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This research work titled “the utilization of school retail shops as a pedagogical strategies for entrepreneurship education” was aimed at identifying the strategies for improving entrepreneurial development in business education through school retail store, identifying the retail stock management skills Businesses Education students can acquire through the school retail store and to identify finance management skills Business Education students can acquire through the school retail shops. Data were collected and analyzed through questionnaires, based on the analysis it was revealed that among other things that the study disclosed that cooperative learning, conference style learning, written assignment and case study are strategies for improving entrepreneurial development in Business Education through school retail shops. The findings also revealed that through school retail shops, the students would acquire retail stock management skills and based that through school retail shops, the students would acquire retail financial management skills. Based on the findings it was recommended that teachers should be encourage through government assistance to embark on in-services trainingwhich would develop their teaching methods, which will in turn improve entrepreneurship development, skills acquisition centers should be made available and equipped for students’ utilization in the development of management skills and government should help in financing schools with the needed resources in developing students’ skills on financial management.



Background to the Study

The need for entrepreneurship education started emerging in the mid 1980s. In the mid 80s, the Nigeria economy collapsed while youth and graduate unemployment hit the roof. There was large-scale layoff of workers and retirements a as result of Structural Adjustment Programmes and bad economic trends in the country (Arogundade, 2011). During this situation, entrepreneurship, which would have salvaged the situation, was not encouraged.

It has been observed that tertiary education has not been properly included in the philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment that will promote pride in primitive work and self-discipline, encouraging students to actively and freely take part in discussion and decision affecting their general welfare, promoting new set of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (Arogundade, 2011).

Nwangwu (2007) argued that the failure of tertiary education to imbibe the above philosophy in students has led to wastages in terms of both human and natural resources. This is because the youths and graduates form tertiary intuitions are not equipped with the skills with which to exploit the natural resources that abound in Nigeria the issues of equiping students with skills needed for self reliance lead to the establishment of school retails shop.

The education which most individuals received before the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 educational system in Nigeria, the system of education practiced was criticized as focused mainly on preparing students for white collar jobs, thereby neglecting skill training and development (NPE, 2004). Consequently, a typical Nigeria graduate could only have a general idea of the opportunities and requirements of occupations, but may not posses any remarkable skills, which could enable him/her function and contribute effectively to the development of the society.

The situation has given rise to over 80% joblessness among youths in Nigeria, with a total of 90% unemployment rate of graduates produced from tertiary institutions in country (Olasunkammi, 2008). It is on the basis of this that Nigeria Universities equip undergraduates with relevant skills commensurate with their abilities, so that graduates can become employers of labour rather than job seekers.

The Nigerian University Commission (NUC 2007) came out with a draft curriculum for entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Universities. The objectives of the draft curriculum seek among other things to empower our graduates, irrespective of their areas of specialization, with skills that will increase their venture creation. On the heels of this directive, in 2009/2010 the Taraba State University started a pilot program in entrepreneurial studies in the department of Educational Foundations for all students as a Departmental course, the university has also extended the programmes to all students as undergraduate student takes the program as general study ( GST ).

In recent time Nigeria has been witnessing ever increasing number of graduates that leave school especially from universities with little or no hope of securing employment either in public or private establishments. The fast pace of development recorded in such nations like Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil and India, among others, have clearly shown that development is driven by the innovativeness, creativity and enterprise of the people (Mukhtar and Redman, 2014).

Unfortunately, Nigeria has not been able to achieve similar feats owing to poor linkage between knowledge and development and between the private and public sector of the economy. Probably, these may have been due to lack of appropriate skills development and sufficient entrepreneurial culture in the Nigerian educational system. It is important to note that education can be a means to an end.

It can simply be a tool for securing employment and emancipation of people through the provision and acquiring if necessary knowledge and skills to make lives more flourishing. One practical strategy towards reducing rate of unemployment and eradicating poverty is by scaling up investments in infrastructure and human capital. Human capital development is further facilitated through a well structured academic curriculum that is entrepreneurial focused.

A nation with increased numbers of self sustained and self depended graduates will record less numbers of unemployed graduates. The aspect of utilization of school retail shop for pedagogical strategy for entrepreneurship education wanted a lot have impact on students performance toward entrepreneurship studies. Certainly, the traditional methods of lectures and textbooks are important in laying down the foundation of entrepreneurship theory and practice.

