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PROJECT TOPIC- STUDIES ON WAXY MATRIX DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS CONTAINING CELLULOSE PRODUCED USING TRONA AS AN ARTIFICIAL CHAPERON

PROJECT TOPIC- STUDIES ON WAXY MATRIX DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS CONTAINING CELLULOSE PRODUCED USING TRONA AS AN ARTIFICIAL CHAPERON

 

ABSTRACT

The potential uses of pharmaceutical grade cellulose in the pharmaceuticaI industry is the raison d itre for this work. Cellulose was extracted from sawdust obtained from the tropical tree Gmelinu ai.borea Family Verbenaceae by means of the classical soda process.
The pure a -cellulose produced was then treated with various concentrations of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) 0. I%, I%, 2%, 5%, 15%, and 20% . The trona treated cellulose named “tronated microfine cellulose “(TMFC) along with untronated a-cellulose was subsequently subjected to physico-chemical evaluation. Properties evaluated included microscopical characteristics ,densification behaviour ,elemental analysis, simple sugar composition, and swelling characteristics among others. Next, the cellulose powders were then investigated to ascertain their compatibility with two model drugs namely acetaminophen and ascorbic acid by means of the temperature stress technique. The celluloses were then employed as
channelling agents in waxy matrix drug delivery systems .These extrusion matrices were produced using a locally designed and fabricated matrix making unit(MMU). The matrix forming materials used were dika fat and paraffin wax. Physical properties of representative samples of the matrices such as weight, dimensions and friability were determined . Drug release studies were then conducted in 0.1 HCL.
Results of the physicochemical studies revealed that TMFC has the typical MFC microscopic morphology, bulk volume of between 3.02-5.10cm3 ,bulk density of 0.28-0.57gl cm3 ,Hausner9s ratio of 1.20-1 .SO and percentage compressibility of between 34-42 %. The drug compatibility studies revealed no degradation products. The matrices weighed 400mg on the average, had dimensions of 12mm by 3mm and had friability of O.OS%.The results of the drug release studies indicated that release followed a diffusion controlled matrix mode!, where the quantity of drug released is proportional to the square root of time. Further analysis of the release data revealed that release rate tended to increase with increasing amounts of the channelling agent. A 15-50% quantity of acetaminophen was released in the first hour of study with matrices containing higher proportions of channelling agent having correspondingly higher rates of release. A similar behaviour was observed with the matrices containing ascorbic acid though at Iower concentration levels. The results obtained in this study convincingly indicate that cellulose can be extracted from sawdust, the cellulose so produced can be transformed into a grade of MFC using trona as an artificial chaperon. It was also found that TMFC can be
successfully employed as a channelling agent in waxy matrix drug delivery system (WDDS) for oral sustained release formulations.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 CELLULOSE

Cellulose is a biopoiymer of glucose composed of glucopyranose units in P- 1,4 linkage (1). It is the chief constituent of plant cell wall (2) and was named by the French agriculturist, Anselme Payen (1795-1891) in 1838. He showed that it was built up solely of glucose molecules and that it was isomeric with starch (3). It is generally acknowledged that cellulose is the most abundant organic raw material L available in the world (4). Over 100 billion metric tonnes are synthesized and degraded on earth each year(5-6).

1.1.1 TERMS COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN DESCRIBING CELLULOSE
1.1.1.1 NATIVE CELLULOSE

This refers to cellulose extracted from natural sources such as bacteria.
lichens. plants and other sources which has not undergone any further modification

PROJECT TOPIC- STUDIES ON WAXY MATRIX DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS CONTAINING CELLULOSE PRODUCED USING TRONA AS AN ARTIFICIAL CHAPERON

1.1.1.2 HOLOCELLULOSE

This is the material left over from starting materials after the removal of noncellulosic constituents by suitable treatment. This usually comprises cellulose and hemi-cellulose (7).

1 .l. 1.3 HEMICELLULOSE

These are the P- and y- celluloses which together with a-cellulose, constitutenon-cellulosic polysaccharides present in holocellulose(8). They can be extracted from holocellulose by treatment with aqueous alkali and are easily hydrolysed by dilute acids to yield their component sugars.

1.1.1.4 OXIDIZED CELLULOSE

This term describes cellulose into which carbonyl (C=O) and carboxylic acids (COOH) groups have been introduced.

1.1.1.5 HY DROCELLULOSE

This is the product of acid hydrolysis of cellulose. It has a similar chemical structure as cellulose but it is characterised by considerably shorter molecular chain length(9).Thus it has a lower degree of polymerization.

 

PROJECT TOPIC- STUDIES ON WAXY MATRIX DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS CONTAINING CELLULOSE PRODUCED USING TRONA AS AN ARTIFICIAL CHAPERON

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