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PROJECT TOPIC- USING K-W-L READING STRATEGY TO ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION OF SS II STUDENTS IN ISI-UZO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- USING K-W-L READING STRATEGY TO ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION OF SS II STUDENTS IN ISI-UZO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The importance of English Language cannot be over-emphasized. Among the numerous benefits, it is the language of communication which unites the various ethnic groups in Nigeria. The Nigerian constitution, National policy on education and many books are all written in the English Language. To access the information contained in any document, reading has to be employed. Reading as a field of teaching is considered as one of the important academic skills. It is also a major pillar upon which teaching and learning process is built. The reading ability plays central role in teaching and learning success at all education stages (Addison, 2006). It is because most of the materials of teaching and learning are in written form. It means that the students will be on the road to academic failure, if they could not read. Reading comprehension is considered as the real core for reading process.

Durkin (2003) assumes that comprehension is the peak of the reading skills and the bases for all reading processes. Teaching students to read with a good comprehension must be teachers’ highest priority. As reading is the most important aspect of the four basic language skills (writing, speaking, listening and reading) which aid the teaching and learning of English Language. Balsiger (2010) stated that reading is crucial for the success in school. The academic learning in subject such as science, history, social studies and literature occurs through reading. Students with poor reading comprehension may struggle in multiple academic areas but they will have less self confidence in their learning abilities. Moreover, Sujana in Argarini (2010) noted that reading ability can influence the level of students’ competence in any subject. Therefore, it is undeniable that reading is one of important activities of learning process.

Furthermore, teaching reading in Senior Secondary School conveys the competence of reading text and identifying the rhetoric structure of the text. But it is not easy to implement those competences to students, since teacher faces some problems in teaching reading especially in reading comprehension of descriptive text. For instance, the teaching methods do not motivate the students to learn and often makes them bored; they think reading is a monotonous and boring activity.

Banjo (2003) and Obah (2009) insist that an area of language learning that requires utmost and urgent attention is reading comprehension as this affects not only reading for pleasure, but also reading for information in content areas of study. Umolu (2008) sees the problem of low reading ability as a national crisis because of the pervasive nature of poor academic performance in higher institutions of learning nationwide. The picture painted is bleak.

The annual mass failure in West African Examination Council (WAEC) results in English Language attests to the fact that most students do not read instructions, or even questions, with sufficient comprehension. In addition, the reading, according to Chief Examiner’s Report (2011) of West African School Certificate Examination is that students do not engage in substantial reading to retain that which will enable them perform well in reading comprehension that gives rise to failure in the English language which directly or indirectly affects other subjects.

As stated by Riswanto (2014), there are various teaching and learning strategies that can be used by the teachers in classroom for students to develop effective reading skills. Most of the teaching and learning strategies usually focus on a particular strategy or skill. Hence, Riswanto (2014), went further to state that the KWL (Know, Want, Learned) strategy is one of the teaching and learning strategies used mainly for information text. Its aims are more diverse. It helps readers elicit prior knowledge of the topic of the text; set a purpose for reading; monitor their comprehension; assess their comprehension of the text; and expand ideas beyond text.

Ogle (1986) developed the KWL strategy to help students in accessing important background information before reading non-fiction. The K-W-L strategy (accessing What I Know, determining What I Want to find out, recalling What I learned) combines several elements of approaches. The first two steps K-W-L, students and the teacher engage in oral discussion. They reflect on their knowledge about a topic, brainstorm a group list of ideas about the topic, and identify categories of information. Next the teacher helps highlight gaps and inconsistencies in students’ knowledge and students create individual lists of things that they want to learn about the topic or questions that they want to answer about the topic. In the last step of the strategy, students read new materials and share what they have learned.

According to Ogle (1986), there are some steps that should be considered in using K-W-L strategy.

  1. Choose a text (narrative or expository texts).
  2. Create a KWL chart. The teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information.
  3. Ask students to brainstorm words, terms or phrases they associate with a topic. The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This done until students run out of ideas for questions. If students respond with statements, turn them into questions before recording them in the W column.
  4. Have students read the text and fill out the L column of their charts. Students should look for the answers to questions in their W column while they are reading. Students can fill out their L columns either during or after reading.
  5. Discuss the information that students recorded in the L column, and
  6. Encourage students to research any question in the W column that were not answered by the text. As the evaluation for the effectiveness, teachers can compare the students’ scores on comprehension questions or skill sheets or reading tests before and after implementation of this intervention.

