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PROJECT TOPIC- TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Teaching is a deliberate activity done in a professional manner to bring a positive change on the learner. Teachers are guided by certain principles of teaching and learning which have great implication for teaching. Teaching is identified with effective communication. Effective communication itself involves the transmission of information from sender to receiver and from receiver back to the sender. Okorie (2001), notes that communication is the fulcrum of teaching. Where communication is weak or faulty, learning may be impaired.

Teaching consists of setting the stage so that someone or group of persons through transmission of knowledge and ideas via communication can learn(Tebabal and kahassy,2011). Teaching requires that the teacher plan his instruction with clearly defined objectives. Objectives of instruction or teaching defines the positive changes in behavior, the new knowledge, new ideas or new information that the learner is going to gain after undergoing a packaged teaching and learning process ( Greitzer, 2002).

This signifies that instruction or teaching is guided by the instructional objectives. The instructional objectives equally help to determine the learning experiences the learners are to be exposed, in order to gain the expected new knowledge or new attitude. Any teaching and learning interaction that is not guided by objectives must be observable and measurable (Christian and Chika, 2013).

The role of the teacher is very essential in the effective implementation of the curriculum. The teacher amongst other things must be abreast with the fundamental principles of teaching that will enable him/her to be efficient and productive in the discharge of his/her duties. The teacher’s task is not complete until he/she evaluates to determine if the set objectives have been achieved.

The new International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English language sees method as a general or established way or order of doing anything; or the means, way or manner by which actions or process are being carried out; orderly and systematic arrangement of ideas or topics; the design or plan of, or by which activities are performed. To the researcher’s own understanding, teaching method is identified as the established ways or orders or manners by which students are enabled to gain new knowledge in the school system.

Ibe (2002) noted that the method by which the teacher presents his materials to learners and engage them in the task in hand is referred to as methodology. Methodology is very essential in any teaching-learning situation. Thus, methodology is the study and practice of various methods of teaching. These include the mastering and application of different principles of learning.

Method of teaching also denotes the strategy by which a teacher delivers his/her subject matter to the learners based on some predetermined instructional objectives in order to promote learning in the students (Christian and Chika, 2013). For a teacher to effectively adopt any teaching method, some factors must be considered. The effective implementation of any curriculum depends to a large extent on the availability of various methods of teaching.

Thus to teach is to impart knowledge, an attempt to help the learner have a change of attitude and acquire skills through a series of planned activities (Buseri and Dorgu, 2011). This research work presents the reader with some methods of teaching and how these methods of teaching can be incorporated within the framework of changing patterns of education.

According  to  Ayeni  (2011),  teaching  is  a  continuous  process  that  involves  bringing  about  desirable changes  in  learners  through  use  of  appropriate  methods. Adunola (2011)  indicated that in order  to  bring desirable  changes  in  students,  teaching  methods  used  by  educators  should  be  best  for  the  subject  matter. Furthermore,  Bharadwaj  and Pal  (2011)  sustained  that  teaching  methods  work  effectively  mainly  if  they  suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to questions in a unique way (Chang, 2010).

As such, alignment of teaching methods with students’ academic attainment (Zeeb,2004). The responsibility of imparting knowledge revolves around the teacher who plans, organizes and implements the teaching learning process. Nonetheless,  one  of  the  issues  to  be  resolved is  whether  or  not  the  teachers  are  effectively performing  their  role  in  the  teaching–learning process and to see the effects  of  their role in students ’ academic achievement; thus education. The  primary  purpose  of  teaching  at  any  level  of  education  is  to  bring  a  fundamental  change  in  the learner (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011).

To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes.  In the traditional epoch, many  teaching  practitioners  widely  applied  teacher-centered  methods  to  impact knowledge  to  learners comparative to student-centered methods. According to (Hightower and Lindquist, 2011), until today questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on students learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research.

Moreover,  research  on  teaching  and  learning  constantly  endeavor  to  examine  the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority of students is fundamentally linked to  application  of  ineffective  teaching  methods  by  teachers  to  impact  knowledge  to  learners  (Adunola, 2011).

Substantial  research  on  the  effectiveness  of  teaching  methods  indicates  that  the  quality  of  teaching  is  often reflected  by  the  achievements  of  learners.  According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. To this end, if there is no tangible outcome reflected on the behavior of the student; learning cannot be said to have occurred.   In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

Method of teaching denotes the strategy by which a teacher delivers his/her subject matter to the learners based on some predetermined instructional objectives in order to promote learning in the students. For a teacher to effectively adopt any teaching method, some factors must be considered. The effective implementation of any curriculum depends to a large extent on the availability of various methods of teaching.

Thus to teach is to impact knowledge, an attempt to help the learner have a change of attitude and acquire skills through a series of planned activities (Buseri and Dorgu, 2011). In  the  teaching-learning  process,  both  the  teacher and  the learners  must  be  active. The learner learns through some activities while the teacher does all he considers necessary to make learning possible.