But, to achieve higher levels of critical thinking, it is necessary to ponder, test, reflect and adjust one’s knowledge. To achieve skills, students need to practice trading in school retails shops and play the major roles to achieve competence, lots of knowledge and skills are needed. An entrepreneurial training coach can channel energies, thought processes, practice routines, and feedback mechanisms to advance the level and the speed with which students attain competence.

Retail involves the process of selling  consumer goods  or  services  to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Demand is identified and then satisfied through a  supply chain . Attempts are made to increase demand through  advertising . In the 2000s, an increasing amount of  retailing began occurring online  using electronic payment and delivery via a  courier  or via  postal mail .

Retailing as a sector includes subordinated services, such as delivery. The term “retailer” is also applied where a service provider services the small orders of a large number of individuals, rather than large orders of a small number of  wholesale ,  corporate  or government clientele. Shops may be on residential streets, with few or no houses, or in a  shopping mall .  Shopping streets  may restrict traffic to pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full  roof  to create a more comfortable shopping environment – protecting customers from various types of weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, winds or  precipitation .

Forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing (a type of  electronic commerce  used for business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions) and  mail order , (Wikipedia 2015). Shopping  generally refers to the act of  buying  products. Sometimes this is done to obtain  final goods , including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a  recreational  activity. Recreational shopping often involves  window shopping  (just looking, not buying) and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase.

Most of the products produce through entrepreneurship in the university are sold through school retails shop but the issues facing this retails shop is the aspect of it effective management which is another strategy for Nigeria Universities entrepreneurial education programme for graduates employment. Management exists in any organization to make resources productive in order that the organization may achieve its goals.

Onwuchekwa (2013) defines management as the organization and mobilization of all human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives in the system. Management, in other words, is the process of getting things done through the co-operation and assistance of other people or machines (including computers). Griffin (2011) sees management as a process undertaken by two or more individuals to co-ordinate the activities of others to achieve results not achievable by an individual alone.

Management is a catalyst that initiates actions, arranges human and material resources for achievement of visions (Etuk, 2012). It is the most important factor of production. Many professionals, economists, administrators, behavioural scientists and psychologists believe that management has a lot to do with the way and to where an organization moves to (Osuala, 1996). In view of the above observations, the researcher, perceives entrepreneurship management as the ability of the administrator to discover and mobilize available human and material resources at his/her disposal, and non available ones, which he/she creates, to direct the school in such a way as to achieve a high standard and produce quality students who will be functional members of the society.

Education particularly, an entrepreneurial focused tertiary education therefore plays a very vital role in the development of economy of any nation because the more the number of young graduates that are able to be self reliant and self employed the more the poverty and unemployment is eradicated and the faster the nation moves towards self sufficiency. More so, Oyibe (2013) opines that the indication of unemployment has been one of the problems facing developing countries of the world like Nigeria where the economic condition of most families have declined to alarming rates.

According to him, it is disheartened noticing that Nigeria as a sovereign state cannot fend for her citizens, as a large proportion of her human population lives below one United State of America dollar per day not minding increasing revenue generation from crude oil and other socio-economic activities in the country, (Oyibe, 2013). Furthermore, one of the major trends in the world today more especially our dear country Nigeria is the need to create more meaningful jobs for the unemployed youth.

The idea would only be effective if there is positive change of attitudes or behaviors towards entrepreneurial education in the school system. Castson and Karlesson (2009) maintain that many countries have suffered from economic backwardness and high rate of unemployment as result of their neglect of entrepreneurial education in their various school systems. Therefore, the entrepreneurial spirit and its implementation are required to among other things by our curricula formulators or developers.

Again, it is pertinent to note that real entrepreneurship will only be achieved not by mere policy making but by providing human, financial and material resources in our various levels of education system especially in the universities to speed up the map out strategy or strategies in the policy made. Further more, Gana (2001) defines entrepreneurship as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities in an environment and establish and run the enterprise successfully.

Kimani (2004) further sees it as the process of creating business enterprise and the capability of ensuring new or established markets by deploying resources and people in a unique way. From the foregoing definitions, all the authors maintained that entrepreneurship involves planning, mapping, organizing, analyzing, communication, doing, debriefing, evaluation and recording process in the learning.

