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PROJECT TOPIC- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER’S TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER’S TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower, 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning.

Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

In every country, economics studies is an important part of education because it enables students to understand their roles in their economic system, as consumers, citizens and future employees or employers, it also prepares and encourages students to be prudent and effective in the management of scarce resources and enable them to acquire knowledge for the practical solution of the economic problems of the society (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Economics as a subject has its technicality and requires students to understand some of these. In addition to this, many of the concepts of Economics are presented in mathematical context and requires a good command of algebra, which is a branch of mathematics that is concerned with operations on sets of numbers or other elements that are often represented by symbols. To this end, many students have phobia for figures which affect their learning outcome in economics (Afe, 2001).

Furthermore, instructional resources are educational inputs and are of vital importance to the teaching of economics and other subjects in the school curriculum. The use of instructional resources make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students and enhances the learning outcome of students. It should be noted here that in teaching subjects like economics, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in taught lessons should do much to prevent apathy, and supplements the inadequacy of books as well as arouse students’ interest by giving them something practical that help them to see and do, and at the same time be able to think rationally.

According to Adediran (2014) teachers need to use different teaching methods to ensure students centered method in the classroom for creativity, innovative and critical thinking purpose in students. Classroom teaching is likely to be more effective when it is informed by an understanding of how students learn. It is therefore important that, the major implications of instructional strategies be reflected in classroom practice. In recent times, emerging research findings seem to show that oriented teaching methods are becoming increasingly popular in the teaching of subjects like economics in the secondary school level of education in Nigeria (Osakwe 2009).

Economics is taught in some form in the secondary schools of nations throughout the world. It has been taught as a stand-alone examination subject to prepare students for various school certificate programmes. It has also been integrated with and taught through personal, social and career education programmes, as well as through other subjects via a process of subject permeation (Jephcote, 2004). Economics teaching at this level of schooling appears to be important for the development of the economics understanding of students. Although economics courses are offered in universities, it is argued that the best opportunity for expanding the economic education of the youth of a nation occurs in secondary school (Caropreso& Haggerty, 2000; Walstad, 2001).

However, a review of the literature on economic education suggests that economics as a school subject together with how it is taught and learnt, appear very much under-researched in many parts of the world (Jephcote, 2004, Walstad, 2001). Apparently, little attention has been given to the improvement of teachingand learning of economics in recent decades (Becker, 1997). Theavailable evidence from the last few years shows that passive learning based ontraditional methods of “chalk and talk” seems to be the most widely used teachingmethod, characterizing the 20th century style of economics teaching (Becker &Watts, 2001).

Consequently, growing concerns have been raised over a number of years aboutthe impact of teaching methods on student achievement, and there are criticismsof a lack of knowledge and skills among the secondary school graduates and theirinability either to apply school knowledge to real life situations, or tocommunicate effectively in workplaces (Anderson, 1992).

These teaching strategies involve resolution of problems, active practice participations of learners in the teaching process and emphasis on process rather than products of learning. Some of these teaching methods and approaches according to Osakwe (2009) are categorized under conventional and innovative appraises, teaching methods which are classified under conventional are mostly those routine, well-knowing ones which teachers use predominantly. They are usually teacher-centered with little or no activities for students. These include teaching method like lecture, story-telling, recitation, etc, on the other hand, the innovative strategies include those ones that are much more recent which are predominantly learner-centered. These include questioning, inquiry/problem solving, role-play and dramatization (Adediran 2014).

PROJECT TOPIC- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER’S TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE

In addition, because it is widely accepted that students respond differently to different teaching approaches, and learn in various ways some research in economic education suggests the importance of employing a variety of teaching methods in order to provide effective learning for all students (Obiora, 2005). For example, a student could benefit from direct explanation in sometimes, and from inquiry based approaches at other times (Obiya, 2006). With respect to the use of alternative methods Goodlad (2004) argued the importance of using alternative teaching strategies, and urged the setting up of training programmes for existing teachers to enhance learning, reasoning and positive attitudes. In addition, Obiya (2000) argued that students would prefer a variety of instructions just as we prefer variety in our daily routines.

 

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning.

Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

1.2. Statement of the Problems

The activity based nature of economic subjects makes it difficult for the subject to be taught effectively without appropriate teaching methods and instructional materials. It has been observed that many students have difficulties in understanding the concept of Economics as a subject which affect their learning outcomes.But research findings that indicate poor achievement of students in economics seem to suggest that appropriate teaching methods might not have been properly utilized during instruction and this is a source of worry to the researchers considering its possible effects on students’ achievement in the subject. It is upon these backdrops that this study sought to determine the relationship between teachers’ teaching methods and students’ achievement in economics in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to identify the relationship between teacher’s teaching methods and students’ achievement in economics in secondary schools in Idemili South L.G.A of Anambra State. Specifically, the study is sought to:

  1. Determine the relationship between educational qualifications of teachers and students’ achievement in economics in secondary schools in Idemili South L.G.A of Anambra State.
  2. Identify the relationship between teaching methods used by teachers and students’ achievement in economics in secondary schools in Idemili South L.G.A of Anambra State.
  3. Determine the relationship between cooperative learning methods of teaching and students’ achievements in economics in secondary schools in Idemili South L.G.A of Anambra State.
  4. Identify the relationship between the use of instructional materials by teachers and students’ achievement in economics in the secondary schools in Idemili South L.G.A of Anambra State.

Significance of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER’S TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IDEMILI SOUTH L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE

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