PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS ENUGU
This research work which title is (The Impact of Social Service administration on Rural Women in Nigeria). A case study of ministry of women affairs Enugu, was informed by the following objectives:
To identify the basic amenities necessary for the upliftment of rural women
To access various commission an agencies that could enable women participate actively in politically, Socially and economically
To investigate various measures required for social upliftment of rural women in Nigeria.
The researcher adopted historical survey approach and was guided by the following hypothesis:
Social service has helped in the enhancement of rural women in our communities.
The impact of social service administration has provided quality living standard for the women in the rural areas.
The researcher discovered that the major assistance, which the government offers the ministry, comes inform of resource allocation, which implies the provision of finance personnel and material to the ministry of women affairs.
The researchers has discovered that out of numerous social service being required by the rural women, what they want most is the provision of health facilities which include cottage hospital, health centres, dispensaries etc.
The work was concluded with the following recommendation. The provision for health facilities should be made without any delay.
Government should provide adequate financial and material resources for the rural women to engage in various project.
Government agencies and mass media should help to sensitize the general public on the need for social welfare administration for rural women.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDIES
The declaration of the decade for women by the United Nation 1975 sparked off women in development activities all over the world.
In Nigeria, for instance, Women In Development (WID), gained tremendous boost, as a result of the birth of Better Life Programme (BLP) in 1987 and family supported programme (FSP) in 1994 were some of its achievement, the achievement of Better Life programme must have added impetus to the establishment of national commission for women decree 30 of 1989 which was later replaced by decree No 42 of 1992.
Both the Better Life programme and the family support programme.
(Family Economic Advancement Programme) (FEAP) inclusive were all geared towards the welfare of women especially those in rural areas in Nigeria. Even now things have not changed for the better, for rural women do not have well equipped health centres in their communities they spend a lot of time and energy in their family farms, they walked long distances carrying food stuffs to market and in most cases they have their babies strapped at their backs.
In the event of epidemic, more women and children die, rural widows are subjected to untold hardship and so on and so forth (Nworji 1999:20)
The rural women are the most deprived and degraded group of people in the country. women were deprived of their opportunities in so many ways like Educational, economic, political, social and cultural issues.
Educational: In the olden days parents believe that training women In school is a waste of money therefore their education is usually not seen as a tool to prepare them for life rather as being temporal until marriage. That is why male children are given preference over the female counterpart and the quality of education given to women are poor. This involves Educational Imbalance places women at a disadvantage over men and it enhances high rate of illiteracy among women and also limit their employment.
Economically: Women has been suffering under harsh economic as regards to their educational background. Sometimes their educational background cannot fetch them any good job and their economic background cannot give them any good business, most times their husband are in town working in paid employment the women stay back in the village with children since life there is relatively cheaper and less hectic, they rely on their husband for provision due to the lack of access to produce resources.
Society dose not enable the women to own land, so what is available to women through their husband may not be sufficient for their needs, and because they do not own land they were deprived of getting loan from the bank because bank doubt their abilities to repay loans and being that they do not own land it is difficult for them to have the document which they can use as collateral for loans.
Politically: In terms of politics it has been noted that women are pre-empted from leading political roles, Some have also admitted that political parties are Unwilling to field women candidates because of the belief that women are additionally disadvantages by their Unwillingness as mothers within a polygamous society to commit themselves totally to the vagaries of public life with the assurance that their children will be supported.
Socially: Women are accorded less value than men, women are orientated to occupations of low status in the society, women may be secretary but not a director, a nurse but not a doctor though some women have broken this myth, yet they are few in number.
(Asogwa 1998) worse still is where women do similar jobs with men, they receive less than men in rural areas they even work longer, yet earn less, it has also been noted that women suffer double exploitation, that of poor social amenities in rural area and sex discrimination,
(Asogwa 1990) women contribution to development are usually not given adequate recognition as that of men, which are often received with joy and appreciation.
Cultural: However, tradition and culture has made women in Nigeria prone to sex discrimination. It has disallowed women to take decision without their husband consent women also were deprived of owing their husband property when their husband died, traditional beliefs cast a pitiable status on the windows if she refuses to marry her late husband’s brother, she looses everything including land her means of livelihood.
Culturally: It is believed that women ought not to engage themselves with matters of public affairs in the community. They are traditionally separated from men in relation to membership of social organisation in the community such as “Ndiche”, “Ozo” title holders which are the decision making bodies in the community (Onah 1997).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The rural women has been suffering under harsh economic, Agricultural, legal limitation and traditional belief.
A good number of rural women are petty trader due to lack of enough capital out lay and due to their educational background which cannot fetch them any good job and their economic background which family cannot give them any good business in that process they end up eating from hand to mouth and they equally find it very difficult to feed their family.
In Agriculture for instance more women are found in agriculture in several part of Nigeria. Only few of them have any legal control over the land that they cultivate. Unfortunately too, land use decree made no mention of women in relation to right in lands. Socially contribution to development are usually not given adequate recognition as that of men and the worst of it is that in a process when women do similar job with men, women receive lees than men.
Legal limitation, women suffers when their husbandries. Their husband people well deprive them of their husband properties and their means of livelihood that was why a bill was introduced in order to protect the fundamental right of widows
Traditionally, women are disallowed to take decision without their husband consent; women opinions are regarded as nothing in the family.
The researchers question include:
- How does women suffer under harsh economy?
- Does government going to support rural women petty traders.?