For one to be an entrepreneur, Soo (1999) is of the view that there are some characteristics or business traits that the person will possess which includes: recognizing and taking advantage of opportunities being resourceful, creative, visionary, optimistic, innovative, independent thinker, hard working, risk taker and leader. It is the researcher’s expectation therefore, that bringing entrepreneurship into classroom interaction may impact all these above mentioned business traits into the learners’ lives and is capable of shooting up the economic development of any nation to the highest level of development.

Nigeria as a country still has a lot of entrepreneurial talents in such small businesses like mechanic, tailoring, fishing, furniture making, catering and many others. Entrepreneurial education according to Pribadi (2005) refers to the training to develop entrepreneurial attitudes, skills, and values which involve developing certain personal qualities focused on creation of new business and how to minimize failure or the risk of being entrepreneur.

According to Liles in Nwosu, Oforka and Omeje (2010), the entrepreneurial risks includes: financial risk, career risk, family, social risk and psychic risk. They maintain that formal education provides the strategies to avoid these stated entrepreneurial risks by providing the learners with entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and techniques which can be acquired through classroom interaction like financing (funds), marketing, forecasting, supply chain, logistic, statistic among others.  

Entrepreneurial education seeks to provide learners with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variation of settings. Variations of entrepreneurial education are necessary and need to be offered at all levels of schooling in Nigeria from primary to secondary schools and to university programme. In the same vein, Linan (2004) opines that there are many types of entrepreneurial education programmes that are available for classroom teachers to integrated into the classroom interaction for those who wish to increase their skills and attitudes of entrepreneurship for the purpose of increasing their economic status. These entrepreneurial education programmes are: entrepreneurial awareness education, education for start up business, education for entrepreneurial dynamism, and continuing education for entrepreneurs.

  1. Entrepreneurial Awareness Education focuses mainly on increasing the awareness of entrepreneurial knowledge among people which will not directly pursue the creation of more entrepreneur but have the knowledge to maintain and manage the existing resources for economic stability.
  2. Education for Start up Business: this type of education enjoys the ownership of a small scale conventional business. The classroom interaction in this type of entrepreneurial education consists of the practical aspects related with the start- up phrase, how to obtain finance (loan), legal regulation, taxation, among other things involved (Linan, 2004). In line with the above, Adirika (2010) is of the view that small scale business is an avenue where the managers start from to create large scale business with the foundation entrepreneurial build from unknown to know. In the same vein, Adigun (2011) added that education for start up business with entrepreneurial skills and attitudes is education for wealth creation.
  3. Education for Entrepreneurial Dynamism: this type of education focuses mainly on not only to raise the intention to be an entrepreneur, rather the intention to develop dynamic behavior when the business is already in operation. This implies that entrepreneurial education is meant to equip the managers of business enterprises with the managerial principles of wealth creation and risk management for business success, and.
  4. Continuing Education for Entrepreneurs: The education revolve around special education for adults, designed to allow improvement of existing entrepreneur’s ability (Weinrauch in Nwosu, 2010). All these entrepreneurial education is a transformation tools and formidable strategies for reducing unemployment among Nigerian graduates.

More so, entrepreneurial education is a key driver of all nation economy. Wealth and a high majority of jobs are created by small businesses started by entrepreneurially minded individuals, many of whom go on to create big businesses. When students especially undergraduates of higher institutions of learning are expose to entrepreneurship frequently, they have the opportunities to exercise creative freedoms, higher self-esteem, and an overall greater sense of control over their own lives.

As a result, many experienced business persons such as, political leaders, economists, and more especially educators believe that fostering a robust entrepreneurial culture and spirit into teaching and learning will maximize individual and collective economic and social success on a local, national, and global scale. It is with this in mind that the National Standards for entrepreneurship education were developed to prepare youth and adults to succeed in an entrepreneurial economy.

Linan (2004) therefore maintains that proper development of entrepreneurial skills and attitudes in the learners through a well programmed entrepreneurial classroom interaction and its effective utilization of those skills and attitudes will enable the individual students to develop the understanding and behavior that will equip them enter into business world and earn living. In the same line of thought, Nwosu, Azuka, Kanu and Agomulo (2010) are of the opinion that integration of entrepreneurial education at all level of education will bring about improvement in skills acquisition and provision of working capital, loan or fund for start up business which will help at large extent to reduce the rate of unemployment.

Adirika (2010) supporting the above the view, opines that entrepreneurial skills development through integration of entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes in all facets of educational pursuits provides the key to rapidly addressing the issue of chronic unemployment and lack of job opportunities currently plaguing graduates of Nigerian universities. This implies therefore that effective development and management of Universities entrepreneurship through teaching and learning will inculcate entrepreneurial skills, attitudes, knowledge and behaviors that will help the individual university graduate to be self reliance.

