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PROJECT TOPIC- CO-PARASITISM AND MORPHOMETRICS OF THREE CLINOSTOMATIDS (DIGENEA: CLINOSTOMATIDAE) IN Sarotherodon melanotheron FROM A TROPICAL FRESHWATER LAKE

PROJECT TOPIC- CO-PARASITISM AND MORPHOMETRICS OF THREE CLINOSTOMATIDS (DIGENEA: CLINOSTOMATIDAE) IN Sarotherodon melanotheron FROM A TROPICAL FRESHWATER LAKE

ABSTRACT

In ever competitive environment of nature, evolution of most attributes of an organism – anatomy,physiology, and behaviour are determined by the environment through selection. The same is the microhabitats of Sarotherodon melanotheron where three Clinostomatids; Clinostomum tilapiae, Clinostomum complanatum, and Euclinostomum heterostomum, were recovered from Opi Lake (GPS N06.75275.
*, E00749104*), were studied from (November 2007– October 2008) using multiple fishing gear techniques; cast nets, hook and line, and seine nets (150 mm – 200 mm), showed signiicant dfference (p < 005) in all other anatomical parts but the distance between oraand ventral suckers. The prevalence was low; (20.8 %) was recorded in C. complanatum, (6.4 %) in E. heterostomum and (21.1 %) in C. tilapiae. But mean intensity was high which was suggestive of heavy parasite burden; C. complanatum (2.7), C. tilapiae (5.8) and E. heterostomum (5.1). In therank-abundance curve for parasite communities C.tilapiae was more abundant than the other twospecies. Differential parasitic implications was due o selection for relatively better adaptiveness tohost’s microhabitats, more population size, better host location, and larger body size. Consequently, this resulted in a trade-off between larger morphometric parts and population size among the parasites.

INTRODUCTION

The present study investigated co-parasitism and morphometrics of Clinostomatids in relation to higher susceptibilities to infection, better adaptiveness and selection in S. melanoheron. This has become important as most studies have been based on taxonomy and basic parasite biology. For instance, species of Clinostomum have been described from freshwater fish in Nigeria and many parts of the world. Ukoli (1966) described Clinostomum tilapiae in the intestine of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in the river Niger.

Other species of Clinostomum, e.g. Clinostomumcomplanatum has been recorded in the fish of river Niger (Ukoli, 1969), Clinostomum sp. were found to be common in Tilapia sp. While those of Euclinostomum sp. were recovered mainly from the osteoglossid Heterotis niloticus. However, in the species of Tilapia, the metacercariae occurred in the sub mucosa of the mouth cavity, gill chamber, below the operculum and pharyngeal bone, orbit, muscles of the body, around the heart, abdominal cavity, mesentery, viscera and the swim bladder (Awachie, 1965).

Clinostomum tilapiae n. sp. and ClinostomumphalacrocoracisDubois, 1931 from Ghana (Ukoli, 1966). The adult trematode of Clinostomum are attached to the upper and lower jaws of cattle egrets, herons etc. Family Clinostomatidae has a widespread distribution. Members of this family have been recorded from the area where mean temperature is about 100C (Grabda-Kazubska, 1974).

Infected cases of fish have been reported from Japan and Korea (Chung et al., 1995; Hiral et al., 1987; Isobe et al., 1994). C. complanatum and C. tilapiae have been recovered from African continent with Euclinostomum heterostomum being cosmopolitan. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum have been recovered from Perca fluviatilis and Rutilusrutilus (Grabda-Kazubska, 1974), Plecoglossusaltivelis (Lo et al., 1987), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus ( Lo et al., 1992), Carassius carassius, C. gibelio langsdrfi, C. cuvieri, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Cyprinus carpio, Pseudogobio esocinus, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus lanceolatus, R. ocellatus and Hypomesus transpacificus (Aohagi et al., 1993), Carassius sp (Aohagi and Shibaharam, 1994), Zacco temminki, Acheilognathus rhombea, Microphysogobio yaluensis, Carassius auratus (Chung, 1995), Lateolabrax japonicus, Leuciscus hakonensis (Aohagi et al., 1995), and Eutycea neotenes (Mitchell, 1995).

Adult stage of the parasite has been recovered from Nycticoraxnycticoax (Aohagi et al., 1992) and Ardea cinnerea (Lo et al., 1987; Aohagi et al., 1992). Metacercariae may affect growth and survival, or disfigure fish so that they lose their market value as a food or ornamental product (Paperna, 1991). Some metacercariae in fisheries and aquaculture products (fish and shellfish) are a source for infections in humans and domestic animals (Deardoff and Overstreet, 1991).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area: Opi lake is a tropical freshwater lake located between 60 45’ 0’’ – 45’ 28’’N and 70 29’ 28’’ – 70 29’ 35’’ E (GPS N06.75275*, E007.49104*) in the valley of river Uhere, Northeast of Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. The lake is about 300 meters from Uhere river. The soil is porous and subject to sever erosion. The vegetation and climate of the lake area has been described (Hare and Carter, 1984). The lake has no permanent inlet, but during the flood period the lake overflows through a small channel at the southern end.

The lake has a gentle sloppy shoreline with thick marginal vegetation (Inyang, 1995). The western side has a wide beach overgrown with saprophytes dominated by Crytosperma senegalenses (Schott); Jussiaea repens Var diffusa (Forsk) and Rynchospoasp. Its surface area and maximum depth (Zmax) fluctuate seasonally and range between 1.3 and 2.0 ha and 2.0 and 3.9 m respectively (Inyang, 1995). The mid lake deposit is mud mixed with coarse organic matter from the marginal vegetation on the other parts of the shoreline.

PROJECT TOPIC- CO-PARASITISM AND MORPHOMETRICS OF THREE CLINOSTOMATIDS (DIGENEA: CLINOSTOMATIDAE) IN Sarotherodon melanotheron FROM A TROPICAL FRESHWATER LAKE

The ichthyofauna of the lake includes Tilapia zillii, Hemichromis fasciatus, Parachana obscura, Malapterus electricus, Chrysicthysauratus, Epiplatys sexfasciatus, Hetrobranchus longifilis, Clarias angullaris, C. gariepinus, Barbus aboinensis, Nannaethiops unitaeniatus, Mormyrops engystoma and M. hasselguisti (Inyang, 1995).
Sampling: One hundred and seventy seven species of S. melanoheron (Olaosebikan and Raji, 1998) were caught using multiple fishing gear techniques (cast nets, hook and line and seine nets (150 mm – 200 mm)) monthly (November 2007 – October 2008). Harvested fishes were transported in ice to Parasitology and Public Health Research laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka for analysis.
Prevalence: Freshly caught fish were examined for parasites using procedure in Arthur and Albert (1994). Prevalence was calculated as the number of host infected divided by number of host examined expressed in percentage. Treatment, fixation and preservation of parasites were according to Ash and Orihel (1987).
Morphometrics:

 

PROJECT TOPIC- CO-PARASITISM AND MORPHOMETRICS OF THREE CLINOSTOMATIDS (DIGENEA: CLINOSTOMATIDAE) IN Sarotherodon melanotheron FROM A TROPICAL FRESHWATER LAKE

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