PROJECT TOPIC- STATUS OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE
The study focused on the Status of Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 3,285 teachers and students in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area. Sample of the study consisted of the entire 300 respondents made up students and teachers. Structured questionnaire was formulated for data collection. It was validated by three experts, two from Business Education Department and one from Science Education all in Ebonyi State University. An overall reliability co-efficient of 0.65 was obtained. The data was analyzed using simple statistical mean. Results from the data analyzed showed that: there is a provision of material resource used in teaching Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools; teaching staff are made available for teaching Business Education in senior secondary schools; funding resources for teaching and learning of Business Education in Secondary Schools are not available and human resources for teaching and learning business education in Secondary Schools. Based on the findings, the study recommended that: Government in all ramifications should provide adequate material resources to strengthen the available resources in secondary schools, and recruitment of teaching staff should base on subject specialist to ascertain effective teaching and learning among secondary schools students.Finally,conclusions and suggestions for further studies were drawn.
Background to the Study
Business education is primarily designed to be a skilled acquisition subject. It is both integrative and comprehensive in nature. It is a pre-vocational and general subject for Business Education. Azih (2007) stated that Business Education is a foundation subject that equips its recipients with basic knowledge of business subjects. The recipients of Business Education are anticipated to be equipped with the requisite knowledge and abilities that will help them to further their education or start their own businesses.
Azih (2007) pointed out that it is expected that at the completion of the pre-secondary programme as speculated in the current educational reform, the students must be equipped with enough knowledge ready to offer the individual business subjects in the secondary schools. And for those who do not wish to continue, gainful employment should be provided for them. According to Osuala (2004) Business Education is a programme which comprise office education and general education that provide students with needed information and competence which will help them in managing their personal business affairs and in using business services.
Osuala further explained that office education is meant for office careers which are gotten through refresher and upgrading education. Ikenga, Oru and Afolabi (2010) also asserted that Business Education produces manpower that has the requisite understanding, abilities and attitudes for utilizing other resources and bringing them to work together so as to yield the goods and services needed by the society and socio-economic competencies which make people more intelligent consumers of goods and services.
Azuka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomuo (2006) opined that Business Education equips youths for employment or trade. They further explained that Business Education provides the youth with important information that concern their live as citizens and individuals. According to Azuka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomuo (2006), Business Education equips people with certain abilities, aptitudes and competence which are required to getting jobs in the business environment.
They also asserted that Business Education also gives the recipients the wisdom in overall business knowledge which will make them effective purchaser and consumer of business commodities. According to Igboke (2012), Business Education is that part of the overall educational programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to succeed. Igboke (2012) also stated two purposes of the objectives of Business Education as: to train people for specific types of works and to build their abilities to use the skills in business.
Igboke (2012) further noted that Business Education for all and pre-vocational Business Education for those planning to engage in business are the goals of Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools. This Business Education programme in Senior Secondary Schools is known as Business Studies. Eebo (2011) pointed out that Business Educationis a foothold of all business subjects in Senior Secondary Schools and institutions of higher learning.
Therefore, Business Education gives students in Senior Secondary Schools the adequate training that will prepare them for and about business. Business education is offered at all levels of Nigerian education through systematically arranged subjects and courses. At basic education level, it comprises of business related subjects as pre-vocational subjects. It serves as an introduction to business subjects at this level to help the learners in developing manipulative competency, creativity and have respect for dignity of labor and prepare learners for further studies and develop in them the needed understanding and attitudes for successful advancement in their educational pursuit (Epemepu,2012).
Business education subjects at senior secondary and post-secondary levels, include agricultural science, economics, home economics, fine arts, introductory technology, commerce, accounting, marketing, book-keeping, office management, keyboarding, office education, co-operative education, store-keeping, desk top publishing etc (FRN, 2004).
Though Business Education has these components, it is treated as a single subject. These components are made up of both skilled and non-skilled units that are able to provide the students with the required cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills at the Senior Secondary level. Skill acquisition is very important in our present day Nigerian situation. Nweze (2008) observed that one of the goals of education in Nigeria is the gaining of the right skills and the building of overall human abilities that will help an individual to contribute to the growth of the society where he lives.
Nweze (2008) also pointed out that after Senior Secondary education an individual may continue his studies as full time or part time student. He may also get a full time employment with his SSCE certificate. According to Igboke (2012), Business Education syllabus contains some statement of objectives showing the vocational aspects namely: to develop basic skills in office occupation and to provide orientation and basic skills for those who may not undergo further training.
The prospects of Business Educationas outlined by Ejiwale (2004) include:
- job security, job specification and self-reliance;
- service to mankind and good financial remuneration of the student;
- opportunities for expression of special talents or interest and maintenance of good mental and physical health;
- provision of several forward future investment, promotion and availability of measures that can make the economy attractive;
- continuous contribution to national development and growth;
- provides excellent background for employment, technical knowhow, tool for continuing education for employee’s manpower resources and training and brings trust, integrity and security;
- provides sustainable economic development and awareness of business in the society;
- continuous avenue where the students can be guided to work methods and the ways to manipulate equipment and machinery and the abilities to use their knowledge in real work situation thereby closing the gap between the school work and main practical;
- continuous helping of individuals advancement and increase in income and
- Fosters competence and self-esteem in the world of business.
