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PROJECT TOPIC- QUALITY OF REFINED PALM OIL AS AFFECTED BY THE USE OF COLA LEPIDOTA SEED EXTRACT

PROJECT TOPIC- QUALITY OF REFINED PALM OIL AS AFFECTED BY THE USE OF COLA LEPIDOTA SEED EXTRACT

ABSTRACT

Free fatty acids (FFA), carotene content and Peroxide Value (PV) were investigated in crude and refined (degummed and neutralized) palm oil stabilized with cola lepidota seed extracts at different concentrations. The results of the analysis were carotene, at 0ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm and 200ppm, the values obtained were the same (715.85mg/kg). Free fatty acids; at 0ppm, the value ranged from 713 – 720%, at 50ppm, the values ranged from 4.2 – 7.0%, at 100ppm, the values ranged from 3.9 – 6.4%, at 150ppm, the values ranged from 3.6 – 5.6%, and at 200ppm, the values ranged from 3.3 – 5.3%. while for peroxide values; at 0ppm, the values obtained were the same as (10meq/kg) for the crude and refined palm oil, at 50ppm, the values ranged from 8.0 – 5.0meq/kg, at 100ppm, the values ranged from 4.0 -6.0meq/kg, at 150ppm, the values ranged from 3.0 – 4.0meq/kg while at 200ppm, the peroxide values were the same (2.0meq/kg). The crude oil with no extract served as control. The results of this analysis showed that the added extract has effect on the quality characteristics of the oil because as the concentration of the extract increased the peroxide values as well as the FFA values decreased; this implies that the extract has antioxidant potential and can act as a natural antioxidant. (COLA LEPIDOLA, SEED EXTRACT, REFINED PALM OIL AND QUALITY EVALUATION).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm (Eleais guineensis). Previously, palm oil was regarded as the second most produced edible oil after soybean oil (Malaysian Oil Palm Statistics (MOPS), 2005), but it has now surpassed soybean oil as the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world (MOPS, 2005). The oil is reddish in colour due to its high content of beta-carotene (MOPS, 2005; Akinola et al., 2010).

Palm oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit. Palm oil plant is the highest oil producing plant (Ngando et al., 2011) with an average of 3.5tons of oil/ha/year. The oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the fruit. Crude palm oil represents 95% production of oil palm which also provides palm kernel oil. Since 2006, palm oil has become the world’s most important edible oil; Palm oil is used for edible purposes unlike palm kernel oil which is used in the oleochemical industry.

In some tropical countries it contributes up to 80% of the total edible oil needs (Ngando et al., 2011). Palm oil is an important vegetable oil which is widely used in Nigeria. It contains approximately 50% saturated fats and 40% unsaturated fat (Akinolaet al., 2010). Palm oil can be refined industrially to give a light coloured product which can be used for other confectioneries (MOPS, 2005).

The quality of palm oil could be affected by various factors ranging from improper post harvest handling, processing and storage. The fruit Cola lepidota, also known as monkey cola in West Cameroons, Duala, mbwid; ojiochicha (cockroach cola) or achicha (Iwu, 2002) amongst the Ibo speaking people of Nigeria, belongs to the Sterculiaceae family. It grows wild and sometimes cultivated in the tropics especially distributed in lower Guinea, Gabon, Western Cameroon and Eastern Nigeria. The phyto-constituents found in the seed of Colalepidota include flavones; glycosides, saponins, steroids (Burkill, 2000). The seed has been used as febrifuges, for pulmonary disorders, and as an anticancer (Engel et al., 2011).

PROJECT TOPIC- QUALITY OF REFINED PALM OIL AS AFFECTED BY THE USE OF COLA LEPIDOTA SEED EXTRACT

  • Objective of the Study

The major objective is to determine the quality of palm oil refined after the addition of raging concentration of Cola lepidota seed extract.

1.2 the Specific Objective:

To determine the carotene content, peroxide value, free fatty value of the oil samples, refined after the addition of varying concentrations of Cola lepidota seed extracts.

PROJECT TOPIC- QUALITY OF REFINED PALM OIL AS AFFECTED BY THE USE OF COLA LEPIDOTA SEED EXTRACT

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