PROJECT TOPIC- UTILIZATION OF SUPERMARKETS FOR THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI
The study focused on utilization of supermarkets for the training of students for entrepreneurship.Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 361 students and lecturers which was used as the sample of the study. Structured questionnaire was formulated for data collection. It was validated by three experts, two from Business Education Department and one from Science Education all in Ebonyi State University. The data was analyzed using simple statistical mean. Results from the data analyzed showed that:supermarket plays the roles of training students with the needed skills to be entrepreneur and that supermarket is highly important for sustainable development of entrepreneurship and also supermarket has a lot of positive impacts in the training of students for entrepreneurship and that students are face with a lot of challenges in the process of their training for entrepreneurship through supermarket.Based on the findings, the study recommended that: Government should assist institution of higher learning through provision of effective and adequate equipment for promoting entrepreneurship studies, Government should also motivates students who undergone entrepreneurs through supermarket and that teachers should be motivated through the provision of their human needs in order to impact students with the needed skills. In all suggestions for further studies were drawn.
Background to the Study
Entrepreneurship as a process which involves the effort of an individual in identifying viable business opportunities in an environment and obtaining and managing the resources needed to exploit those opportunities. Timmons and Spinelli (2014) see entrepreneurship as the function of being creative and responsive within and to the environment. They stated further that entrepreneurship activity is a destabilizing force, which starts the process of “creative destruction” which is the essence of economic development.
Ogundele (2015) sees entrepreneurship as the processes of emergence, behaviour and performance of entrepreneurs. He notes that a focus on entrepreneurship is a focus on the processes involved in the initiation of a new organization, the behavior of such organization and its performance in terms of profits made. Aina and Salako (2008) described entrepreneurship as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities and takes advantage of scarce resources to exploits the opportunities profitably.
It is the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and efforts, assuming the accompanying financial social risks at the end receiving resulting reward. Entrepreneurship education is a purposeful intervention by an educator in the life of the learner to impact entrepreneurial qualities and skills to enable the learner to survive in the world of business. Alberti, Sciascia and Poli (2014) define entrepreneurship as “the structured formal conveyance of entrepreneurship competencies which in turn refers to the concepts, skills and mental awareness used by individuals during the process of starting and developing their growth oriented ventures.
Training, according to Mullins (2010), is the process of systematically acquiring job related knowledge, skill and attitude in order to perform with effectiveness and efficiency specific tasks in an organization. He stated further that the acquisition of knowledge and skills during training is not desired for its own sake in industrial and commercial enterprises, and that it is utility that predisposes an organization to invest financial and material resources in it.
Entrepreneurship remains the gateway to sustainable wealth creation in Nigeria (Ogundele, 2000). In view of Matanmi and Awodun (2005), if Nigeria desire to move out of the disturbing high level of unemployment and ravaging level of poverty, adequate attention must be given to the growth of entrepreneurship. The successful contribution of entrepreneurship to economic development in Nigeria depends on entrepreneurship training and orientation.
Entrepreneurship, is the process of emergence behaviour and performance of entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education is a structured formal conveyance of entrepreneurial competencies, which in turn refers to the concepts, skills and mental awareness used by individuals during the process of starting and developing their growth-oriented ventures. Another view of entrepreneurship is the term given to someone who has innovative ideas and transforms them to profitable activities (Omolayo, 2006).
Entrepreneurial orientation is the development of entrepreneurial skills, effective and efficient application of the skills in management of business to create a significant difference from other business, recognizing the skill and allowing it to function effectively. The success of entrepreneur student in business depends on many factors including supermarket training and educational aspect, but these are often negligible.
The role of supermarket toward the training of students for entrepreneurship has played a vital role in the development in students skills needed for entrepreneurship. Supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store , is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market , Longe (2012).
The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce , dairy, and baked goods aisles, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies. Some supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly, such as new condoms (where permitted), medicine, and clothes, and some stores sell a much wider range of non-food products: sporting equipment, board games, and seasonal items.
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space, usually on a single level. It is usually situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers, (Wikkipedia, 2012). The basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and frequently the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or even 24 hours of day.
Supermarkets usually allocate large budgets to advertising, typically through newspapers. They also present elaborate in-shop displays of products. The shops are usually part of corporate chains that own or control (sometimes by franchise) other supermarkets located nearby even transnationally thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale, Longe (2012). Supermarkets typically are supplied by the distribution centres of their parent companies, usually in the largest city in the area. Supermarkets usually offer products at relatively low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can.
