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PROJECT TOPIC ON PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING AND LEARNING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SCHOOLS IN THE UNIVERSITIES IN NORTH-WEST STATES OF NIGERIA

PROJECT TOPIC ON PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING AND LEARNING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SCHOOLS IN THE UNIVERSITIES IN NORTH-WEST STATES OF NIGERIA

Abstract

 

This study investigated the Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in the Universities in North-West States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design and questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The population of the study was made up of the academic staff and students of LIS Schools in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina. Twenty nine, 29 academic staff and 283 students were selected as sample for the study, five research questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. All three null hypotheses formulated were rejected suggesting that There is significant relationship between the course content and the pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education in the LIS Schools studied; There is significant relationship between the pedagogical approaches and the effect of entrepreneurship education on the LIS Students studied and there is significant relationship between the challenges of teaching and learning pedagogical approaches and the effects on LIS students. The study established among others, that there is some level of compliance with the National Universities Commission Standard on Entrepreneurship Education in the Library and Information Science Schools studied. But the partial implementation of the NUC content area and the use of traditional teaching methods affect the graduates’ entrepreneurial skills upon completion of their programmes. The study concludes that effectiveness of the entrepreneurial pedagogy is of paramount importance and should be developed in the university system. The study recommends for the full implementation of NUC entrepreneurship course contents and issues concerning teaching strategies, funding of the programme, start-up capital and planning, supervision and evaluation should be reviewed.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    Background to the Study

Entrepreneurship education is an inevitable strategy for inculcating an entrepreneurial culture and orientation in a nation, creating employment, raising individual incomes, transforming communities and enhancing national economic development. Nations that have embraced entrepreneurship have made good progress in addressing the problem of unemployment, and achieved impressive results (Alakbarov, 2010). Cho (1998) revealed that entrepreneurship education promotes entrepreneurial intention because the entrepreneurial knowledge and skills acquired by the students can arouse their interest and motivation to start up a business. Also, Henry (2004), found that entrepreneurship education significantly increases the start-up rate of a business.

Hartshorn (2001) argued that through learning of entrepreneurship, every student has the opportunity to be an entrepreneur and self-employed. It has been observed that in 2007, Nigerian government through the National Universities Commission (NUC) in her effort to ensure job opportunities for students after graduating from the universities established a compulsory Entrepreneurship Education programme.

European Commission (2016) stated that course content, teaching and learning methods need to be appropriate if entrepreneurship education is to be delivered effectively. Effective entrepreneurship courses/programmes should encourage students in problems solving skills. Thus, entrepreneurship education should include some team based activities, project or exercise (Rabbior, 1990).

According to (Aina, n-d) entrepreneurial course contents should include; Options, openings and possibilities for self-employment, employment creation; requirement for establishing and managing enterprises; business plan project; introduction to small business start-up; identifying information business opportunities; lobbying, advocacy and fund raising for development of libraries and information centres: branding and marketing for changing the image of libraries.

NUC’s (2007), entrepreneurship course contents were: introduction to entrepreneurship and new venture creation, entrepreneurship in theory and practice, the opportunity, forms of business, staffing, marketing and the new venture, determining your capital requirements, raising capital cost, financial planning and management, starting a new business, innovation, legal responsibility, insurance, and environmental consideration.

However, some teaching strategies are better suited to teaching entrepreneurial skills and fields of knowledge than others. Some strategies are better suited to certain student backgrounds, learning styles and abilities (Monaranjan, Bharati & Jayasri 2013). For decades, the classical way of education, teaching and learning in educational institutions has been through face-to-face, where the students rely on their teachers for everything related to the pursuit of their education goals. This teacher-centred methodology of education breeds students‘ over-dependence on the teacher. Hence, it has negative consequences on the students‘ independent capacity and competence to explore, create and innovate (Mohammed, 2015).

Pedagogy or teaching method is of paramount importance in the learning process. It involved effective method and approach,Teachers use different teaching methods to convey entrepreneurship education to students. Research has established that entrepreneurs learn differently from others (Fredrick, 2007; Gatchalian, 2010).

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They ―require active and concrete pedagogical interventions … through deepening learning in theory, process and practice of entrepreneurship‖ (Fredrick, 2007). In addition, pedagogy helps to make a range of instructional strategies and resources to match the variety of student skills and to provide each student several ways of exploring important ideas, skills, and concepts (Monaranjan et al, 2013).

PROJECT TOPIC ON PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING AND LEARNING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SCHOOLS IN THE UNIVERSITIES IN NORTH-WEST STATES OF NIGERIA

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Graduate unemployment in Nigeria has become a national concern as the unemployed youths posed a great challenge to the socio-economic of the country (Samuel, Ofem, & Ikuenomore 2012). The high level of unemployment and its associated social ills have been traced to poor entrepreneurship education and skills development among students in tertiary institutions. This is manifested in a number of deficiencies that these graduates exhibit in their work places such as:

lack of analytical skills; lack of entrepreneurial and problem solving/decision making skills; and inadequate technical skills (Ugwu & Ezeani, 2012). The graduate unemployment in Nigeria is attributable to the fact that employees‘ education and skills acquired are inadequate to meet the demands of modern day jobs(Samuel, et al 2012). Ogan (2015) asserted that as far as the formal sector is concern, the average Nigerian graduate is not employable as he/she does not possess skills needed by the employer of labour.