The bottom line here is to inculcate the spirit of entrepreneurship in the student through education. In fact this calls for more serious adjustment of policies and new curriculum in line with demand of the present time. Notwithstanding, the issues of entrepreneurship education was created with the reason of preparing the youths to set out business of their own after graduation which will vehemently help in reducing unemployment in the country. This study therefore focuses on the utilization of school retail shops as a pedgogical strategies for entrepreneurship education.


Statement of the Problem

The problem of the study centers on the noticeable large-scale unemployment saga that has since been staring the graduates of Nigeria universities on the face in recent times. Unemployment is one of the most disturbing problems facing federal, state governments and unemployed graduates. The situation has been exacerbated by mass production of graduates and school leavers from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions without any commensurate arrangement for their gainful employment.

The ugly situation has resulted in economic poverty among graduates thus requiring a way-out through entrepreneurship education transformation in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The question here is, can exposure of students in educational administration to entrepreneurship education alleviate the plight of unemployment prevalent among Nigerian university graduates by imbuing such graduate with job creativity?

In Ebonyi, the growing problem of unemployment in the country has contributed largely to the worsening problem of poverty among the populace. Unemployment has led to frustration and disillusionment which may result to crime or drug abuse in a futile attempt to escape from and forget the pains and humiliation of poverty and lack. Many able bodies and unemployed qualified graduates could not secure gainful employment and have remained economically dependent on their parents. This may be as a lack of necessary occupational skills to be self employed and to effectively function in today’s world of work.

Despite the compulsory entrepreneurial education in Nigeria Universities, many graduates in Ebonyi State University still remain unemployed after their graduation. This has motivated the researcher to investigate the utilization of school retail shops as a pedagogical strategies for entrepreneurship education.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the utilization of school retail shops as a pedagogical strategies for entrepreneurship education. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Identify the strategies for improving entrepreneurial development in business education through school retail store.
  2. Identify the retail stock management skills Businesses Educationstudents can acquire throughthe school retail store
  3. Identify finance management skills Business Education students can acquire through the school retail shops

Significance of the Study

This study will be immense significance to the undergraduate, administrators, lecturers, government and policy maker.

The findings of this study will benefit the government by creating awareness on the effort being made by various Nigerian universities on the implementation and achievement of government policy on Entrepreneurship Education which the government has great interest.

The findings will aid the policy makers to implement reasonable policies that will help in reducing graduates unemployment in the state and set out strategies for the management of entrepreneur studies in the state. Because thousands of students graduates every year without job, set the government back intense of development but if adequate policy are mainly focuses on reduction of unemployment, the society will grow and develop at large.

The findings will be of benefits to the undergraduates because the study portrays the step which graduates will take to help them without carrying files along the street in search of White collar job. And if implemented by the undergraduates, this will be of benefits to graduates themselves and the society at large, through this, the undergraduates will pick courage towards their studies with hope that after study there is something good for them to earn a living.

The lecturers will adjust to a better management and delivery of the course. This will bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship Education. The students will develop interest in Entrepreneurship Education as the lecturer applied difference teaching methods and instructional materials in their instruction. They will be more serious with the course and can apply themselves in establishing small business enterprise in absence of employment opportunities after graduating from the universities.

The findings of the study will help the administrators to known the various management strategies to used so as to promote entrepreneurial education in various institution of learning. Administrator through these findings will known the area needed to equipped in studying of entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institution. Because if this need are not identify the students will find it difficult to cope with their entrepreneurial skills.

The study therefore, concerned with different effective entrepreneurial development in Business Education. It is purely an academic exercise that will help other researchers in the field of study for further research on the subject matters.

Research Questions

The following four research questions rooted in the specific purposes of the study guided the conduct of this study. These include:

Identify the strategies for improving entrepreneurial development in business education through school retail store.

  1. What are the retail stock management skills Business Education students can acquire through the school retail store?
  2. What are finance management skills Business Education students can acquire through the school retail shops?
  3. What are the finance management skills Business Education students can acquire through the school retail shops?

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the utilization of school retail shops as a pedgogical strategies for entrepreneurship education. The researcher uses graduates, 200 level, 300 level, and 400 level students of the department of Business education in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.


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