PROJECT TOPIC: ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN CONTEMPORARY BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
The internet is key resources in maximizing the nation’s status in the current dynamic world economy. Everybody, millions of both private and public individuals and organizations especially in the developing nations, launch into the Net to take advantage of its benefits.
Media critics, who review this situation, often wonder why the media of developing nations tend to see the internet revolution ass the news pre-occupation of the rich nations rather, than equip itself and gain of its benefits. The study is focused on the internet and contemporary broadcasting in Nigeria. Chapter one, introduction, takes a look at the background of study. The history of the internet and a brief history of broadcasting in the nation are given.
The chapter also presents the problems and research questions arising from it as well as definition of certain terms. Chapter two is a review of literature on the status of Nigeria’s contemporary broadcasting and internet. The review also digs into the need for the internet technology in developing nations.
The implications of their usage and the barricades for getting them are reviewed. The third chapter, methodology discusses the methodology employed in the study and how they were employed. All the data collected were presented in chi-square and simple percentage forms in chapter four with each chi-square dealing with aspects of the posed research questions. Finally the last chapter summarizes and concludes the work as well as suggests recommendation to stimulate such actions among the broadcast media owners and people to improve the media by connecting it to the internet.
1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY
Information dissemination has grown more sophisticated over the ages, altering the course of history and by that changing the patterns of life of the world. The world has become smaller, not in size but by technological development in the area of communication.
Today, not only is it possible for people to communicate with other people living hundred and thousands of kilometers away from them, Sand bank 1972 stated “we have also come to live in a world where one person by the manipulation of nature could be in touch with millions of people in different places at the same instant”.
Electronic engineers have developed technologies that have made the world into a small global village. The broadcast media have also grown from mere theoretical postulations of James clerk Maxwell to the extent that they can deliver or transmit a world cup football match to a family sitting in the living room in any part of the world.
Among the amazing technologies that have made this development possible are cybernetic, cables, television, teleconferencing, fibre optics, satellite communication and the computer all of which are called New Communication Technologies (NCT’s) or Information Technologies (IT’s). At the centre of the modern communication technology is the computer. Computer application in mass communication has done more than being a store for retrievable information.
“As Sandbank (1972:4) puts it “apart from its usefulness in terms of media economy, it has come to generate effects that have made mass communication more beautiful and less tasking than it has been”. The capacity of the computer to keep signals in its memory and provide visual and audio interpretations to such signal makes it an invaluable hardware for information dissemination.
The fortunes of contemporary broadcasting in Nigeria have so changed for the better that the countries broadcast industry which used to be very dull can now boast of round the clock broadcasting.
BRIEF HISTORY OF BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
A developing nation is an over changing society. The changes, which such a society undergoes, are usually reflected on the development of its major institutions. This has been particularly so with the Nigeria broadcasting corporation.
The experiment with wireless communication in Nigeria began in the early 1930’s through a relay re-diffusion service called the empire service of the British broadcasting corporation (BBC). This service was meant to cater for the interest of the British colonialists who wanted to be in touch with events in their country.
A gradual modification emerged by 1947 when the pattern of programme of the early radio began to cater for stories that were Nigerian based. In 1957, the Nigeria broadcasting corporation (NBC) was born. During this period, independent radio stations were being developed throughout Africa to accommodate more local materials. One of the powerful radio voice in Africa was Radio Brazil, an extension of the French overseas radio service.
In 1959 and 1960 respectively, the western Nigeria Broadcasting service (WNBS) and the Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting service (ENBC) were set up to augment the NBC. Later, in 1962, the Northern Nigerian Broadcasting service was established.
In 1979, the NBC was renamed federal radio corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) but remained synonymous in structure and operations with the state owned stations. As at December, 1998, there were a total of 74 radio stations in the country. Eleven stations were federal government owned, 52 were state government owned while eleven stations belonged to various private organisation.
In December (1998) the number of television stations across the country was 62. Twenty seven of these stations were federal government owned, 26 belonged to various state governments and 9 to private individuals and organizations most of which are Located in Lagos.
BRIEF PROFILE OF NTA, RSTV, FRCN
Nigerian Television Authority was inaugurated in May 1977, although decree 24 of 1977 was promulgated in March 1977 having effect from April 1976. By that decree, the Nigerian television authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in Nigerian. The authority was organized on the six zones structure such that each zone consists of 3 expect for one which is made of four stations.
The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) is the largest television network in Africa as well as one of the oldest and most accomplished indigenous broadcast outfits in Nigeria. The NTA has over the years distinguished itself as a force in the field of television broadcasting globally its quality programmes have received numerous awards at international competitions and festivals.
The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) can be traced bank to that modest beginning of 31st. October 1959 when the western Nigerian television (WNTV) beamed out the first television signals in Nigeria.
RSTV started transmission as a Local T.V station with a one kill watt transmitter on channel 55 Ultra High Frequency (UHF) in 1985. In 1991, the station was up-graded to cope with the challenges of modern broadcasting with a powerful 30 kilo watt transmitters, the station beams its signal on channel 22 Ultra High Frequency (UHF) located at Elelenwe near port-Harcourt.
RSTV is equipped with state of the art gadget, effectively covering Abia, Imo, Delta, Edo, Akwa Ibom cross River, Rivers, Enugu and Anambra State.
