The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State 



The status of soybean production, processing and utilization in . . Okutu, Gzalla and Enugu urban, the three project sites investigated by the RFA and-conventional survey methods to document the status production, processing and utilization. A multidisciplinary team of nutritionist, food technologist, socio-economist and an agronomist were involved in the,surveys. Several IERn tools and a structured validated and pretested questionnaire were used for data collection, Non-parametric statistical methods were used. .

The results showed from analysis that in both Okutu, about half of the respondents knew what soybean is. In Ozalla, about half had heard of soybean but none knew what it is, Soybean was introduced into the Okutu community by an Agricultural Officer from old Anambra Agricultural Development Projects (ASADEP) but .production has not continued because the people could neither eat their seeds because they did not know how to use it. Local persons could not purchase the grains from luck of  knowledge . Consequently, only one) person who knew how to use it was  at the time of the survey and there was no production in Ozalla.

Processing and utilization were also very low even in Enugu val mills were available and urban consumers use more soybean. It is concluded that promotional activities on u emphasized since soybean is available in the urban markets. Additionally, production should be taught to none-producing areas
since the people of Ozalla were most willing to embark on soybean .production.

Marketing channels should also be arranged for the farmers. The major factors the farmers enumerate.ed that would stimulate them to produce soybeans were knowledge of how to cook and eat it; having markets to retail it and viable seeds to plant. . .







The problem of inadequate nutritional intake has been emphasized by ?ral investigators (Atinmo, 1983, Olusanya, 1980; Nnayelngo et a]., 1985). Among the nutrients, protein seems to be the one whose intake level is likely to be inadequate. This is because of the high cost of animal protein sources such as meat, fish, eggs and cultural factors which often forbid their use by certain physiological groups (Atimmo, 1983). Majority of the population therefore rely on plant protein sources for their protein intake.

Among the plant proteins legumes are widely consumed particularly in the Southern and Eastern parts of the country (Olusanya, 1980; Onochie, 1975; Nnanyelngo, 1982). Cowpeas, because o.f their ease of availability and preparation have been the major legume consumed in Nigeria. Soybean (Glvcine max), is a more proteinous and cheaper legume (Osho, 1988) and is grown in Nigeria, its use has been limited because production has been limited to the Northern states and most Nigerians neither know what it is nor how to use it., Soybean contains 40% protein compared to about 25% protein in cow-peas and its amino acid profile comes closest to that of animal products(1hepononye and Nnanyelngo, 1987).

The high nutritional value of soybean has groused the interest of many National and international agencies concerned with eradication of col[aboration with’ IITA initiated research on soybean utilization in IIrl’A and IAR&T. The first phaso (Phase I) of the project established that soybean is a versatile crop, that can be used for formulation of new recipes and fortification’of traditional foods in a highly acceptable manner. The success of this first phase of the project
stimulated the sponsors to extend the second phase of the project to other parts of the country of which Enugu state is one. The objective of the work in Enugu state was to promote the production, processing and utilization of soybean in the state

. However, before such a project could be started, it was necessary to do a baseline survey in order to establish baseline data against which the success of the
project could be measured. The work reported here aimed at investigating the leyds of production, processing and utilization of soybean in selected
locations in Enugu state, Nigeria.




The rapid rural.l appraisal (RRA) methodology and conventional research methodologies were used for the investigation. ‘ A multidisciplinary team made up of a nutritionist, a food technologist, a socioeconomic and an agronomist were involved in the study. Tlie RRA techniques uved included gathering  secondary data, direct observations, diagramming and mapping, wealth ranking find establishing c r o p~~i ncga lenders far wybcan. Others were hietoricltl
profiling, workshops, key informant interviews, checklists and semi-structured questionnaires and interviewing selected members of the  community individually, and in groups

The main instruction of the conventional survey was a validated and pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed in three parts, one for soybean producers, the second for a non-soybean producing area and the third for small scale processors. The first section sought information on socioeconomic characteristics of soybean producing  and non-producing populations. Additional information gathered for the producing populations were history of soybean production, processing and utilization. For non-producers, the questions centred on why they are producing and their willingness to start production . For the small scale processors information was sought on their volume and methods of soybean processing, packaging, storage and marketing.



