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Background to the Study

        Nigeria, like other countries in the world, has adopted education as the key to socio-economic transformation, especially in this era of science and technology-oriented knowledge driven 21st century. No wonder the constant changes and reforms in her educational policy and curricular since the attainment of her political independence in 1960 to meet the reality of modern times (Nigeria Education Research and Development Council, 2011).

Tillack (2003) that the educational system of the colonial countries tended to promote the “Separation of work from education” and the various educational reforms aimed at redressing the anomaly have been fruitless even after many years of Political Independence. According to Azikiwe (2009), the major problem that faces education in Nigeria today is lack of congruence between knowledge received in schools and the world of work.

The introduction of the NSSC in the secondary school in Nigeria is a fresh initiative which according to NERDC (2011) aims at ensuring that graduates from secondary Schools are, among other things professionally trained in entrepreneurship skills and possess relevant Information Communication Technology (ICT) skill that will equip them for challenges of labour market.

Hence every student, irrespective of his or her field of study is expected to study 5 core subjects viz; English Language, General Mathematics, Civic Education, Computer Studies and 1 trade Entrepreneurship subject out of 33 which include: Auto body repair and spray painting; Auto electrical work; Auto Mechanical Work; Air condition/Refrigeration; Electrical installation and maintenance work; Radio, TV and Electrical Work; Block Laying; Brick Laying and Concrete Work; Painting and Decoration; Carpentry and Joinery; Upholstery; Garment Making; Cosmetology; Keyboarding; Leather Goods Manufacturing and repair; Animal Husbandry; Marketing; Tourism; GSM Maintenance and others.

The aim is to ensure the attainment of the national policy objective of “preparation for useful living within the society” (National Policy on Education, 2004). It is meant for every Nigeria citizen to be equipped to break the farcade of unemployment through the development of self as a precursor to a meaningful contribution to the development of the society of which he or she is part.


Njoku and Nwosu (2010) maintained that for an individual to meet up with the demands of the society he/she needs some skills; with these skills, he can explore his environment for the betterment of both himself and the larger society. The social dimension of vocation is in form of preparation of individual for the world of work, and based on this, vocational education is found in all societies that have occupational structures. It is reasoned therefore that it is only through the acquisition of entrepreneurship skill that school leavers (youth) will be introduced to self-employment. Nwaiwu (2013) noted that entrepreneurship education deals with the acquisition of right habits, attitudes, and the skills as well as means of surviving in the face of unemployment.

At the Senior Secondary Level, the National Policy on Education (2009) further states that Senior Secondary School shall be comprehensive with a core-curriculum designed to broaden student’s knowledge and outlook. On the contrary, students who graduate from secondary education in Nigeria are not qualified for the labour market. This is because the curriculum only provides simple life skills and not applied skills for job market. Yusuf (2012), While acknowledging the need for the incorporation of entrepreneurship education into the senior secondary education curriculum, there is need to inculcate entrepreneurship skills in children at the basic education level.

Economics is concerned with human behaviour such as how people earn their living and make a choice between alternatives to satisfy their wants. It focuses on the study of firms and the government whose activities are geared to the production of goods and services for the satisfaction of human want since economics is concerned with human behaviour. So economics is a social science, and like any science subject, the reasoning procedure in economics is methodological, its analysis is systematic, and the validity of its various theories can be tested.

Economics is one of the electives or group of subjects expected to be studied at the Senior Secondary School (SSS) level under the new National Policy on Education. According to Osunnaiye (2005) this curriculum has been designed by the Comparative Education study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) to meet the requirements of Economics in the new system. The guiding principle of this curriculum is the need to equip graduates of the Senior Secondary School with the basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to better appreciate the nature of economic problems in any society. In the light of this philosophy, the following are the set objectives for the Economics course:

  • To equip students with the basic principles of Economics necessary for useful living and for higher education,
  • To prepare and encourage students to be prudent and effective in the management of scarce resources.
  • To raise students respect for the dignity of labour and their appreciation of economic, cultural and social values of our society and
  • To enable students acquire knowledge for the practical solution of the economic problems of society; Nigeria, developing countries and the world at large.