- What are the level of resources provided to take care of rural women?
- To what extent does emergence of gender association in the ministry affect the provision of social service for the women in Enugu State?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The activities of the rural women are now being recognized and data being kept for future use. This is as a result of the activities of various organisations. The notable ones being the better life for rural women programme and the international fund for Agricultural Developments. These have brought into world glare the plight of the women and are playing supportive roles.
The main objective of the study is:
- To investigate the impact of the social service administration for the rural women in Nigeria.
- To identified the basic amenities necessary for the upliftment of rural women
- To suggest various measures required for social upliftment of rural women in Nigeria
- To access various commission and agencies that could enable women participate actively in politically, socially and economically.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would not only be of significance to rural women in Enugu state in particular but to rural women in Nigeria in general experts in public sectors management would benefit from this study as they would use it to update their knowledge on the subject.
PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS ENUGU
RESEARCHERS:- They would benefits from the study as it would serves as first hand information to them.
WOMEN:- It will be of significance to women so as to use it to take active part in nation building and eager to learn new ways of improvement.
MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS:- This study will also be of significance to the ministry of women affairs Enugu State, as they would use it to improve on their services to women in rural and urban areas.
Members of the public: This study would be of significance to the public to help contribute and support women’s welfare in the state.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis for this research work are formulated after thorough and careful review of work, the hypothesis of this work are as follows:
Hi Social service has helped in the enhancement of rural women in our communities.
Ho Social service does not help in the enhancement of rural women in our communities.
Hi The impact of social service administration has provided quality living standard for the women in the rural areas.
Ho The impact of social service administration does not provide quality living standard for the women in the rural areas.
Hi Women developments ministry has created awareness for rural women on matter concerning poverty alleviation.
Ho The Ministry has not created any sorts of awareness for rural women on matters that has to do with poverty alleviation.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study concentrate in defective coverage of rural women and their activities in local areas particularly in Enugu State where the population is mainly rural, also where the income are either very low or difficult to conceptualize in conventional terms. For instance in Nkanu East local government of Enugu State. There is no town, which has lock up stalls as a result of that women carry their wares on daily basis to the market, in that area business is most active on only market days which is only on (Afor) Ugbawaka market these affect those people in the sense that before the next Afor comes up again their perishable goods will be wasted and this hampered their economic empowerment.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Time Constraint: It hinders the researcher from producing a much better research work for instance a research of this nature would have required more time to enable the researcher to be more detailed, the researcher was engaged attending lectures, quiz, assignment and all that, hence there was not time for the researcher to be detailed.
Fund: Fund is another limitation of this work, lack of enough fund to travel out to different places to get required material for this work and also the cost of the computer work and the cost of producing the questionnaire.
The inability of the researcher to meet government officials on seat who should have provided adequate and useful information and the uncooperative attitude of respondent from government officials.
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
What is theory: Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines theory as a set of properly debated ideas intended to explain facts events or a principle on which a subject of study is based, theory is much more than prescription. It seeks primarily to explain and predict the future.
Theory is also a coherent groups of assumption put forth to explain the relationship between two or more observable fact which can be used to provide a sound basis for predicting future events.
There are so many types of theories they include:
- Political economy theory, which was propounded by karl Marx (1968) the theory refers to a historical or dialectical materialism, Marx asserts that political economy is the study of the sum total of the relations of production, the economic structure of the society.
- Ezeani O. E. (2004) the political economy theory emphasizes the centrality of the mode of production of the material life. According to Marx (1968) conditions of the social, political and intellectual life processes in general, the mode of production refers not merely to the state relations between men which resulted form their connections with the process of production. Ezeani quoting Aina (1986:4) opines that this approach emphasized the importance of domination, Exploitation, struggles and conflict between classes in any mode of production, but in this study it was dated to use group theory.
However, Aurthur Bentley group theory was adopted under which the framework would be analysed and based, Bentley who propounded the theory in (1908) define the group theory as a mass of activity rather than a collection of individuals which does not preclude the men who participate in it. From participating like wise in other group activities Bentley equally harped on the relationship between the social system and political behaviour. As he succinctly put it, society is nothing other than the complex of a group that composed it.
Trauman (1964), Conceive of a group as a collection of individual which on the basis of one or more share attitude, make certain claims upon other groups in the society for establishment, maintenance or enhancement of forms of behaviour that are implied the share attitude.
This bring to fruition the belief that it is only by studying the activities of a group that one can clearly have a picture of the working of the society.
It is important to note that the efficiency and effectiveness of the individual and society in participating in the running of the social activities will make them to realize their interest as a group and through this, harmony will be achieved in the society.
The theory is relevant to the study because women came together as a group for their own benefit and that of their community as a whole, they have show a remarkable preference over working as a group in regard to tackling of their economic problems, providing social service and promoting community solidarity.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
The following terms have been defined as they relate to the study:
- Impact:- it is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or something.
- Social Service:- Social service is concerned with meeting certain social needs and alleviating certain kinds of social problem which required a general public acceptance of mutual responsibility and which depend for their solution on the organizing of social relationships.
- Rural:- Rural communities have small population size and a low population density in ecological terms, Rural communities have no hinter land to speak of such. They are isolated; they consist of rural communities with their peculiar characteristic which include under development and economic backwardness.
- Social Administration:- It is a process of bringing community welfare through social change and the implementation of social policy decision for the total welfare of the community.
PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS ENUGU.