The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State

methods of investigation



The names of soybean producing and non-producing villages were obtained from the agricultural officer in charge of Enugu state ADP at Nsukka. Permission was obtained from the Local Government Chairman and Chiefs of the selected villages and, towns as well as the Chairman of b Enugu urban to do the work in these areas. Two further visits were made by the coordinator and the socioeconomic to create some rapport with the 6 people and arrange for accommodation for the RRA work before the team moved into the locations.

During the RRA survey, members of the communities were interviewed until optimal ignorance as judged by the multidisciplinary team. As for the conventional survey, a list o f d l households in the villagers



The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State







It is a very well known fact that today, petroleum constitutes the mainstay of the Nigerian economy, contributing not less than 90% of the country’s total yearly revenue. This trend is not likely to change in the foreseeable future, even though efforts are being made by the Nigerian government to diversify the nation’s revenue base. One often wonders what Nigeria would have looked like without oil. To be endowed with resources is one thing, but the ability to harness such resources is another matter altogether.

Thus, though the occurrence of large reserves of petroleum in the Arctic wilderness of Alaska had been known for many years, it was only in the last ten years that the right technology for the successful implementation of exploration and. production programmes in the area became” vailable in economic terms. The use ohery high technology in the oil industry is something that is very well known. What is often not very obvious is the crucial role physics as a basic science has to do with it all. . In this paper, we will highlight the crucial role applied, physics plays in petroleum technology.

In order to be brief, and still achieve our set objective, we will neither attempt to cover the entire spectrum of petroleum technology, nor discuss all the fields of applied physics that form the bedrock of such technologies. Such an’ effort would constitute a very formidable assignment. Instead of that, we will concentrate on the role of geophysics (which is just one area of applied physics) in petroleum exploration and development. In Nigeria today, our entire producing tields are located in the Tertiary Niger Delta basin. Although serious exploration activities have been going on in someother areas, notably, theChad and Anambra basins, and more recently in the Upper ‘and Middle Benue Valley, it is clear that exploration is now extending more and more into very hostile, high risk environments (Onuoha, 1987). This is already the case with Nigeria’s deep offshore where petroleum prospects are now known to exist, but at much higher cost and risk. This calls for the use of increasingly more sophisticated technology, and the geophysicists and petrophysicists in the industry havc to rise to the challenge.


Since exploration is the ‘cornerstone of the oil industry, and since without it our tcnown reserves (and exploitable resource base) would be used up, leading to the death of the industry, it means that geophysics is the bedrock of the industry. Geophysics is themajor tool used to image the interior of the Earth and unravel its contents, including the hydrocarbons that are so vital to our economy. Even though other professionals, notably geologists
andpetroleum engincp.rsplay important roles in petroleum explo- Iation and production (E & P), the role of the geophysiscist is central to itall Figure 1,illustratesdiagrammatically thiscentralised role when we examine the interactions between the geologist, .petrophysicist, reservoir engineer, and geophysicist in moving from how to understand “the known” to being able to predict “the unknown” below the surface of the Earth.

As is wellknown, severalmethods of exploration geophysics’ exist. Each of these methods is based on monitoring variations in a particular physical property (e.g. changes in magnetic susceptibility andpolarisation-magnetic methods; changes in elastic properties/ changes in velocity and mode of propagation of wavesseismic method). The most common methods of geophysical exploration are li~tedin Table 1below. For many obvious reasons all the geophysical methods do not enjoy the same degree of popularity or applicability in petroleum exploration. Gravity and magnetic methods are used extensively as reconnaissance tools in the cady sUlge~of p(;.wleuIn ~xploration. Their main application is in determining the general morphology and thickness of sediments above consolidated basement and in the delineation of major structures and faults in the basin.






Severa.1 studies carried out in sampling with partial replacement of units assumed total response from the sample units. The present study looks at the situation where some sample units do not supply the necessary information.
The estimates of the population tota.1 and change in the population total from one occasion to the next have been adjusted for unit non-response using Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) technique. It has been shown empirically that the estimator, T, obtained from partial matching at the first and second sta.ges of sampling is more efficient than the estimator, To, obtained when there is no partial matching of units.
The proposed estimators’ hwe been applied to the estimation of total hectares of land planted in 1999/2000 planting season and change in the land planted between 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 planting seasons in Botswana.