    PROJECT TOPIC- USING K-W-L READING STRATEGY TO ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION OF SS II STUDENTS IN ISI-UZO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

According to Lenski (2004), KWL strategy helps children become good readers by getting them to do many of the things that good readers do. This strategy gets children to read silently with comprehension. In addition, already know when they confirm or disconfirm the information in the K column. Furthermore, the children learn to set their own purpose for reading when they generate questions for the W column. Their reading to answer these questions helps them concentrate while they are reading as they move actively monitor their own comprehension.

The L column affords students the opportunity to summarize what they read. When they put the information in the own words, they better understand what they know and what they do not know. This helps them move into a possible next step which involves having them generate more questions and use a variety of resources to learn more information. Finally, taking this strategy into publication step helps them organize the information and write it for presentation to others. This strengthens their learning of the information, involves them in doing what good readers do, and teaches them about their own reading processes.

In Nigeria, teaching of comprehension is still viewed as the simple task of providing learners with many opportunities to read a piece of text and respond to a variety of questions. The number of correct responses provided by the learner was then taken as an indication of their level of understanding of the text (Annadale, 2005). According to Teixeira (2012), reading is a key language skill that has a significant place in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. This skill allows students to have access to ideas that is communicated by people in different locations and eras, give them opportunity to broaden their horizons and increase their knowledge.

Based on Moats (2004), the most fundamental responsibility of school is teaching students to read. Reading is the fundamental skill upon which all formal education depends. Research now shows that a child who does not learn the reading basic early is unlikely to learn them at all. Low reading achievement is the problems which cause low performance among the students. According to Sinambela, Manik and Pangaribuan (2015) observed that students’ ability in reading was still low despite other strategies employed in teaching reading comprehension. Hence, the students failed in reading texts as a result of lack of vocabularies and technique in reading.

The problem also comes from the teacher’s technique and strategy in teaching. In the observation made by Sinambela, Manik and Pangaribuan (2015), they found out that teachers still applied a traditional method of teaching reading comprehension where the teachers asked the students to write things in their exercise books freely, read the texts by heart and opened dictionary any time they stuck on using words that they did not know. This strategy made the students bored and did not have a concentration in learning; so, they could not gain the purpose of reading.

From the foregoing, this study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of Know-Want-Learned (K-W-L plus) strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo L.G.A of Enugu State.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The high rate of failure in English Language in general and poor performance in reading comprehension passages by the students in the Senior Secondary certificate Examination has captured the interest of many Nigerians. The   researcher is personally astounded after observing that this same problem is more prevalent in most secondary schools in Isi-uzo L.G.A of Enugu State many years after the adoption of the6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria.

Furthermore, the students fail in reading texts because of lack and ill knowledge of vocabularies and technique in the reading comprehension passages. The problem also comes from the teacher’s technique and strategy in teaching. Most of the teachers teaching in this Local Government Area still apply a traditional method of teaching which causes the students fatigue and lack of concentration in learning. Also, most of the students are passive in the class and they felt that learning reading comprehension is boring. The reason they got bored in learning the reading could be as a result of the teaching strategy adopted. The teacher must choose the suitable strategy to make the process of teaching reading comprehension running well.

Based on the student’s problem in teaching and learning process, especially in reading comprehension, the study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of know-want-learned (K-W-L plus) strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Purpose of the Study

Generally, this study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of Know-Want-Learned (KWL plus) reading strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study tried to:

  1. Ascertain how KWL plus reading strategy could be applied in improving students’ reading comprehension.
  2. Determine the effect of KWL reading strategy on the students’ performance in reading comprehension.
  3. Find out the factors that limit the students from using KWL reading strategy to enhance their performance in reading comprehension.

Significance of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- USING K-W-L READING STRATEGY TO ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION OF SS II STUDENTS IN ISI-UZO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

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