According to Obemeata [2010] the importance of economics education to any nation, is very clear. It enables both leaders and citizens to understand basic economics concepts, principles as well as to understand, appreciate and seek to improve the economic situation for their own social good. The understanding of economics is a pre-requisite for good citizenship. To him the principal objective for teaching economics should be “to provide economics understanding necessary for responsible citizenship”.


Being a responsible citizen involves the ability to take rational decision on important economic issues with a good basis for doing so Furthermore, Obemeata [2010] stated that the position of economics in secondary school curriculum has been strengthened because it has been accepted that it has some civil values because of some topics as “the element and determinants of national income, the structure and activities of labour unions, the working and influence of financial institution”. These prepared one adequately for life in modern society.

According to Adu [2002] the study of economics serves a useful purpose in modern life. It gives us facts and shows us what may be expected to be the outcome of certain lines of conduct; it helps us to decide which of several alternatives to choose. It charged its recipient to make wise choice that will satisfy their needs in the presence of unlimited wants and resources.

Obemeata [1991] says economics as a subject has various values to the learners and these values according to him include; i) The Cultural Values: – Economics has some intrinsic value that makes it appealing as a school subject for example: there is a great logic in it. It connects learners to the essentials of everyday life and it is also concern with almost tropical events such as International Monetary Fund [IMF], Structural Adjustment Programme [SAP] and so on Pause and justify the above assertion in your own understanding ii) Intellectual Training: – Economics also contribute to intellectual training because it involves looking at issues in a way which foremost new to people.

Economics is not primarily a body of knowledge, it is a method rather than a doctrine, an apparatus of mind, a technique of thinking which helps its possessors to draw correct conclusion iii) Vocational Training: – The vocational nature of economics made it readily acceptable to students. Economics as a subject is of direct utility in many branches of industries and commerce. It is also an essential part of most professional examination like Banking, Accountancy, and Secretariat.

The changes in teaching of economics in secondary schools require teachers to question their traditional subject practices and classroom routines. New teaching technologies require teachers to reflect on the basis of their work, which are the pedagogical assumptions of their practices and, these changes challenge teachers’ existing practices. For these reasons it became difficult for many schools to adopt this pedagogy, one of whose virtues is that it is highly compatible with community orientation since in nearly all cases the problem to be solved especially in public orientation and community values are located in the Community.

Furthermore, because of the need for schools and colleges to meet the requirements of certain examining bodies, Nigerian educational institutions, particularly at the pre-tertiary level have to change their syllabuses from time to time even when the national subject curricula are constant for some years, the school subject syllabuses are subject to change or modification by teachers, particularly where subject teachers are changed frequently.

Ajiboye, (2003) observed that the practical problems facing the teaching of economics are as follows: Obsolete Textbooks with the exception of a few, the economics textbooks written in Nigeria are badly written, sketchy and lack the in-depth content. They are largely descriptive. They are poorly illustrated and contain lots of inaccuracies and they are mostly produced in a hurry.


Statement of the Problems

The Principles of Economics as a subject is very demanding, requiring students to master and apply abstract concepts to real life situations. To this end, many students have difficulties in understanding the concept of Economics as a subject which affect their learning outcomes.

Despite the bold step taken by the government in including entrepreneurship education into the school curriculum and the huge financial resources invested in procuring tools and equipment for equipping students to be self-reliant, there is still high rate of unemployment among school leavers and college graduates. This has been attributed to ineffective skills and inadequate competencies required to compete and survive in the labour market.

The progressive decline in secondary school graduates in establishing themselves has been attributed to inadequate employable skills imparted to them. It is a truism that no training programme can be better evaluated than through the teachers who plan, implement and evaluate it. Based on the challenges above, this study sought to examine the relevance of entrepreneurship skills in teaching economics in secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study

        The main purpose of this study is to determine the relevance of entrepreneurship skills in teaching economics in secondary schools in Ishielu Local government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine how teaching methods used by economics teachers promotes entrepreneurship ability among economics students in secondary school in Ishielu LGA.
  2. Ascertain how the use of entrepreneurship skill in teaching economics promotes creativity among economics students in secondary school in Ishielu LGA.
  • Determine how the use of entrepreneurship skill in teaching economics promotes self-reliant among economics students in secondary school in Ishielu LGA.
  1. Ascertain how the use of entrepreneurship skill in teaching economics promotes job creation among economics students in secondary schools in Ishielu LGA.


Significance of the Study


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