In estimating population parameters like the mean, total or ratio, sample survey experts sometimes use; auxiliary information to improve precision
of the estimates. If the survey is repetitive in nature, past values of the variable of interest may be used as an auxiliary to improve on . the precision of the current estimate. In such repetitive surveys, a fraction of the original sample units may be retained for use at the – curreilt occasion, while the remaining fraction is selected afresh. This procedure is called sampling oa successive occasions or sampling with partial replacement of units (Ware and Cunia, 1962; Raj, 1965; Frayer and Furnival, 1967). Other researchers who have worked on successive sampling include Singh (1968), Kathuria (1975) and Arnab (1980). These authors assumed that there is complete response from all the sample units.
It is well known especially in human surveys that information is usually not obtained from all the sample units even after callbacks. Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) proposed a simple procedure of sub-sampling the non-respondents in order to adjust for the non-response in a mail survey. This method has been applied by Okafor and Lee (2000) in double sampling for ratio and regresion estimation. Okafor (2001) extended , this work to the estimation of the population total in element samplivg on two successive occasions. Consider a finite population of N first stage units (fsu’s) in which the i-th fsu (2 = 1,2,. -. , N) consists of Mi second stage units (ssu’s).

Let x i j ( p t j ) be the value of variable of interest at the first (secorid) occasion for the j-th ssu ( j = 1’2, . . . , Mi)in the i-th fsu. Also, let be their respective population totals. In this paper, two-stage sampling Two-Stage Sampling strategies over two successive occasions have been proposed Vor the estimation of the current population total and change in totals when there is non-response on the two occasions. The Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) procedure is used in this case to adjust for non-response. Srinatli (1971) used a procedure different from Hansen and Hurwitz (1946), for selecting the subsample of non- respondent,^ where the subsampling fraction varies according to the nonresponse rates. He applied his procedure in one time element sampling. The variance ob- i tained through his procedure does not involve the population response rate W. However, his procedure is not the subject of my present study.

2 Sampling Strategies

Sampling Scheme 1
First Occasion :
Select n first stage units (






Vertical electrical resistivity soundings were conducted in order to delineate the groundwater potentials at some locations in Ezza North Local Government of Ebonyi State. Twelve vertical electrical soundings were obtained using the Schlumberger configuration with the aid of the OHMEGA terramenter (SAS1000). The field data were subjected to interpretation by employing the method of partial curve matching techniques using the master curves and the corresponding auxiliary curves. A computer programme (RESOUND) was used to interpret the resistivities and the thicknesses of the subsurface. The parameters obtained were used to determine the resistivities and thicknesses of the subsurface layers. Two profiles, VES11 and VES 12 indicated eight geoelectric layers. Five geoelectric layers were evident at five locations namely VES 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10. Data from the remaining five locations (VES 1, 2, 5, 6 and 9) revealed six layers each. The major lithologic units of the area are shales, sandstone and mudstone. The water bearing rocks were interpreted to exist at depths between 20m and 130m in most of the VES locations. The results fairly correlated with some logged boreholes close to the survey area. The aquifers have resistivities ranging between 9Ωm and 110Ωm.The geophysical search for groundwater has shown that the survey area has good groundwater potentials which if exploited would go a long way in reducing the problems of seasonal water shortage and possible health problems associated with the consumption of unhygienic surface water in the area.


1.1 Background

Groundwater is one of the very important natural resources. Though it is true that greater percentage of the earth’s surface is composed of water including seas, oceans, rivers, streams, ponds and others, yet none of these surface sources is as hygienic or as economical for exploitation as the groundwater (Singh, 2007). The amount of fresh water available for human use is less than 0.08% of all the water on the planet (BBC Sci/Tech News, 2000). Groundwater is recommended for its natural microbiological quality and its general chemical quality for most uses (McDonald et al., 2002). Due to its scarcity, water related diseases are found in many parts of the world. In Nigeria, for example, Okoronkwo (2003) attributed the guinea worm infestation in some parts of Ebonyi State to ignorance and lack of safe drinking water. The people, according to him, lacked boreholes and depended only on ponds and other existing contaminated sources.
Over the years, boreholes have usually been drilled with or without previous knowledge of the subsurface stratification in search of water. As a result of multiple failed boreholes, researches grew towards minimizing failed wells, thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of drilling (Adetola, and Igbedi, 2000). Tremendous breakthroughs have been recorded in the use of electrical methods used in the exploration of the subsurface minerals (Selemo et al., 1995). Geophysics involves the measurement of contrasts in the physical properties of materials beneath the surface of the earth and the attempt to deduce the nature and the distribution of the materials responsible for these observations at the surface.

