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PROJECT TOPIC- TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A MODEL BIOGAS PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS; A CASE STUDY OF THE CONCORDIA FARMS LIMITED, NONWA, TAI, RIVERS STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A MODEL BIOGAS PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS; A CASE STUDY OF THE CONCORDIA FARMS LIMITED, NONWA, TAI, RIVERS STATE

ABSTRACT

In this Project Report, an analysis of biogas technology as a very viable replacement for fossil fuel used in a farm is presented. Biogas (70% CH4 and 30% CO2) which is a clean, economical, environmentally compatible and renewable form of energy could very well substitute (especially in the agricultural applications) for conventional sources of energy (fossil fuels, oil, etc) which cost farms huge sums of money per month, causing ecological–environmental problems and at the same time being depleted at a high rate. Despite its numerous known advantages, the potential of biogas technology has not been fully harnessed or tapped, as certain constraints are also associated with it. Most common among these is low gas production in cold weather. The study was undertaken by using a triangulation method consisting of literature review, background research/case studies and direct interviews. This paper reviews the techniques that could be used to enhance the gas production rate from solid substrates. Mathematical computations have been made to optimize different analysis, namely; organic waste generating capacity, suitable volume of digester, energy requirements/needs of the farm, available energy sources to the farm and its biogas generating potentials. The design criteria for thermal heating of an active, fixed-dome type biogas plant, with emphasis on thermal efficiency, are presented. The economic analysis takes into account, capital and maintenance costs, life of the plant, as well as priced and unpriced benefits of owning a biogas plant. The benefit – cost ratio, internal rate of returns and net present values of the investment are also computed to establish the viability of the proposed biogas project.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

The energy crisis in the early 70’s caused economic problems for many countries that depend on imported oil and gas. The exploitation of new energy sources and the adoption of new energy conversion technologies became necessary towards reduction of enormous organic waste generated especially in the integrated farms and providing an alternative, environment friendly and cheap source of renewable energy for such farms. Huge quantities of organic waste running into several hundreds of tons are generated in integrated farms each year. At the same time, these farms spent huge sums of money on electricity bills, operating private power generating plants, fuel wood, kerosene, etc. to meet their energy needs.
Biogas (also called “Marsh gas”), a by-product of anaerobic decomposition of organic waste has been considered as an alternative source of energy. Williams (2005) noted that the common raw materials for biogas generation are often defined as “waste materials”, e.g. animal manure, sewage sludge and vegetable crop residues, all of which are rich in nutrients suitable for the growth of anaerobic bacteria.
In order to fully appreciate biogas production from organic waste as an alternative source of energy, it is necessary to understand the sources of energy in general

PROJECT TOPIC- TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A MODEL BIOGAS PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS; A CASE STUDY OF THE CONCORDIA FARMS LIMITED, NONWA, TAI, RIVERS STATE

1.1 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

A non-renewable energy source is one that is depleted once it is used. It is finite in quantity and runs out over time; examples include, fossil fuels – oil, coal and natural gas.
Because of the energy crisis that rocked some countries, attention has been gradually shifted from fossil fuels. The developments of new techniques
that will tap into renewable energy sources to produce biofuels are in progress.
Non-renewable energy sources as earlier mentioned, refers to those energy resources of which only fixed amount is available on earth. As these resources are used, the total quantity available diminishes, and a time may come when the resources are either exhausted or cannot be economically exploited further. Typical examples are fossil fuels and nuclear fuels.
 Fossil fuels are those fuels which were formed by the fossilization of the remains of plants and animal materials, through the application of heat and pressure over long periods, the materials were transformed into solid, liquid or gaseous materials containing large proportions of combustible matter. Examples of solid fossil fuels are coal, lignite and anthracite, while an example of liquid fossil fuels is crude oil. Fossil fuel in form of gas is usually called natural gas.
 Nuclear fuels are such natural or artificial materials that may undergo sustainable nuclear reactions with the release of energy. The most important nuclear fuels are Uranium and Thorium, which can undergo fission reactions.

1.1.1 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ENERGY SOURCES

Energy sources may also be classified into primary and secondary forms. The primary forms include all the non-renewable and renewable resources, and they are considered primary in that they are available naturally. Secondary resources are derived from the primary forms by applying suitable conversion technologies. Typical examples are electricity and heat.

1.1.2 AVAILABLE NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Nigeria has a land area of over 0.9million square kilometers and the robust multi-ethnic population of about 140million. She is endowed with extensive and varied reserves of primary energy resource, including petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, tar-sands, shale oil and uranium.This is shown in table 1.1

PROJECT TOPIC- TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A MODEL BIOGAS PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS; A CASE STUDY OF THE CONCORDIA FARMS LIMITED, NONWA, TAI, RIVERS STATE

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