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PROJECT TOPIC- RELEVANCE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS SITUATED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- RELEVANCE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS SITUATED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Every individual wants education because it is an admirable thing that makes difference in the lives of the citizens of this country. This difference should affect such areas as their skills, knowledge, temperament and habits. According to Fafunwa, Education must involve a combination of physical training with character building and manual activities with intellectual training. Today, the world is characterized by revolutionary advances powered by information and communication technology (ICT). The world is being replaced to a global village through the use of information and communication technology (ICT) thus, ICT promotes national development and better relationship with other nations.

ICT refers to the electronic and communication devices associated with human interactive materials that enables user to employ them for a whole range of teaching and learning process (Cox, preston and Cox 1999). Information and communication technology is the fusion of two technologies; they are Information Technology (IT) and Communication Technology (CT) (Iwu, 2006). ICT embraces all technologies for manipulative communication of information and also encompasses any medium used to record information such as radio, television etc; and technology for communication through voice and sound of images using microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone/mobile phones (Osu, Udosen and Akpan 2010).

Information and communication technologies are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, especially in the industrialized societies to the extent of given a new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical approach. According to Fari (2010), Information and communication technology facilities are described as all the facilities available for the identification, generation, processing, storing, packaging, preservation, conservation and transfer of information regardless of time and distance constraints.

In other word, information and communication technology are information handling tools used for producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information. Today, it is an increasingly powerful tool for participating in global markets, promoting political accountability, improving the delivery of basic services and enhancing Local development opportunities. ICT facilities influence and affect peoples’ private and corporate work life in one way or the other. These ICT facilities are all encompassing in areas like technology, socialization, politics, economics and education for global transformation. Therefore, it becomes pertinent for teachers who serve as key implementers of the nation’s educational policy, to be well informed and adequately equipped with ICT facilities in order to function productively in this age of information explosion and technology advancement.

The federal ministry of Education (2010) identifies the role of ICT policy in education among others as: “The policy provides the need guidance on what is expected in the entire process of ICT integration in education to all stakeholders in education.Its implementation therefore, should lead to a speedy transformation of the teaching, learning and administration of education. This in turn will foster the production of graduates in the education system that can survive in the contemporary society, sustain national development and compete globally.

The realization of this policy statement lies basically in the capability of the key implementers of the nation’s educational policy”. That is to say, teachers should integrate ICT- Driven instructional aids effectively through Computer Assisted mode of Instruction (CAI) in their day to day classroom activities for effective pedagogy. It is clear that ICT is a world of its own, it has various diversified aspects. The aspect relevant to this study is ICT – Driven instructional aids. Basically, “the Computer Assisted mode of Instruction” (CAI).

According to Nwike and Chukwudum (2011), Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is one of the products of Computer technology and it proves to be an effective method of instruction delivery. It is pertinent to note that CAI has a major advantage of individualizing by presenting varied and flexible experiences to the individual learner and takes care of learners’ indifference. It makes use of guided discovery and inquiry method which ensure the application of effective teaching methods to the learner. It therefore implies that the position of these ICT-Driven instructional facilities on their own cannot make any impact on the students’ academic performance until they are effectively utilized in the teaching and learning process.

Okafor (2009), States that in applying the CAI mode of instruction, the computer is fed in sequential manner with what to teach, the steps to be followed, how to evaluate success, how and when other classroom activitiesare to be carried out. This forms the basis of investigating into the “Relevance of The Use of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching of Economics in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State”.

The national policy on education states that education is an instrument for effecting national development (FRN 2004). It makes the incorporation of ICT into teaching and learning process a vital instructional tool in fostering the national educational goals and development. To buttress this, Galenouch, Gordlier and murphy (2004), opined that, the development and role of ICT in educational sector is believed to set the pace for any form of innovation and changes that can never happen to any nation. It was asserted by Albirini (2006) that the winds of change in today’s education sector have made information and communication technology to be programmed towards meeting the set educational goals.

