PROJECT TOPIC- USING DEMONSTRATION METHOD IN TEACHING HISTORY IN ONITSHA URBAN IN ANAMBRA STATE
This study titled “Using Demonstration Method in the Teaching of History in Onitsha Urban in Anambra State” was carried out to ascertain the extent of students’ performance in history and attitude of students towards history teaching in secondary schools. This study also aimed at examining the various methods that could be used in teaching history and the possible causes of poor performance among history students. To carry out this study, five research questions were asked. The population of this study comprised all the secondary schools in Onitsha Urban of Anambra State. From the population, five secondary schools were randomly selected using simple random sampling technique after which forty respondents were selected from each school through simple random sampling with the aid of ballot papers. Two hundred copies of questionnaire were developed according to the research questions. Data collected were analyzed using mean statistics and standard deviation and some findings were made. Based on the research findings, a good number of recommendations and suggestions for further studies were proffered.
1.1 background to the study
Educational methodology as a course of study in teachers’ education institutions is central to the teacher. The teacher who has acquired all the knowledge but is unable to transmit this knowledge to the learner is not helpful to the learner. (Patrick, Eya and Igborwu 1999). At all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary), there is persistent complaint about students’ poor performance.
One of the major causes of this poor performance is the existence of poor and inappropriate methods of teaching the students especially the neglect of using demonstration method. Although critics are of the opinion that these deficiencies are consequent upon the death of relevant textbooks on educational methodology on our institutions of learning.
Eya, Ugwu and Alu, (2001) contended that, in teaching, methodology is a veritable instrument for the conveyance of the principles or theories as well as materials to the learner for the achievement of the goal of that instruction. Educational methodology uses instructional materials in an institutional setting to send the principles (knowledge) which could be the cognitive, the effective and psychomotor aspects of the school curriculum to the learner under the operative hands of the teacher or instructor.
The teacher’s ability to use various teaching methods effectively and to provide variation in cognitive behaviour, classroom, activities and instructional materials means his ability to determine his success in the achievement of his set goals. Ogwa (2002), in his book, Effective Teaching Methods, pointed out clearly that teaching methods are vehicles used to convey the objectives of a lesson in such a way that the required knowledge and skill are achieved.
No instructional approach or method can be successful, if it fails to hold the student’s interest or attention. It is easy to learn when we are interested but it is most difficult when we are not. In this regard, we can generally emphasize that teaching methods are best suited for use in the delivery of a particular lesson, while it may not be proper in delivery of another lesson.
Demonstration method is the presentation of the learning sequentially in an action using a step by step process. Demonstration is often used to teach fundamental operations in technology education and physical science. With the demonstration method, the teacher can explain the steps of an operation or of an experiment while performing them.
Through this teaching-learning process, students usually use two or more of the five senses. Such demonstration also provide for many of the psychological principles of learning (Aderalagbe, 1996). It is possible for students to learn how to perform manipulative operation by reading or being told how to do them.
However, they can learn faster and more effectively when they are shown how the work is done. Demonstration thus, enhances students’ rate of comprehension of specific objectives. Buah (1980) define History as the record of important events which have taken place in the past. History as a discipline came into existence during the pre-colonial period.
This was as a result of the quest for the history of the world before the colonial government. History as a discipline was introduced in the school curriculum as a subject to be taught in schools in 1887. Generally, the performance of students studying history is not encouraging and very poor. An example below is a review of students’ performance in history examination.
The statistics of WAEC Examination in history from 2003 to 2005
|Year||Total Entry||Total Students that Sat||Total Credit||Pass||Fail||No. of Students that are Absent|
Source: West African Certification Examination Council; 21 Hussey Street, Private Mail Bag 1022 yaba, Lagos.
This could be as a result of lack of interest or nonchalant attitude of the students, insufficient textbooks or journals for the subject, unqualified teachers teaching the subject and the technical brainstorming which are associated with the names, dates inherent in the study. The qualification of teachers teaching history can be a Degree holder (BSc) in History or Anthropology, International Relations or other related courses. There are various methods used in teaching history. Some are:
Lecture method: This method of teaching is a one-way communication from the teacher to the learners which purpose is to pass information. it is the commonest method used in the university, etc.
Group discussion: This group discussion is a purposeful dialogue among learners under the guidance of an instructor and focused on a jointly selected topic.
Project method: This method of teaching history students in secondary schools can be undertaken in all subject areas in the curriculum but not necessarily all topics within a subject can be taught by means of the project method.
Oral method: This method of teaching usually takes the form of an oral presentation of the story or description of the vent by the teacher. While the pupils listen.
Textbook method: By this method the teacher assigns a lesson in the book and after the pupils have an opportunity to study it.
The performance of the students offering the subject has a relationship with the method adopted in teaching the subject. History as a discipline can be said to be a process of analysing the past trends, in order to predict the future. In other words, it is a process for sifting out evidence from dust heap of the past in order to understand man’s achievement.
History is a narrative essay constructed from evidence that we find acceptable. The battle is no longer to gain a place for history in school so much as to prevent it from being lost, and in these circumstance it is only too easy to give the impression of an academic trade union with a vested interest in ensuring that the nation’s education shall be so arranged that its members can go on teaching what they have always been taught.
Is the “Death of the Past” imminent in our schools? Such is the view not only of historian but of many teachers; yet the subject is so exciting that if this were to happen it will surely be a tragedy. Therefore, this work aims to show clearly the benefits the students acquire using demonstration methods of teaching history in our secondary schools.
PROJECT TOPIC- USING DEMONSTRATION METHOD IN TEACHING HISTORY IN ONITSHA URBAN IN ANAMBRA STATE
1.2 STATEMENT OF the PROBLEM
The high rate of failure in history examination in the senior secondary certificate examination by students has captured the interest of many Nigerians. Apart from the fact that history is studied as a subject, it remains the subject, which enjoys the pride of place, in terms of time and attention to its learning and teaching.
History is, and will always maintain an enviable position in Africa in general, and Nigeria in particular. It is surprising that most of the methods used by teachers in the teaching of history both in primary and post primary schools are nothing to write home about. I am personally astounded after observing that other methods (other than demonstration) are more prevalent in most post-primary institutions in Onitsha urban of Anambra state since the adoption of the 6-3-3-4 system of education. It is therefore, the intention of the researcher to carefully investigate the use of demonstration method in the teaching of history in Onitsha urban of Anambra state.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to trace and find out:
- The extent of students’ performance in history in secondary schools in Onitsha urban of Anambra state.
- The habit of students towards history teaching in secondary schools.
- To find out why teachers pay less attention to using demonstration methods while teaching history.
- To determine the possible causes of poor performance of students offering history.
- To examine the various methods that be used in teaching history.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
History as a course of study plays a very significant role in the education system. Therefore, if the teachers implement the recommendation made as a result of using demonstration method in teaching history, it will help solve the situation of poor performance of students in history exams in Onitsha urban of Anambra state.
Again, findings and recommendations of this research will enable the educational planners and school heads to read just their method mapped out in teaching history. This research work will serve as a guideline for other researchers that intend to carry out research work on topics associated or related to it. Above all, this research work will stand the test of time and equally as a reference point to the students of history.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is aimed at investigating various methods used in the teaching of history in selected secondary schools in Onitsha urban of Anambra state.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- To what extent do students perform well in history?
- What is the attitude of students studying history towards history in Onitsha urban in Anambra state?
- To what extent do teachers use history in the classroom?
- what are the possible causes of poor performance of students offering history?
- What are the various methods of teaching history?