PROJECT TOPIC- AUTOMATED HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Every cooperate organization, institution or government agency requires data and good quality information to function effectively. It is not an over statement to say that many organizations, institutions or government agencies have become critically dependent on the use of database system for their successes especially in the hospital. Data collected from various sources for example telephone, fax, verbal messages, mails e.t.c. are used in decision making, planning and control of operations in management of clients, personnel and recourses. This project therefore aims at developing an improved hospital information management system using a function-oriented design. The poor efficiency of the present manual management system in hospitals today results from the inordinate length of time it takes to search for and locate patient folders and the ineffective filling system adopted. In this project the Oracle database is the database server where the data is sent to and retrieved from while Active Server Pages (.net programming language) is the client which provides the user interface design and the forms used by the doctors, staff and nurses during administration in the office, laboratory, wards, pharmacy, X-ray e.t.c.
1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
A hospital is an institution for health care that provides patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Usually, hospitals are funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies or charities, including funds by direct charitable donations. Historically, however, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. Modern-day hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses.
PROJECT TOPIC- AUTOMATED HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITAL
Hospitals are distinguished by their ownership, scope of services, and whether they are teaching hospitals with academic affiliations. Hospitals may be operated as proprietary (for-profit) businesses, owned either by corporations or individuals such as the physicians or they may be voluntary-owned by non-profit corporations, religious organizations, or operated by federal, state, or city governments. Voluntary and non-profit hospitals are usually governed by a board of trustees, selected from among community business and civic leaders, who serve without pay to oversee hospital operations.
1.1.1 COMMUNITY HOSPITALS
Most community hospitals offer emergency services as well as a range of inpatient and outpatient medical and surgical services.
Community hospitals, where most people receive care, are typically small, ith fifty to five hundred beds. These hospitals normally provide quality care for routine medical and surgical problems.
Some community hospitals are nonprofit corporations, supported by local funding. These include hospitals supported by religious, cooperative, or
osteopathic organizations. In the 1990s, increasing numbers of not-for-profit community hospitals have converted their ownership status, becoming proprietary hospitals that are owned and operated on a for-profit basis by corporations. These hospitals have joined investor-owned corporations because they need additional financial resources to maintain their existence in an increasingly competitive industry. Investor-owned corporations acquire not forprofit hospitals to build market share, expand their provider networks, and penetrate new health care markets.
1.1.2 TEACHING HOSPITALS
Teaching hospitals are those community and tertiary hospitals affiliated with medical schools, nursing schools, or allied-health professions training programs. Teaching hospitals are the primary sites for training new physicians where interns and residents work under the supervision of experienced physicians. Non teaching hospitals also may maintain affiliations with medical schools and some also serve as sites for nursing and allied-health professions students as well as physicians-in-training.
Most teaching hospitals, which provide clinical training for medical students and other health care professionals, are affiliated with a medical school and may have several hundred beds. Many of the physicians on staff at the hospital also hold teaching positions at the university affiliated with the hospital, in addition to teaching physicians-in-training at the bedsides of the patients. Patients in teaching hospitals understand that they may be examined by medical students and residents in addition to their primary “attending” physicians.
One advantage of obtaining care at a university-affiliated teaching hospital is the opportunity to receive treatment from highly qualified physicians with access to the most advanced technology and equipment. A disadvantage is the inconvenience and invasion of privacy that may result from multiple examinations performed by residents and students. When compared with smaller community hospitals, some teaching hospitals have reputations for being very impersonal;
however, patients with complex, unusual, or difficult diagnoses usually benefit from the presence of acknowledged medical experts and more comprehensive resources available at these facilities. A teaching hospital combines assistance to patients with teaching to medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school, nursing school or university.