PROJECT TOPIC- STATUS OF BUSINESS EDUCATION IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE
Statement of the Problem
Education has gained popularity in the world today. Both developed countries of the world and those that are yet to be developed now see their citizen’s attainment of educational as a yardstick for measuring other aspects of development. Nigeria National Policy on Education introduced in 1981 brought the teaching of Business Education as a pre-vocational subject in the Senior Secondary Schools into limelight. The policy placed special importance on the gaining of practical abilities which would help people to live and contribute immensely to their society.
The revised National Policy on Education of 2013 had these educational goals
- Development of the individual into a morally sound patriotic and effective citizens;
- total integration of the individual into the immediate community, the Nigerian society and the world;
- provision of equal access to qualitative educational opportunities for all citizens at every stage of education, within and outside the formal school system;
- inculcation of national consciousness, values and national unity and
- Development of appropriate skills, competencies, mental, physical and social abilities to strengthened individuals to live and contribute positively to the society (FRN 2013).
Igboke (2012) also stated the specific aims of secondary school Business Education as: Vocational competency; Personal competency; Consumer-business competency and Socio-economic competency.
The essential features of instruction at all the stages of education shall be oriented towards inculcating the following values:
- Respect for the worth and dignity of the individual;
- faith in man’s ability to make rational decisions;
- moral and spiritual principles in inter-personal and human relations;
- shared responsibility for the common good of society;
- promotion of the physical, emotional and psychological development of all children and
- acquisition of functional skills and competencies necessary for self reliance (FRN 2013).
The above assertions proved the inclusion of Business Educationin the goals and values of the National Policy on Education. Business Educationhas therefore become a pillar that leads to the educational development amongst other subjects that are taught in the Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria.
Nyanabo (2008) observed that what the National Policy on Education expects to achieve in Senior Secondary Schools is to provide trained manpower in technology applied sciences; and commerce at sub-professional level; and students that completed Senior Secondary Schools shall continue their study in Technical Colleges, Senior Secondary Schools, apprenticeship schemes or out of school vocational centres. Nyanabo (2008) also expressed sadly that Senior Secondary Schools which are said to have vocational emphasis have not been able to produce their artisans needed in the extractive. constructive, manufacturing and service occupations.
Similarly, Umo in Azih (2010) noted that some students admitted to study Business Education experience initial difficulties in coping with the skills of business subjects. Umo in Azih (2010) also observed that the teaching facilities for teaching the business subjects are lacking and the calibre of some teachers who handle the business subjects in secondary schools also constitute the bulk of the problems faced in the implementation of Business Education in our schools.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007) recognized the necessity to avail the students of Business Educationwith the knowledge, ability and skills to be well employed at the end of their programme and also to equip them for establishing their small businesses as entrepreneurs; hence the publication of the new Basic Business Education. The content of Business Education included the acquisition of both academic and practical skills that will help its recipients to fit into post school working environment. This indicates that Business Educationis a veritable tool for empowerment to its recipients. The present nine year Basic Curriculum for Business Education(Senior Secondary Schools, 1 – 3) was well structured to achieve the aims of Business Studies. The contents were also adequately defined. However, the implementation is far from achieving its goals. This work therefore tries to determine the status of Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the Status of Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study intends to:
- Ascertain the material resource used in teaching Business Education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- Determine the availability of teaching staff for Business Education in senior secondary schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State
- Determine the funding resources available for Business Education in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State
- Determine the human resources available for teaching and learning business education in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Significance of the Study
The result of this study will immensely help the education policy makers. It will help them to understand the need to enforce the implementation of the Business Education Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools to the latest.
It will create awareness to the government on the need to recruit qualified Business Education teachers to handle the subject in Senior Secondary Schools. This will make for proper learning and teaching of Business Educationin Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Consequently, it will affect positively the learning and teaching of business subjects in both post-primary and tertiary institutions.
The findings of this work will help education authorities who may go through it to know the problems that are associated with this study and tackle it appropriately. This will facilitate effective teaching and learning of Business Educationin Senior Secondary Schools in the zone.
This work will help Ebonyi State stakeholders to contribute their quota in the provision of facilities for the transmission of instruction in Business Educationin Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of the State. This will create conducive environment for Business Educationstudents to acquire basic skills. This will in turn give Ebonyi State skilled work force which will make for economic development to the state and the nation at large.
As a result of this work, principals of Senior Secondary Schools will see the gap between education policy making and its implementation at the Senior Secondary level. It will make them to address the issue by way of striking a balance.
This work will help Business education teachers to rise up to their responsibilities to the learning and teaching of Business education. This will be actualized through training, re-training and provision of required education facilities that will lead to the professional growth of Business education teachers. Their knowledge will also be updated from time to time.
The result of this work will serve as a reference material for those researchers who may wish to do related of similar research work in other areas. It will also help the researcher to know the details on the Status of Business education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Scope of the Study
This study is focused on the Status of Business education in Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Particular attention is paid to material resources available, funding resources available, teaching staff and human resources. The work also looked at the performance of students in Business education in Senior Secondary Schools in the area of study.
The following research questions guided the study:
- What are the material resource used in teaching Business Educationin Senior Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
- What are the teaching staff available for teaching Business Education in senior secondary schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
- What are the funding resources available for Business Education in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
What are the human resources available for teaching and learning business education in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?