There are challenges and concerns as a result of knowledge explosion due to the introduction of ICT in almost every field of human endeavour, which calls for an awakening in teaching profession likewise. Teachers need to be conscious of the quality of their teaching which is determined by the quality of teaching aids employed such as charts, static model, specimen and slides (sansanwal 2009). As an information handling tool, ICT can be used in producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information.

This implies that ICT could help teachers to be more effective in work-life and resourceful in content management. Hence, these will make teaching task to become less tedious and productive thereby improving students’ academic performance. Basically, the utilization of ICT-Driven instructional aid through CAI is meant to serve as an orientation stimulus to support the teacher’s teaching strategies and not to replace them. A paradigm shift from the traditional “chalk and talk” form of teaching to the use of ICT through CAI could make teaching and learning more real and practical and this will yield to better performance of the students academically.

Economics as a social science subject that studies human behaviour as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses, was introduced in the Nigerian curriculum in the year 1969 and as at then, only ten (10) candidates registered and sat for the senior secondary school final year Examination. Presently, because of the importance of Economics to all aspects of human endeavour, Nigeria has recorded a tremendous increase in the percentage of candidates who register and sat for Economics yearly in both West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and National Examination Council (NECO) levels.

The West African Examination Council Syllabus (2004-2008) states the objectives of teaching Economics as a subject in senior secondary schools thus;

  1. Understand the basic Economics principles, concepts and tools for Economic analysis.
  2. Have knowledge of the structure and functions of Economic institutions, commercial, industrial and financial institutions.
  3. Understand and be able to explain the basis and structure of the West African economy, including the roles of Agriculture, industry and mining and their contributions to the national income.
  4. Understand the basis for rational economic decisions.
  5. Ability to follow the roles and status of the West African countries in international economic relationships; and
  6. Understandthe problems West African countries encounter in their economic development. (Adapted from WASSCE, 2004-2008 syllabus).

The above stated objectives could be achieved in students offering Economics at the end of the three year course through the use of Computer Assisted Instruction which has such advantages in teaching and learning process. However, this hinges strongly on the ability and capability as well as the effectiveness of teachers to incorporate teaching such as CAI, which uses ICT- Driven instructional aids in achieving the objectives of lesson at the classroom level.

PROJECT TOPIC- RELEVANCE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS SITUATED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

The ICT as an important tool in teaching and learning, plays a great role with respect to helping students to understand and learn the subject (Economics) better especially in areas as statistics, measures of central tendency and income etc.

So, for Nigeria to meet up with the global technological advancement through the use of information and communication technology (ICT), then, education must be given utmost priority and teacher education must be this guiding principle since no nation can rise above the standard of her teachers (FRN, 2004). The federal ministry of Education (2010) has mandated the integration of ICT in Education for rapid transformation of teaching, learning and administration of education as a positive step in the right direction. Therefore, it becomes pertinent that a study on the “Relevance of ICT in Teaching of Economics in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State” be conducted to detect its impact on the learners.

Statement of the Problem

The problems that embodied the mind of the researcher are to find out the Relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the improvement of teaching and learning of Economics. The pattern of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner-centred. This learner-centred approach makes students to influence the content, activities, materials and pace of learning, which places them in the centre of the learning process and enhances independent learning, so the problems are;

  1. Poor value of ICT in secondary schools
  2. Inadequate implementation of online education in secondary schools.
  3. Inefficient office automation that resulted to the poor flow, storage and processing of scripts, files, documents, receipts etc in secondary schools.

Purpose of the Study

The core purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of ICT in the teaching of economics in senior secondary schools situated in Ohaukwu Local government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study aims at achieving the following;

  1. To determine the extent with which students taught with the use of Computer Assisted Instruction will perform.
  2. To ascertain the relevance on the rate at which independent learning skill acquisition will be enhanced among students taught Economics with the use of Computer Assisted Instruction.
  3. To determine the relevance of the use of Computer Assisted Instruction on gender mean performance scores among students of Economics.
  4. To find out the relevance of the use of information and communication technology on the rate of acquiring independent learning skills between male and female students of economics.
  5. To determine the speed of solving questions in economics by the students through the use of ICT.

Significance of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- RELEVANCE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS SITUATED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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