For any society to be equipped  with  the  basic knowledge  and  skills  that will enable  it  to  better appreciate the  nature  of  economic  problems,  and how  to  make  rational  economic  decisions,  such  a society  must  depend  on  the  accumulated knowledge of economics,  which  the  citizens possess. Economics, as a subject is a versatile subject. Economics is a social science subject that studies human behavior with respect to how they spend (Jinghan, 1999).

According to Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary, economics is the study of resource allocation, distribution and consumption of capital and investment; and of management of the factors of production. Thus, the student need to have a level of knowledge in economics. Teaching of economics in secondary schools today requires the utilization of the democratic pedagogy which seeks to reduce the authority of the teacher with less focus on delivery.

It advocates openness in the educational process, as well as adopting problem-based learning practices. Udoh (2003) recommends that for the problems of teachers’ qualification and the selection of appropriate method in teaching Economics to be solved, government should recruit qualified teachers. He also stated that care should be taken not to transfer the teachers who are qualified in Economics to other subjects area where Economics is not being taught.

For many years, educators and researchers have debated over which variables influence student academic achievement (Adunola, 2011). A growing body  of  evidence  suggests  that schools  can  make  a  great  difference  in  terms of student achievement,  and  a  substantial  portion of that difference is attributable to teachers. Thus, the impart of teachers effectiveness or ineffectiveness seems to be additive and cumulative (Ayeni, 2011).

According to Anderson (2004), the following are the characteristics associated with effective teacher: commitment, confidence, trustworthiness respect, analytical thinking, conceptual thinking, and drive for improvement, information seeking, initiative, flexibility, accountability, and passion for learning. As  primary  recipients  of  instruction,  the  literature  is  clear that students’ view  of  teachers’ method  are  appropriate  for evaluating  students’ academic achievement. This  is  why  this  study  is  a  holistic  and  novel  approach  towards bringing  out  the  relationships  among  teachers’ teaching methods and students’ academic achievement as variables.

PROJECT TOPIC- TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

Statement of the Problem

One of the problems encountered in teaching-learning process in Nigeria educational sector is management problem. There  is  a  general  concern  by  stakeholders  in  education about the poor performance of secondary school  students in all subject including  Economics . The major cause has been identified to be the poor teaching methods and assessment strategies used by teachers which do not enable students to understand the content of the subject better; and also make the subject more difficult to comprehend. Thus, poor teaching methods render students half baked learners. The problem of this study put in a question form is what are the problems associated with wrong teaching methods?

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess teachers’ teaching methods and students’ achievement in economics in secondary schools in Ivo Local Government Area Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study will seek:

  1. To determine the teaching methods teachers use in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State.
  2. To ascertain other factors that contributes to poor academic achievement of students in economics in Ivo LGA.
  3. To assess different teaching methods in Secondary Schools in Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State.
  4. To determine the relationship between teaching methods and students’ academic achievement in economics.

Significance of the Study

The results of this study will provide useful insights on the effectiveness of teaching methods on students’ academic achievement. Hence, it will serve as a yardstick to measuring students’ academic achievement with respect to the teaching method. The significance will be derived as follow:

To the teachers or educators, this research work will expose them to be meticulous with the type of teaching method they adopt in teaching economics students in secondary schools with the determined subject matter as criteria; because every subject has its own way of teaching method that should be suitable for a particular subject. The findings of this work will therefore create awareness among teachers concerning the weakness and strength of the different teaching methods so as to facilitate teaching-learning process.

To the curriculum developers the findings of this work will serve as a policy recommendation to make for better curriculum content. Curriculum developers will need to include into the curriculum the teaching methods that are best suitable for each subject for the purpose of realizing specified predetermined objectives.

To the students who are the point of focus in the education sector; this research work would spur them in knowing how to respond actively and positively to a given task by teachers through the various suitable teaching methods. Before now, many students in most secondary schools had been controversially misunderstanding the teachers’ teaching methods especially when they are not in terms with such method even when the method is the best useful to the particular subject matter. But through the result of this work, the students would be at the best position in understanding the subject matter taught them through these teaching methods by teachers.

To the society at large, the result of this work would boost the people’s orientation as regarding the professionalism of teaching profession with respect to teaching methodology. Thus, to appreciate the teachers’ teaching methods in teaching secondary schools students.

Scope of the Study

This study covers the teachers’ teaching methods and students’ achievement in economics in secondary schools in Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State. It emphasizes the need to use the most effective and appropriate teaching methods because the teachers’ teaching methods plays a crucial role to students’ academic achievement. The study vividly described who a teacher is and also examined the various teaching methods used by teachers with the appropriate theories upon which this research work is based is clearly Stipulated.

Research Questions

  1. What teaching methods do teachers use in teaching Economics in Secondary Schools in Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State?
  2. What are the other factors that contribute to poor academic achievement of students in economics in Ivo LGA secondary schools?
  3. What are the different teaching methods for economics in secondary schools in Ivo LGA of Ebonyi State?

4. What is the relationship between teaching methods and students’ academic performance?

PROJECT TOPIC- TEACHERS’ TEACHING METHODS AND STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IVO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

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