This leads to insecurity, crime, prostitution and civil unrest and terrorism especially by the unemployed youth, this scenario has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian society, hence, the need to curb this menace.The Nigerian government in her effort to ensure job opportunities for students after graduating from the universities established a compulsory Entrepreneurship Education course.

Despite the compulsory Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian universities, many graduates still remain unemployed for a long time after graduation. The Entrepreneurship Education delivered to undergraduates in their 300-level seems not to be meeting the aims and the objectives of the programme (Ifedili & Ofoegbu, 2011). The purpose of establishing the Entrepreneurship course seems to be defeated. There is need to determine the course contents and methodology of teaching and learning entrepreneurship education (Ifedili & Ofoegbu, 2011).

Entrepreneurship education is an inevitable strategy for inculcating an entrepreneurial culture and orientation in a nation, creating employment, raising individual incomes, transforming communities and enhancing national economic development. Nations that have embraced entrepreneurship have made good progress in addressing the problem of unemployment, and achieved impressive results (Alakbarov, 2010).

The pursuance of entrepreneurship education as a panacea to the pervading problem of massive unemployment among graduates including graduates of library and information science schools in Nigeria has taken the front burner in recent times (Okiy, 2013).Consequently, potential entrepreneurs enter the sector ill prepared to effectively contribute to its success, while the existing ones remain latent in their operations (GoK, 2005cited in Nteere, Namusonge, & Mukulu, 2012). The key to a successful entrepreneurship education is to find the most effective way to manage the teachable skills and identify the best match between student needs and teaching techniques (Arasti, Falavarjani & Imanipour, 2012).

Teachers use teaching methods to convey entrepreneurship skills and knowledge to students. Research has established that entrepreneurs learn differently from others (Fredrick, 2007; Gatchalian, 2010). They ―require active and concrete pedagogical interventions … through deepening learning in theory, process and practice of entrepreneurship‖ (Fredrick, 2007).

Realizing the importance of entrepreneurship education in developing knowledgeable, confidence and competitive human capitals for business start-up, it is important that the teaching and learning entrepreneurship education is given more attention at the University level. This is because a clear basic knowledge in entrepreneurship field could be improved to a higher level more effectively and practically (Jusoh, 2012).

There is, therefore, need to study the pedagogical approaches to entrepreneurship education and the course contents as a determinant of entrepreneurship education success amongst the graduate of Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian universities

1.3     Research Questions

This research work was guided by the following research questions:

  1. To what extent does the course content of Entrepreneurship Education in the Library and Information Science Schools in Nigeria conform to the NUC standard?
  2. What are the Pedagogical Approaches used for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities?
  3. To what extent are the Pedagogical Approaches appropriate for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities?
  4. What is the effect of Learning Entrepreneurship Education courses on the students in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities?
  5. What are the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities?

1.4         Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the teaching approach of entrepreneurship education in library and information science schools in Nigerian Universities. However, specific objectives are:

  1. To find out the extent to which course content of Entrepreneurship Education in the Library and Information Science Schools in Nigeria Universities conforms to the NUC standard.
  2. To determine the Pedagogical Approaches used for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities.
  3. To determine the extent of Appropriateness Pedagogical Approaches for Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities.
  4. To determine the effect of learning entrepreneurship education on students in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities.
  5. To find out the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in the Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities.

1.5     Research Hypotheses

The null hypotheses formulated for the study were:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the course content of the Entrepreneurship Education and the Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in the LIS Schools in Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in the LIS Schools and the effect of Entrepreneurship Education on the LIS Students.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education and the effect of entrepreneurship education on the LIS Students.

1.6     Significance of the Study

One of the motives behind embarking on this research is to help find solutions to already identified problems for the society to progress. Faculty members as the pivots of university system need to become more productive and resourceful in their field of endeavour.

The findings from the research will bridge gaps in knowledge in the area of entrepreneurship education particularly the teaching methodology and the course contents. This will go a long way to improve the quality of the product from the Nigerian Universities by producing graduates who will be self-employed and entrepreneurs.

The study will also produce an empirical data in the area of entrepreneurship education, teaching method and strategies to implement the best approach to teaching and learning entrepreneurship in Library and Information Science Schools in Nigerian Universities.

This research will no doubt be of assistance to the National Universities Commission, Government and Proprietors of private universities as it relates to issues on entrepreneurship education and training.

Finally, the research will be of assistance to the would be researchers who might continue from where this research stops.

1.7         Scope of the Study

This study was focused on the course contents and the Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching and Learning Entrepreneurship Education in library and information science schools in the Universities in North-West States of Nigeria.

1.8         Limitation of the Study

The most obvious limitation of this study is the inability to cover the entire Library schools in the North-West Nigeria, due to their size and time required, another challenge encountered was combining lectures, project and office of responsibility.

1.9         Operational Definition of Terms

Entrepreneurship- refers to individual ability and skills to apply knowledge and ideas into business opportunities.

Entrepreneurship Education-this is the process of transmitting/learning entrepreneurial

knowledge and  skills  to  students to  help them explore a  business opportunity,  self-

reliance and create jobs. Learning- simply refers to knowledge or skill acquired by systematic study or by trial and error.Pedagogy-  simply  means  the  strategies  and  methodology  applied  to  teaching  and

training.

See Also : DISTANCE LEARNING AND DISTANCE EDUCATION TO THE BUSINESS EDUCATORS IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 

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