 2011). Security differs from place to place and usually related by the level of crimes but with the main objective of protecting life and property.
Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and since then has recorded increasing dimensions and frequencies of crime. With the increasing hardships due to the high poverty and inequality rates,poverty in Nigeria remains significant despite high economic growth. With 63% living below $1 a day in 2012 and income inequality increasing from 0.43 in 2004 to 0.49 in 2009 (Wikipedia, 2013), the line between poverty and crime or insecurity is very thin as several empirical evidencesopine that poorer areas have higher insecurity than relatively richer areas. It has been noted that Nigerian cities are conducive areas for criminal activities because it provides the anonymity needed for personal crime as well as environment for a specialized and organized underworld. Theft, fraudulence, arson, forgery and other criminal activities have become a means of survival. In recent time Nigeria has become worried and disturbed by the menace of crime.
Poverty in Nigeria, like in most developing nations of Africa, is widespread andseems to be on the increase by the day and when poverty is coupled with high levelsof economic and social aspirations, the stage is set for criminal activities – particularly official corruption, robbery and dealing in illegal goods and services. (Odumosu, 1999). “Based on the premise that the poor are lazy and refuse to work hard, it is not too far of a stretch to argue that they will “choose” crime because it is the easy way out” (Umaru et al., 2013). The differential crime rates of the different states of Nigeria could therefore be a reflection of the poverty level of the states alongside other factors like culture and the security strength of the state.

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTED SECURITY OUTFITS IN CONTROL OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU

There exist several security outfits in Nigeria that simultaneously operate in Enugu state. In fact, the present relative safety of Enugu state could be attributed to the different security agencies available in Enugu State. Nigerian states do not operate state public security such as the police and
the army, they operate from the national level. However the security agencies found in Enugu state include; the NigerianPolice, Nigerian Army, State Security Service, Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC), Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Nigerian Copyright Commission (NCC), Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS), Nigerian Custom Service (NCS), Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC), Nigeria Prisons Service (NPS), National Taskforce (Natforce) Nigeria, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), local vigilante and other private security centers or  institutions. All these agencies contribute to the control of criminal
activities in Enugu state. However for the sake of this study we have considered only some selected security outfits.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poverty, economic stagnation or declines, unequal access to rights and resources, the absence of effective welfare infrastructure, the collapse of
law, exposure of crime; all generate instability and vulnerability to conflict (DFID 2000).More also, poverty reduction and development of democracy in Nigeria will be better enhanced when the security of the citizen is guaranteed. It has been noted that the cost of crime and its control is equivalent to 5% GDP in the developed world, the figure rises to about 14% in developing nation (ICPC 1999). This could be attributed to the constantly increasing criminal activities in the country caused by the increasing hardship and poverty. Nevertheless, the Nigeria corporate existence can be undermined by a number of factors among which is an escalating and uncontrolled crime problem (Tanimu, 2006). The lack of security affects the welfare of both the poor and the rich. It can cause injury and death, reduce family income and generate a climate of fear (DFID 2000). Its importance is therefore eminent on any
population. Nigeria as a nation has faced several security threats that range from thefts to cultism, kidnappings and terrorism amongst others. Regional insecurity includes the Niger Delta Militancy and the operations of the Boko Haram sect. This has led to putting in place of several security outfits to curb criminal activities and most of them are at the national level yet the security outcomes differ from state to state.
Taking the example of Enugu State, it is believed that the level of cooperation (or lack of it) of the people of the State could be a direct function of their perception of the effectiveness of the various security agencies. On the other hand, the effectiveness of the performances of the various security agencies in the state may also depend on the cooperation of the people of the State. The interdependence of the two variables makes it necessary to investigate the people’s perception of the effectiveness of the available security outfits in Enugu State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study was to examine the public perception of the effectiveness of selected security outfits in the control of criminal
activities in Enugu State. The specific objectives were therefore translated from the research questions and were stated as:
i) To determine the public perception of the various security outfits by residents of Enugu State.
ii) To establish if the public perception of security outfits in Enugu state were related to public patronage in crime prevention, control and
management.
iii) To examine to what extent, public perception of security outfits in Enugu has impacted on utilization
iv) To investigate the socio-economic determinants of the perceptions of the residents in Enugu.

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTED SECURITY OUTFITS IN CONTROL OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU

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