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PROJECT TOPICS ON PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

PROJECT TOPICS ON PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The aim of this present research is to produce and asses the use of composite bread as part of dietary management of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Yusuf Dantsoho memorial hospital tundun wada, Kaduna. Ethical clearance and approval for the study was obtained from Kaduna state Ministry of Health, Scientific and Technical Committee. Informed verbal consent in the language understood by the patients or caregivers were obtained by giving questionnaires.

The product was prepared by using wholewheat, banana, orange, salt, sugar, yeast, margarine and water. The product was prepared by mixing, moulding, kneading, cutting, shaping, proofing, baking, cooling and packaging. The product was subjected to sensory evaluation and overall acceptability range from 7 – 8. Diabetic patients were fed with bread samples, fasting blood glucose level, 2 hours postprandial, physiochemical properties, proximate analysis were evaluated and glycated haemoglobin (HbAic) test were carried out.

Results of physiochemical properties of the composite bread, wholewheat bread and white bread indicates appearance to be brown in colour, taste sweet, pH ranges from 5.58 – 5.74, average weight of loaf 543. 34 – 585. 23g, ascorbic acid for composite bread, (0.41mg/g), energy ranges 1165. 21 – 1205.32kj/100g, brix content 2% – 22%. Proximate analysis indicates percentage moisture 34.14% – 38.74%, ash 0.75 – 1.52%, acid insoluble ash 0.26% – 0.38%, crude fat 5.00% – 6.50%, crude protein 2.88% -4.33%, crude fiber 0.5% – 6.00%, total carbohydrates 51.25 – 56.73%. Among the 64 diabetic patients, 30 patients were under control. Insulinogenic indices were analysed for both diabetic and non-diabetic patient. The research shows that enriched composite bread have higher nutrients content and can be used to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus.

CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increase thirst and increased hunger (Passmore,1989). If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced (Passmore,1989).

There are four main types of DM.Type 1 DM results from the pancreas failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile “diabetes” (Passmore,1989). Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult – on set diabetes.” The primary cause is excessive body weight and no enough exercise (Passmore,1989).

Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Malnutrition related diabetes which occur due to protein energy malnutrition and also found in patient with history of childhood malnutrition due to poor socio-economic status. As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people have diabetes worldwide, with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.

(W.H.O, 2014) This represents 8.3% of the adult population, with equal rates in both women and men from 2012 to 2014, diabetes is estimated to have resulted in 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year. The number of people with diabetes hasbeenforecasted to increase to 592million by 2035 (W.H.O, 2015). DMis a significant contribution to medical morbidity and mortality risk worldwide. Many factors are involved in the etiology of DM.

The general risk factor include age, obesity, physical inactivity and family history/previous history of gestational diabetes and poor eating habit. Diet supplies a significant portion of nutrients required for growth, maintenance of health andwell being. Dietary management is safer and cheaper.The use of special diabetes imported food supplement and drugs appear to be of no additional advantages in the management of diabetes, dietary control can be met with locally available commonly used foods which are more economical.

Plant based diets (especially whole foods) may successfully prevent, treat and even reverse type 2 diabetes including in children. Michael G, (2016) Composite bread is bread produced from mixtures of two or more flours. Composite bread produced from wholewheat flour, soyabean flour, banana and orange is highly nutritious and anti-diabetes. Dietary fibers in cereal, legumes, vegetable and fruits, contribute bulk to the diet and therefore helps in keeping calorie intake low at the same time promoting weight loss (Eleanor et al., 2013).

Recommended : EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACTS OF ERIOSEMA PSORALEOIDES ON SOME OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

1.1         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

DM is a severe major health problem that is increasing rapidly both in developed as well as developing countries predisposing suffers increase to cardiovascular mortality and serious morbidity and mortality related to development of nepropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy.The production of wheat in Nigeria is extremely low, compositing wheat flour with locally available cereals and fruits have been reported to be desirable (Adebowale et al., 2012). Diabetes drugs, on the other hand, have been found to increase the risks of heart attack, heart failure and death. Diet, regular exercise and weight loss may work just as well against diabetes. Michael G, (2016).There is a need to substantiate general claims in the society that locally produced foods can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus. There is a need to reduce ill health that result from dietary management hence this study. (Atlay and Laksonen, 2012).

PROJECT TOPICS ON PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BREAD FOR MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS IN YUSUF DANTSOHO MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, KADUNA, NIGERIA

1.2         JUSTIFICATION

Diet therapy has the double advantage of ameliorating DM while preventing hyper cholesterolaemia. There is a need to reduce complications that result from poor control of DMusing dietary management. Locally produced foods can be used in the management DM. Ideally, the initial management of NIDDM should be based on dietary therapy combined with increased physical activity. (Diabetes Prevention and Control 2012).

1.3         AIM

The aim of this research is to assess the use of composite bread as part of dietary management of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

1.4         SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

The specific objectives are to;

  1. Determine demographic and socio-economic status of type 2 diabetic patients.
  2. Document the knowledge attitude and practice of diabetic patients regarding dietary management.
  • Determine physcochemical properties and sensory evaluation of formulated composite bread.
  1. Determine the glyceamic index of the formulated composite bread inType 2 diabetic patients.
  2. Determinethe insulinogenicindex of the composite bread in type 2 diabetic patients.

1.5         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study has to do with the area coverage. The scope of this research work covered Tudun Wada, Kaduna South Local Government, Kaduna.

1.6         LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Constraint encountered while conducting the study

  1. The researcher identified monetary constraint or financial disability which is needed from the beginning to the end of the research work.
  2. Also, combining domestic and office work with study has not been quite easy as a researcher
  3. Political instability/strike action by the staff of Yusuf Dantsoho hospital.

See Also : PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF GARRI FORTIFIED WITH AFRICAN YAM BEAN

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