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A study on motivation as an effective tool for increase productivity in employees was conducted in Nigerian port authority plc Apapa Lagos. The significance of the study is to identify major problems hindering productivity and quality performance with reference of Nigerian ports authority plc Apapa Lagos, also to provide useful ideas on the problems of maintaining optimum level of productivity for quality performance through motivation.

Stratified random sampling was used to determiner the sample size and also the population of the study which was in three cadres ie senior piddle junior staffs. The data analysis and interpretation employed simple percentage table and (chi-square) (goodness-of-fit) test for analysis in order to validate the hypothesis and also to make the result more reliable. It was discovered that motivation employees led to increase organization productivity, significantly, it was discovered that the survival of an organization depended on the motivation of employees on the various types of motivation preferred by the employees, good working condition accounted for  66.7/6. which is actually surprisingly the good work, condition are inform of office conditions and the conducive environment to work so as to achieve the aims and objectives of the organization.





Out of the four factors of production, human resource remains the most important assert an organization. The extent to which this factors is managed, motivated and rewarded often determines the productivity and profitability of an organization. Motivation therefore constitutes the components that must of necessity challange the creativity and ingenuity of the human resources manager, Human beings make things happen, therefore efficient human resources enhance productivity.  Webster’s third New International Dictionary defines motivation as “the actor process of providing power from within the person which incites him to action, while the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “The process of stimulating the interest of somebody to do something”.

Both definitions imply that motivation is a voluntary process originating from within the individual who is carrying out the action. When we say we motivate a person, we are saying that we have provided some external stimuli; which starts off this voluntary. Process and gingers the individual to action. This may however be ephemeral or may last long depending on other contingent factors.The ideal motivation situation, however, is where the external motivating factors. Spark a chain reaction, which sustains itself, we talk of such situations as self motivating. The more strongly one needs a goal, the strongly the motivation and the better the changes of success in attaining the goal.

The correlation between human needs and motivation has been confirmed by researchers like Argris and likert beyond reasonable doubt. It is generally understood that for people to do anything. There must be a motive. It is important that managers of organization would appreciate the need for motivating their subordinates.The Nigerian ports authority PLC is an autonomous public corporation created by the port Act (cap 155) of the laws of the federation of Nigeria and Lagos. The authority Commenced operation on 1st April, 1955, at which date it assumed the responsibility of certain port and labour activities previously. Conducted by eight departments of the government of Nigeria.  All the same time, the authority was vested with the assets which had hitherto been used by the government in the conduct of their activities.

The port under the authority’s jurisdiction and surveillance are Burutu, Calabar, koko, Port-Harcourt, Sapele, Tin-can Island, Wari and Lagos Port. Also, included in this category are oil terminals at Bonny, Brass, Carailous Orkikika, Pennington and Qua-Ibore.

The statutory duties and some of the major function of the authority are

  • Responsible for the provision and operation of such cargo handling and quay facilities as may appear to the authority to best service the public interest in all parts.
  1. Responsible for maintaining, improving the regulating the harbours and the approaches thereto in all the ports of Nigeria presently open to ocean going vessels, and in such other ports as may be designated from time to time by the honourable minister of transport.

Responsible for dredging to desired depths and providing as well as maintaining pilotage services, lighting, light house, buys and other navigational aids in all Nigerian ports. Between 1955 and 1963, the administration of workers in the establishment was handled by expatriates with little or no delegation of responsibility into the hands of some few Nigerians who where fortunate to find their ways in, either, as fate would have it or because of their skills. This allowed the management of the organization to have as solute power of the establishment. The staff then could just only be seen and never to be heard, things started changing gradually until Nigeria obtained a republic status when a Nigerian was appointed as the general manager.

This then enhanced the employment of skilled Nigerians into positive of both skilled and unskilled to be employed for increase in productivity. With the law of large numbers, workers then pooled resources together to press and demand for improved conditions of services, thus led to the creation of Nigerian ports authority PLC workers union.  Since the establishment of this trade union levels of motivational incentives otherwise know as motivation.

For instance the staff development training school was established and management commend sponsorship of staff to higher institutions both home and abroad.

The essence of motivation in any organizational set up is to create conditions that will encourage workers to accomplish company’s objective.


There are various motivation programmes, but the most popular of them all are management-by-objective (MBO), job enrichment and the incentive system. Management by-objective (MBO) assumes that people need specific goals for accomplishment job enrichment provides employees with a greater sense of accomplishment, recognition and involvement in their work, with this approach, employees are given opportunity to plan, organize and control promotion of their jobs. The incentive system basically states that with incentives being provided for employees it will motivate employees to produce more. It can therefore be said that motivation human desires and willingness to work better. This what encourages management.

Having talked about workers at the lower level one should equally look into what motivates the directors and managers who are at top level of management. Researcher like Gardner, Herzberg have come to identify their motivators which are found to be especially important in the case of managers and directors. Firstly, the challenge in the work, if this is to be maximized, people must know the purpose and the scope of their job responsibility, what their authority is and what is expected of them and they must have a believe in the value of what they are doing.

The second aspect is the status conferred on the executive, although recognized for centuries by churches, the military and government.

Industry has come to see status as a motivation only in recent years, it includes titles, promotions and symbols, as office size and appointments as executives secretary and club-membership.

Thirdly, the urge to achieve and accomplish in leadership position, while it difficult at comes to distinguish from the desire for power


One of the critical responsibilities of any organization such as Nigerian ports authority PLc (Lagos) is to ensure the retention of a motivated work one way of accomplishing this is through a pay system that is effective and appreciative of workers. This is essential because effective pay programme can motivate employees to perform efficiently. It create a culture in which people care about the organization and it’s success. It can provide the fringe benefits that individual want in a effective manner. And moreover, it can help attract and retain the kind of talent that an organization needs in order to be effective.

However, in a depressed economy such as ours, the challenge becomes critical to motivate and maintain moral of the work force in the face of declining standard of living in a highly inflationary economy. The depressed state of the economy had effected the management of the Nigerian ports authority Plc (Lagos) to such an extent that all motivational factors were in a comatose which greatly affected the organization productivity.


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