USE OF NATURAL IMPROVER IN THE PRODUCTION OF BREAD IN PLACE OF SYNTHETIC IMPROVER

PROJECT TOPIC- USE OF NATURAL IMPROVER IN THE PRODUCTION OF BREAD IN PLACE OF SYNTHETIC IMPROVER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Bread is an important staple food of many countries of the world especially the African Countries, where it is consumed extensively. (Maziya-Dixon et al. 2004).                                                                                                                                                                             Bread is usually made from low protein wheat flour, water and other ingredients which are usually combined with a leavening agent to improve its quality. (Magomya et al., 2013).

The major challenge in both flour milling industry and bakeries is the baking quality of flour, which is determined by the capacity of dough prepared from it to retain gas. As a result of wide variations in the compositions of flour, various supplement or conditioning agents (improver) are added during mixing and moulding to increase loaf volume, texture and strength. (Emeje et al.,2010)

The use improvers in the production of baked goods is a common practice today. It is also part of the technological effort to produce baked goods from wheat and rye flour that have high sensory, practical and nutritional value. Beside the use of machines for dough and batter make-up, processing and baking, improvers are used specifically to improve production and the quality of bakery products. (Nakamura et al., 2006)

Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an improver used in bread production, not only for nutritional value but for its many functional contributions to product quality. Fruits that contain ascorbic acid are apricot, grape fruit, orange, guava. Among all these fruits that contain ascorbic acid, guava has highest amount of ascorbic acid.(Kuninori, and Nishiyama, 1993).

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) valued as a potential source of pectin, ascorbic acid, sugar and mineral. (Hassimotto, et al., 2005). Like other fruits and vegetables, guava is also a rich source of antioxidants and thus help to prevent degenerative diseases.(Gutierrez et al., 2008).

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an ideal fruit for consumption because of the nutrient present in it. Papaya is rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and other minerals (Sandhu, 2004). Papaya contains a valuable proteolytic enzyme papain, which helps in the treatment of ulcer and other ailment. It also treats skin blemish, piles, dyspepsia of liver, spleen and digestive disorder (Bal, 2006)

Economically, this work is important because it will add value to all the fruits and vegetables that have vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Also the safety of the consumers is guaranteed and the cost of purchasing of the improver will reduce. It will also make the end product more nutritious because of the other nutrient present in these fruits used as natural improvers compared to chemical improvers that will denature the existing nutrients in the bread.
As far as we know there is no comprehensive data report on guava and papaya fruit serving as an improver in bread production.

1.1     Objective

The main objective of this work are as follows:

  1. To extract the juice of guava and papaya fruit.
  2. To produce a bread using guava and papaya extract.
  3. To determine the proximate properties of the bread.
  4. To determine the physical/functional properties of the bread.
  5. Carry out sensory evaluation on the bread.
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