PROJECT TOPIC:RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON HOUSING IN ABAKALIKI URBAN
This study was aimed at accessing rural-urban migration and its effect on housing in Abakaliki urban. The first chapter gave an insight into the background of the study, which tended to reveal the rural-urban migration and its housing. This chapter constitutes of the statement of the problem, significance of study, objectives of study were clearly stated.
This chapter also discussed the geographical description of the area of study. Chapter two reviewed the ideas of different researchers and athours on the topic under study. The third chapter placed this research under certain theoretical orientation. The researcher made use of two broad theories of Alignation theory by Karl Mark & lee S.C. to analysis the variable of this study.
These two theoretical framework analyzed in proper terms, rural-urban migration and its effect. Chapter four of this study created the research methodology used in this research work. This research adopted the questionnaire method in the study. Chapter five discussed the analysis of data, after which the four hypothesis which guided this study were tested. All these hypothesis were confirmed by the data. The last chapter of this summarized the findings of this study and certain recommendations were made on the subject matter.
Rural-Urban migration can be said to be a characteristics of developing nations of the world. It is no longer a phenomenon that can be seen or noticed in the industrialized or developed worlds in the sense that it is difficult to distinguish between rural and urban areas. What therefore exists in available rural areas to urban center is ready available in rural areas.
The case is different in developing countries. The rate of migration from the rural areas to the urban in the developing nations is so alarming because of the concentration of all the good schools, electricity, pipe-born water, health facilities and also industries in the cities. The provision of what is referred to as social amenities in the urban centers constitutes a factor that attract migration from rural to urban areas.
In addition the availability of employment opportunities and others, tend to bring rural-urban migration. Inspite of the fact that it is very necessary that we continue the development of urban centers, it is good that those infrastructural amenities which attract people to the urban area be provided in the rural areas, because this is one of the ways to check rural-urban migration.
One of the consequences of rural-urban migration is over population in which brings shortage of accommodation in the urban areas. Although Abakaliki is not yet Urbanized, still the problem of accommodation is already with the town. This forms the background from where this study arises.
Since Abakaliki became the state capital of Ebonyi state, a lot of people have migrated and still migrate from the rural areas and even from some urban areas and even from some urban areas into it. They come in search of job opportunities, apprenticeship trading, school etc. due to this migration of people from different areas into Abakaliki urban, problems of accommodation started. Over population in the area has lead to overcrowding. Many people live in crowded areas which affected the health and living standard of people.
Many house holds use a Kitchen and a bathroom in a building. Dust bins litter everywhere in the town. These lead to environment pollution in Abakaliki urban. Over crowding increases the risk of disease infection, rates of crime, social disorganization etc. This problematic situation prompted this study.
The questions to guide this study are:
- What are the effect of rural – urban migration on housing in Abakaliki urban?
- What are the relationships between urban migration status and quality of dwelling in Abakaliki
The general objective of this study is to investigate the issue of rural-urban migration with a view to asartaining its effect on urban housing. This research takes the following specific objectives.
- To know the effect of rural-urban migration on housing in Abakaliki
- To know the effect of rural-urban migration in living standard of people on housing in Abakaliki urban
- To consider the factors that makes people to migrate from rural to urban areas.
This work is hope to provides good understanding for the subject matter under study, thus, they will be of immense help in tackling the problem of its practical perspective.
For long, Nigeria government have formulated policies without the support of theoretical background. This study will, therefore supply so much needed background, if only Nigerian government will value the contributions of University trained minds.
Most of the developed countries today are great because they make use and still make use of research findings, which often originate from research work findings, which often originate from research work as one being conducted currently.
Furthermore, this study will also be of great benefit to future research. This type of work or study will equally be vital to town planners and government, so as to know how to minimize the issue of rural-urban migration and its consequences, this will, in fact help to determine how best the rural-urban will equate with resources, and also equal distribution of essential commodities to rural and urban area.
This research work will also help the urban planner to plan the urban structures in the way that it will accommodate people.
Finally, this work intends to find ways of controlling rural-urban migration consequences by putting some relevant solution to that effect.
This is a society where the social structures are at primary level, that is, not complicated in this type of society. Pattern of relationship is personalized and collective homogeny is emphasized here.
According to United Nation (UN) 1969:19, specification, an urban society is that society with about 200 inhabitants. It is society characterized by complex society structure and industrialization, relationship in impersonal and culture is heterogeneous.
With all this points been mentioned, Abakaliki is still a semi urban compared to other urban areas like Lagos, Enugu, Benin, Ibadan etc. because of the structures and pattern of building in the urban area of Abakaliki.
This implies the movement of individual or groups from one place of residence to another with the intention of remaining in the new place for some substantial period of time.
For the purposes of assessing some of the variable that influence rural-urban migration in Abakaliki urban, two number of hypothesis are put forward for testing.
- That rural-urban migration is related to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.
- That rural-urban migration generate unemployment.
According to Okereke (2004:156) Abakaliki capital territory covers 15kilimeters radius. It is the seat of Ebonyi State Government.
Before 1996 Abakaliki urban was only a local government secretariat.
In Abakaliki urban, there is many roads that leads to various streets and roads in Abakaliki urban
The government house of Ebinyi state is located along Ogoja road, along that Ogoja road there are many banks such as Union bank, first bank plc, Diamond bank and other banks along the same road. The state police headquarter is also located in the Ogoja road, now known as Sam O. Egwu way.
Abakaliki urban has some noticeable roads like Izza road, Gunning Road, Onwe road, Afikpo road, and others. Abakaliki urban has well constituted places where people lives such as kpirikpiri, Izza road,water works road, udemezua etc. in Abakaliki urban Izza road is a place where the commissioners, Doctors and other top government officers lives.
In terms of economic aspect of life Abakaliki urban have a very big market that generate a very big revenue for the state such as Abakpa main market, Rice mill Market, kpirikpiri market etc.
In population, Abakaliki urban is mostly populated by business men and women which come from different part of the world.
In terms of politics, Abakaliki is well known in politics because they have well trained politicians in Abakaliki urban ,.
In terms of schools in Abakaliki urban, there is many schools both secondary schools, primary, university and others in the urban, in Abakaliki urban there is parks and round about which links to different streets and roads in Abakaliki urban.
Religions in Abakaliki urban, there is Christians religion, Moslem religion, and also traditional religion in the town, but the most noticeable ones are the Christians religions like, Catholic Church, Anglican, Methodist, Deeper life, Grace family church and other churches in Abakaliki urban.
Finally Abakaliki urban is well plan with amenities like pipe-born water, electricity, good roads, electricities and socio amenities that give urban areas good structures.