It involves the application of the principles of physics to the study of the earth. The geophysical methods used in the investigation of the shallow features of the earth’s crust vary in accordance with the physical properties of rocks. In seismic method of exploration, seismic waves travel with different speeds through different materials due to variations in their elastic moduli and densities. Variation of densities in the subsurface can as well lead to change in gravitational acceleration at the surface (gravity method). Measurable differences in magnetic field can be obtained at field sites due to variations in magnetic susceptibilities, referred to as magnetic method.
Similarly, variations in the electrical conductivities of rocks and sediments can produce different values of apparent resistivities as the distances between measuring probes are increased or as the position of the probe is changed on the surface (electrical resistivity method). Electrical resistivity is one of the physical properties which can be used to distinguish among different rocks. This is because the resistivities of different rocks and minerals vary widely. While igneous rocks containing no water have very high resistivities, metallic ores have very low resistivties (Telford et al., 1990).

The apparent resistivity of the subsurface as measured on the surface is a function of the current, the recorded potential difference and the geometry of the electrode array. Presence of water substantially controls the variation of the conductivities in the shallow subsurface. The measurements indicate water saturation and connectivity of pore spaces because water-bearing rocks and minerals have lower resistivities and electric current usually follows the path of least resistance (Ezema, 2005). Resistivity methods have been found successful for locating and accessing groundwater. It is cost effective and subject to careful study of the geology of the survey area.



Hence, the geology of the study area must be well known before embarking on resistivity survey. In electrical resistivity survey, current is passed into the ground through two current electrodes. Two other electrodes are used to measure the resulting potential difference produced by this current. The information is used to calculate the apparent resistivity of the rock. All substances act to retard the flow of electric current so that energy must be expended to move charged particles. The extent to which a substance restrains this movement is described by its electrical resistivity. The principal goal of electrical resistivity surveying is to measure this physical property as a basis for distinguishing layering and structure of the earth.
The two main types of procedures employed in resistivity surveys are vertical electrical sounding VES, and constant separation traversing CST. In constant separation traversing, which is used to determine lateral variation in resistivity, the current and potential electrodes are maintained at a fixed separation and progressively moved along a profile. In vertical electrical sounding, the current and the potential electrodes are progressively expanded about a fixed central point. By progressively expanding the current electrodes, readings of the potential difference are taken as current reaches to greater depth. This gives the information on the resistivities and thicknesses of the underlying horizontal strata.

The modern equipment for measuring the potential difference and the current is the signal averaging system (SAS) terrameter. The resistivity of the subsurface material is a function of the magnitude of the current, the recorded voltage and the geometry of the electrode configuration. The electrical resistivity obtained is termed “apparent” because it is not likely that the subsurface materials beneath the survey area are homogeneous. The apparent resistivities are subject to interpretation techniques including the curve matching and/or computer interpretation. Based on the resistivities and the thicknesses of the underlying formations and the available geology of the area, the depth to water bearing rocks (aquifer) may be estimated.

1.2 Location of the study area

The area under survey lies between latitudes 060081 and 060171 north of the equator and longitudes of 070521 and 080001 east of the Greenwich Meridian. Figure 1.1 is the map of Nigeria showing the location of Ebonyi State. The map of the area under survey, Ezza North Local Government Area, is shown in figure 1.2. The area which covers about 246 squared kilometres lies in the south eastern part of Abakaliki, off Enugu-Ogoja highway. Abakaliki is about 62km South East of Enugu and about 22 kilometres West of Afikpo in Ebonyi State.

The global positioning system (GPS) receiver was used in the field to obtain the global grid positions of the vertical electrical sounding points, including the longitudes, latitudes and the elevations. This instrument receives its data from the GPS satellite. The GPS locations of field stations are shown on table 1.1. In addition to Enugu-Ogoja Road, the survey location can equally be accessed through the Onueke market along the Abakaliki – Afikpo Expressway.

