PROJECT TOPIC- UNITED NATIONS AND REFUGEE PROBLEMS
The crisis in Sudan dates back to 1959 which has been the major case for the increment of Sudanese Refugees globally. The Sudan Refugee crisis is strengthened by ethnic, religious and economic forces.
According to the UNHCR, A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries.
This has been the case worth deliberating in this project and how the United Nations through its many arms have helped in the crusade to reduce the level of refugees and internally displaced persons in Sudan and developing nations.
There are a lot of factors that has contributed to the refugee problems in Sudan.
The racial/ ethnic factor captured by the population concentration between the North and the South. In the South are found black Sudanese who are mainly Christians and cattle rearers, while the North is predominantly inhabited by population of Arab.
The religious factor involves the introduction of Islamic legal system in Sudan’s judicial Code by the North against the South with population predominantly of Christian religious belief. The problem began with how to make the country a secular state that will accommodate Islamic doctrine which is enforced into a “country where unity is seen in the virtual ascendancy of both Islam and Arabism with a role to play in not just Africa alone, but also in Arab and the Middle Eastern affairs”.1
From the economic factor is the presence of oil and oil-revenue which the North discriminating againstthe South by refusal to share oil-revenue derived from the south on equal basis between the two regions(2). The failure to accommodate this vision in the independence constitution led to political instability of ethnic cleansing through armed struggle in order to form a new vision of Sudanese people in her march to nation-building. The situation worsened in 1989, when a military Coup brought an Islamic fundamentalist regime to power and invited Osama bin Ladin to help build up and also organize a global Islamic movement called al Daeda, which placed Sudan in the U.S governments anvil of a “rogue” nation.
PROJECT TOPIC- UNITED NATIONS AND REFUGEE PROBLEMS
Power Struggle between the South and North
In the mainstream political participation in Sudan, the southern part is pushed to the margin of power equation. To fight its course of self- determination, the southern Sudan liberation movement SSLM gave birth to a military wing the Anyanya rebels. The Anyanya rebels with their often guerrilla tactics found sanctuary in Uganda as refugees3. Between 1960 and 1970, Arabs were aligned against blacks in southern Sudan, and they hired mercenaries to help the Northern-Controlled Muslim government’s troops fight against the Christian-Animist rebels in the south.4
Thus, the Sudanese crisis could be seen as logical fallout of the ruling government’s political negligence to settle the grievances of the south even as they also crave for power.
It is the Sudanese crisis, as it were with the ethnic hatred that degenerated into the Darfur crisis where armed Arab militiamen attacked black Sudanese. This led to more refugee problems as the sexual violence in Darfur brought to the fore how 500 women were raped by the Arab Jan Jaweed militias that are armed and supported by the North Arab-ruled Sudanesegovernment.5 The United Nations record of death toll between 2003 and 2008 stood between 300,000 and 400,000of children, women and men from brutal murder, violenceand starvation.6
Apart from the record of death toll, more than two million people were displaced from their homes as refugee from Sudan into neighboring Chad, Niger etc.
Therefore, the main concern for theUnited Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is refugees who fled to Eritrea, Ethiopia, Chad and Democratic Republic of Congo as most were not fully welcomed while those welcomed attracted some level of conditions from the host nations.7
Meanwhile humanitarian access to conflict affected areas was impeded following the departure of the Security Council adopted Resolution 1990, calling for the establishment of the UN interim security force for Abye (Unijja) the operation will monitor the border between north and south and protect civilian and humanitarian workers.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the work therefore is to understand the place of the United Nations (UN) in the management of refugee’s crises especially in Sudan. It will also address and examine the difficulties encountered by the UN in her task of providing for Sudanese refugee as we know that refugee problem is a threat to the international system especially to the immediate neighbor of those in crisis.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The analysis for this research work is the United Nation’sresponse to Sudan refugees and the scope spanned from November 17,1958 to December 2009 which is the period the coalition government was over thrown by a group of Army Officers in a bloodless Coup and when some 30,000 return to their villages of origin (IDPS).