Its still-over is also felt in part of Ondo and Ebonyi State, The development which strongly recommended RSTV to advertisers with high professional programming and excellent pictures and audio quality.
RSTV beasts the reach of other T.V stations. In the south east and the south zone respectively resulting in the ever expanding viewer ship of the station.
FRCN was introduced into Nigeria in 1933 by the colonial government. It relived the overseas service of the British broadcasting corporation through wired System with loudspeakers at the listening end. The service was called Radio diffusion System (RDS). From the Radio Diffusion System (RDS) emerged the Nigeria broadcasting service in April 1950, prior to the NBS, the colonial government had commissioned the Nigeria broadcasting survey undertaken by Messrs Byron and Turner which recommended the establishment of station in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano.
The Nigeria broadcasting corporation (NBC) came into being in April 1957 through an act of parliament No 39 of 1956. The director general was Mr. J.A.C knot Obe. In 1978, the NBC was re-organized to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).
PROJECT TOPIC: ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN CONTEMPORARY BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
The NBC was instructed to handover its stations that broadcast on Medium wave frequencies in the states to state government and it took over short wave transmitters from the states. The broadcasting corporation of Northern Nigeria was merged with the BBC stations In Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu to become the present day FRCN.
The management of the FRCN under the dynamic leadership of Dr. Eddie Iroh, transformed the corporation to become truly the network for the millennium. The present day management of FRCN is under the leadership of Ben Ndubuisi Egbuna
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the past few decades, technological advancement has occurred at a break taking speed. The New Information and Communication technologies (ICTS) the most popular of which is now the internet have changed both the world capacity for communication and media through which it communicates.
However, while citizens of the western culture are exploring the implication of the “multimedia” and information supper high way, Africans and the rest of the developing world still grapple with absolute equipment and lack of spare parts which greatly reduce the performance of their broadcast media.
For instance, since the attainment of its independence, Nigeria has plagued by triplets of greed, corruption and general indiscipline. It is a society where material things are acquired as an end in themselves rather than a means to the end of good society.
It is a consumer not a productive society. As Okolo (1993:12) right Observes Nigerians define the “good life” of Aristotle’s fame in forms of fleeting instead of permanent pleasure and immediate rather than media gains. It is generally acknowledged that the internet technology, by virtue of its special characteristic can give abundant information, gather and disseminate news and cultural programmes, induce national integration prevent as well as provide administrative and managerial effectiveness.
Therefore, worried by the low interest connectivity in Nigeria, this study concerns itself with determining the extent of the net’s usage in contemporary broadcasting in the country.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to determine the rate of adoption of the internet innovation by the Nigerian broadcast stations as well as to examine the problems and prospects of getting connected to the net.
Specifically, it will:
- Determine the extent of internet use by Nigerian broadcasting stations.
- Find out the specific benefits of the technology accruing to the media using it and by extension to the country.
- Probe into the problems and prospects of connectively to the net.
4. Find out the problems, which the internet possibly creates for the broadcast industry.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
According to Winner et al (1987:34) “the good of every research is to help further the understanding of the problem and questions in the field of study, if a study does not do this, it has little value beyond the experience the regardless acquires from conducting it.
This research is of particular benefit to both private and public practitioners of the broadcast media in Nigeria and other developing countries. It would create awareness and importance of the growth of broadcasting in Nigeria.
To the government, it might provide useful information as to the need of funding broadcast media in acquiring modern technologies for better performance, stable competition and to keep Nigeria alert with the developed world.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS
- What is the extent of internet use by the broadcast stations?
- What are the benefits of the internet to the broadcast industry?
- What are the problems and prospects of getting connected to net?
- What are the problems the internet creates for the broadcast industry?
H0: Broadcast stations always use the internet.
H1: Broadcast stations sometimes use the internet
H0: Internet is of benefit to the broadcast industry.
H2: Internet is not of any benefit to the broadcast industry.
H0: Internet creates a lot of problems to the broadcast industry.
H3: Internet does not create any problem to the broadcast industry.
H0: A lot of obstacles prevent the use of internet.
H4: There is no obstacle to the use of internet.
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This study probes into the extent of adoption of the internet by the broadcast media which disseminate information on the internet. The study is therefore best explained by the media system & agenda-setting theories. It stipulated that media influence lies in the nature of the three-way relationship between the large social system, the media’s role in that system, and audience relationship to the media.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Information Technology: Is a term that “embodies a convergence of interest between electronics, computing and communications, all of which are leading to the rapid development of micro electronics.
According to Drew (1999:10) it is the technologies being utilized to restructure and reorganized the sphere of production, distribution and circulation.
Information Technology: The study or use of electronic equipment especially computers for storing, analyzing, and distributing information of all kinds including words, numbers and pictures.
- Internet Communication: It is a large resource for information gathering and dissemination which has witnessed a rapid and daily in crease in the number of people accessing it for information of various finds and magnitude from any part of the world.
According to Krchouiecka (1999:9) internet communication is a network of computers linked by telephone system which moves information around the world quickly and effectively.
Internet Communication: International computer network through which computer users all over the world communicate and exchange information.
iii. Network: This is the name given to a group of computers and computer equipment joined together so that they can share information and resources.
Network: A system linked together.