1.3 Geology of the area

The study area belongs to the Asu River group shales. According to Reyment (1965), the sediments of the Asu River






These findings documented the physical, chemical and heavy metal contents in leachate, borehole water, surface stream, treated water
and soil samples around the municipal solid waste dumpsite at Uyometropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Samples were collected during
the wet and dry seasons 2010/2011. The samples were analysed for the following parameters: heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb), anions
(PO3 4,SO2- 4,Cl-, NO- 3, NH+ 4-N), essential metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), Chemical oxygen demand
(COD), pH, salinity, turbidity and conductivity. The results revealed that most of the parameters recorded for the leachate samples significantly
exceeded the WHO international standards for drinking water in both seasons. Fe (47.33 and 113.13mg(L), Cd (2.29 and 14.47mg/l), Cu (5.78
and 35.87mg/l), Cr (1.63 and 7.63mg/l), Pb (12.33 and 31.13mg/l), Z  (17.33, and 34.5mg/l), BOD (52.2 and 159.6mg/l), Cl- (284.37 and 536mg/l), NO- 3 (74.03 and 87.83mg/l), TDS (1709.5 and 2043mg/l) and DO (1.73 and 2.73mg/l). In leachate, all the heavy metals, Cl-, COD, salinity, and conductivity contents showed significant increase (P<0.05) while SO2- 4 recorded significant decrease (P<0.05) during the dry season. The physico-chemical contents recorded for the borehole water and treated water samples in both seasons agree with the international standards for drinking water, except for high PO4 – content (1.13 to 2.17mg/l) recorded for the borehole water samples in both seasons which exceeded the WHO permissible limit of 0.1mg/l for drinking water. The borehole water sample recorded significant increase (P<0.05) in Fe, Mn, Na, K. and a significant decrease in SO2- contents during the dry season. The stream water sample recorded high Fe (0.61 and 2.5mg/l) content in both seasons and high Mn (2.37 mg/l), Cr (0.42mg/l), Cd (0.46mg/l) and Cu (3.95mg/l) contents during the dry season which exceeded the WHO international standard for drinking water. The stream water samples recorded significant increase in BOD5, Cu, Mn, Cd and Cr contents during the dry season (P<0.05). The heavy metal contents recorded for soil samples from the dumpsite, from 10 and 20m east, west, south and north of the dumpsite and from the control site were all within the WHO international standards in both seasons. The heavy metal contents in the dumpsite soil sample in both seasons were significantly higher; pb (9.90 and 11.82mg/kg), Zn (1370 and 146mg/kg), Ni (12.56 and 11.82mg/kg), Cr (3.60 and 4.05mg/kg) Cd (9.05 and 12.2mg/kg) and Mn (94.0 and 91.2mg/kg) In both seasons than the control; Pb (3.78mg/kg) Zn (50.90mg/kg), Ni (2.19mg/kg), Cr (1.06mg/kg), Mn (44.27mg/kg), and Cd (1.09mg/kg). Heavy metal contents for soil samples 10 and 20m east of the dumpsite were also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. This study infer that the solid waste dumpsite is affecting the natural quality of the ambient environment. Therefore indiscriminate dumping of solid waste at the dumpsite should be prohibited.


1.1 Background of the study

The municipal solid waste dumpsite (MSWD) examined is located within the barrack’s road street at Uyo Metropolis; Akwa – Ibom State. The dumpsite examined contains both biodegradable and non biodegradable materials of all sorts. The different waste materials may contain different physical, chemical and biochemical properties. In the presence of atmospheric water, high temperature and high microbial populations, these waste materials may decompose and get dissolved in the presence of water to generate a waste liquid substance called leachate. This waste water produced may infiltrate into the ground water aquifer, it may be washed into a near by surface stream and it may affect the soil properties. When humans come into direct contact with such contaminated samples, it may lead to many health problems.
Pollution occurs when a product added to our natural environment adversely affects nature’s ability to dispose it off. A pollutant is something which adversely interferes with health, comfort, property or environment of the people. Generally, most pollutants are introduced in the environment as seawage, waste, accidental discharge and as compounds used to protect plants and animals. There are many types of pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, nuclear pollution and oil pollution (Misra and Mani, 1991).
Solid wastes other than hazardous and radioactive materials are often referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
Municipal solid waste is useless unwanted material discharged as a result of human activity. Most commonly, they are solids, semisolids or liquids in containers thrown out of houses, commercial or industrial premises (Nyangababo and Hamya, 1980). Municipal solid waste varies in composition, which may be influenced by many factors, such as culture affluence, location etc. Municipal solid waste management depends on the characteristics of the
solid wastes including the gross composition, moisture contents, average particle size, chemical composition and density, in which knowledge of these usually helps in disposal plans (Sally, 2000).

In Nigeria, agencies like the Federal Environmental Protection Agencies (FEPA), Ministry of environment, Environmental Sanitation Authorities, for example Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection Agency (AKSEPA) and even local authorities are responsible for planning a defined line of action for the disposal of waste generated on daily basis in our society.