They also minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products (typically staple foods such as bread, milk and sugar) are very occasionally sold as loss leaders , that is, with negative profit margins so as to attract shoppers to their store. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of this tactic.
To maintain a profit , supermarkets make up for the lower margins by a higher overall volume of sales, and with the sale of higher-margin items bought by the intended higher volume of shoppers. Customers usually shop by placing their selected merchandise into shopping carts (trolleys) or baskets (self-service) and pay for the merchandise at the check-out , Ugoji (2013).
At present, many supermarket chains are attempting to further reduce labor costs by shifting to self-service check-out machines, where a single employee can oversee a group of four or five machines at once, assisting multiple customers at a time. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket . Other services offered at some supermarkets may include those of banks , cafés , childcare centres/creches , Insurance (and other financial services), Mobile Phone services, photo processing , video rentals , pharmacies and/or petrol stations .
Furthermore supermarket as a self-service retail market selling especially foods and household merchandise has aid alot in the training of students. Mostly through supermarket students on training are exposed to direct production of goods and services. Students monitor and acquired transaction aspect of their customers, and producers but most atime means of production in the firm are not from the environment, which restrict the students sense of acquiring or learning.
PROJECT TOPIC- UTILIZATION OF SUPERMARKETS FOR THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY, ABAKALIKI
Statement of the Problem
The growing problem of unemployment in the country has contributed largely to the worsening problem of poverty among the populace. The issues of some firm rejecting industrial students to carry out their practicum exercise called for the deteriorates nature of entrepreneurship education in the country. Unemployment has led to frustration and disillusionment which may result to crime or drug abuse in a futile attempt to escape from and forget the pains and humiliation of poverty and lack.
Many able bodies and unemployed qualified graduates could not secure gainful employment and have remained economically dependent on their parents. This may be as a lack of necessary occupational skills to be self employed and to effectively function in today’s world of work. Despite the compulsory entrepreneurial education in Nigeria Universities many graduates in Ebonyi state still remain unemployed after their graduation.
The situation has been exacerbated by mass production of graduates and school leavers from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions without any commensurate arrangement for their gainful employment. The ugly situation has resulted in economic poverty among graduates thus requiring a way-out through entrepreneurship education transformation in Nigerian tertiary institutions.Despite the compulsory entrepreneurial education in Nigeria Universities many graduates in Ebonyi state still remain unemployed after their graduation. This has makes the researcher to investigate the utilization of supermarket for the training of students for entrepreneurship.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to assess the utilization of supermarkets for the training of students for entrepreneurship. Specifically, the study sought to:
- Find out the roles of supermarket in training of students for entrepreneurship.
- Examine why supermarket is important for sustainable development of entrepreneurship.
- Determine the impacts of supermarket on the training of students for entrepreneurship.
- Ascertain the challenges against the training of students for entrepreneurship through supermarkets.
Significance of the Study
This study will be immense significance to the student, lecturers and administrators.
The findings will be of benefits to the students because the study portrays the step which graduates will take to help them without carrying files along the street in search of White collar job. And if implemented by the undergraduates, this will be of benefits to graduates themselves and the society at large, through this, the undergraduates will pick courage towards their studies with hope that after study there is something good for them to earn a living.
The lecturers will adjust to a better management and delivery of the course. This will bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship Education. The students will develop interest in Entrepreneurship Education as the lecturer applied difference teaching methods and instructional materials in their instruction. They will be more serious with the course and can apply themselves in establishing small business enterprise in absence of employment opportunities after graduating from the universities.
The findings of the study will help the administrators to known the various management strategies to used so as to promote entrepreneurial education in various institution of learning. Administrator through these findings will known the area needed to equipped in studying of entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institution. Because if this need are not identify the students will find it difficult to cope with their entrepreneurial skills.
The following research question were formulated to guide the study:
- What are the roles of supermarket in training of students for entrepreneurship?
- Why is supermarket important for sustainable development of entrepreneurship?
- What are the impacts of supermarket on the training of students for entrepreneurship?
- What are the challenges against the training of students for entrepreneurship through supermarket?
Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the utilization of supermarket for training of students for entrepreneurship: the study contents covered: roles of supermarket in training of students for entrepreneurship, importance of supermarkets in the sustainable development of entrepreneurship and challenges against the training of students for entrepreneurship through supermarket. The study will be restricted to Ebonyi State.