The report that refuse dumps have caused traffic delays in some strategic parts of our urban centers and cities is an example of poor management of refuse dumps in Nigerian towns and cities (Umaakuta and Mba, 1999). According to Eddy, Odoemelem and Mbaba (2006), the series of problems are as a result of lack of designed strategies that can be based on scientific principles and approach.
However, human endeavours, such as technology, industrialization, construction, trade, commerce, as well as nutrition have rendered the whole environment system a “throw away society”. This is true because indiscriminate disposal of waste coupled with increasing world population and urbanization have combined to worsen the situation day in, day out (Eddy et al., 2006).
According to Holmes (1992), site selection for waste disposal is generally based on geographic rather than geological and hydro geological considerations, that is the closer the site to the source of the waste the better in terms of transport cost reduction. It is not uncommon therefore to find waste disposal sites within municipal boundaries and surrounded by residential areas. Clearly such sites pose-serious health risk just in terms of
problems associated with litter, stray dogs, scavenging birds, rats and air borne contaminants from mobilization of fine particulate matter.
Despite the best attempts at waste avoidance reduction, reuse and recovery (recycling, compositing and energy recovery), landfills and waste disposal sites are still the principal focus for ultimate disposal of residual wastes and incineration residues world-wide (Waite, 1995). The placement and
compaction of municipal wastes in land fills facilitates the development of facultative and an aerobic conditions that promotes biological decomposition of land filled wastes. Hence, leachates of diverse composition are produced, depending on site construction and operational practices, age of the landfill,
landfill method, climatic and hydro geological conditions and surface water ingress in to the landfill (Campbell, 1993).
A landfill is an engineered waste disposal site facility with specific pollution control technology designed to minimize potential impacts. Landfills are usually either placed above ground or contained within quarries pits. Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachates and its migration through refuse (Christensen and Stengmann, 1992).
According to Amina, et al., (2004), leachate corresponds to atmospheric water that has percolated through waste, interacting with bacteriological activity and especially organic substances. Its composition is a function of the nature and age of the land fill, type of waste, the method of burying, the geological nature of the site and climate.
Leachate pollution is a result of mass transfer process. Waste entering the landfill reactor undergoes biological, chemical and physical transformations, which are controlled among other influencing factors, by water input fluxes. In the reactor, three physical phases are present; the solid phase (waste), the liquid phase (leachate) and the gaseous phase. In the gaseous phase, mainly carbon (prevalently in the form of CO2 and CH4) is present.
The main environmental aspects of landfills leachate are the impacts on surface water quality, ground water quality as well as soil quality, if leachate is discharging into these bodies (Christensen et al., 1992).
According to Paster, et al., (1993); De-vare and Bahadir, (1994), uncontrolled leachates may exert deleterious effects on the environment, especially the input of high concentrations of organic leachate and inorganic solutions of metals at low oxidation states into water course which apparently depletes the dissolved oxygen content of the water and ultimately lead to extinction of all oxygen depending life. Also the nonbiodegradable organic compounds in the leachate will persist for a long time.

These compounds may adversely affect aquatic species when they are assimilated into food chains.
Ground water is that portion of subsurface water which occupies that part of the ground that is fully saturated and flows into a hole under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Groundwater occurs in geological formations called aquifer. An aquifer (gravel/sand) may be defined as a geological formation that contains sufficient permeable materials that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs; this implies an ability to store and transmit water (Chae, 2000). Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for human kind.

It contains over 90% of the fresh water resources 5 and is an important reserve of good quality water. Groundwater, like any other water resource, is not just of public health and economic value it also has an important ecological function (Armon and Kitty, 1994). Groundwater contamination by landfill leachate is increasingly recognized as a serious problem (Hussan, et al., 1989; Loizidous and kapetanois, 1993; kwanchanawong and Kootlakers, 1993; Al-Muzains and Muslamani, 1994).
Soil is the collection of natural materials occupying part of the earth surface that may support plant growth, and which reflects the pedogenetic processes acting over time under the associated influences of climate, relief, living organisms, and parent materials. Soil pollution is caused by the removal or addition of substances and factors that decreases it






This study examines the Platonic Republic and the Challenges of the Nigerian State. There exist plethora of scholarly submissions on the aforementioned topic; most of the scholars that have explored the issue under discussion centered their argument on Platonic State and Democracy in
Africa, structure of leadership and Plato’s ideas, Plato’s Republic and leadership question in Africa. This study takes another dimension to looking into Plato’s Republic and the Challenges of the Nigerian State with emphases on Plato’s philosophy in the Republic and political charge in Nigerian State as well as accumulation of private property and the realization of a Platonian State in Nigeria. The hypotheses were validated and accepted; secondary source of data were employed in data collection while the social contract served as the lens through which the study was treated. Useful recommendations were made through the articulated conclusion



The most comprehensive collection of Plato’s philosophical idea appears in the fundamental principles for the conduct of human life. The societies are formed for a particular purpose. Individual human beings are not self-sufficient; no one working alone can acquire all of the necessities of life. In order to resolve this difficulty, we gather together into communities for mutual achievement of our common goals. This succeeds because we can work more efficient if each of us specializes in the practice of a specific craft or job.

Thus, Plato held that separation of functions and specialization of labour are keys to the establishment of a worthwhile society (Morrow,1988). The society composed of many individuals, organized into distinct class according to the value of their role in providing some component part of the common good will lead to ideal society. But the smooth operation of the whole society will require some additional services that will guide the disputes among members of their interactions and the defense of the state against external attacks.

Therefore, carrying the principle of specialization further, Plato proposed the establishment of class of citizens; the philosophers or guardians, the auxiliaries or soldiers and the producers or workers (Mbah, 2006). The pyramid of the state is therefore made up of three layers: philosophers or guardians on top, auxiliaries or soldiers in the middle and the producers or workers to serve the numerically largest group of producers at the base. Plato insists that there should always be a clear distinction between these groups (Nwoko, 2006).
Perhaps and more importantly, Plato was convinced that the philosophers had the knowledge, intellect and training to govern. A philosopher by his grasp of the Ideal of Good is best qualified to rule. The philosopher would be able to administer Justice and act for the good of the community. The philosopher has the qualities of a ruler, namely Truthfulness, Discipline and Courage. Plato pointed out that an ideal state ruled by the philosopher ruler is a divine institution perfectly worthy of emulation and imitation (See Subrata & Sushila, 2007). Accordingly, Wolin (1960) noted that existing states were imperfect because philosophers were not rulers. The Ideal State is the Good Society. And the Good Society possesses the following qualities viz; Wisdom,  Courage, Discipline and Justice (Wolin, 1960).
Having developed a general description of the Good Society, Plato maintained that the proper functions performed by its disparate classes, working together for the common good will provide the Good society, because they develop significant social qualities.The Ideal State is the Just State. And the Concept of Justice is a permanent quality and attribute of the human soul. Therefore, the ideal state based on Justice is the earthly manifestation of the human soul (Nwoko, 2006). Plato held that every human being include three souls that correspond to the three classes of citizen in the state, each of them contributing in its own to the successful operation of the whole person.
• The rational soul (mind or intellect) is the thinking portion within each of us, which discerns what is real and not real.
• The spirited soul (will or volition) is the active portion, its function just to carry out the dictates of reason in practical life. Courageously doing whatever the intellect has determined to be best.



• The appetitive soul (emotion or desire) is the portion of each of us that want and feels many things (Morrow, 1988).
On Plato’s views then, any human being is properly said to be just when the three souls perform their functions in harmony with each other, working in consonance for the good of the person as a whole.As a well-organized state the justice of an individual human being emerge only from the interrelationship among its separate components. Plato’s account of a tripartite division within the self has exerted an enormous influence on the philosophy of human nature. However any adequate view of human life requires some explanation or account of how we incorporate intellect, volition and desire in the whole of our existence. Therefore, true justices are a kind of good health attainable only through the harmonious corporative effort of the three souls (Morrow, 1988).
Britain is in many ways a meritocracy after Plato’s heart. Although there is a dignified part of the constitution in which Parliament plays a key role, and democratic elections take place at intervals, power has been steadily leaking away from Westminster to Whitehall. The Dements of State pay nominal obeisance to their Ministers, and when there is an inter-departmental dispute the Cabinet can exercise real power; but for the most part the Minister has neither the time nor the knowledge to make his Department do what it does not want to do.

In that sense the real power in twentieth century Britain is substantially exercised by civil servants, themselves selected by examination after a rigorous academic course, often in philosophy. Civil servants, though sometimes said by MPs to be political eunuchs, are not real eunuchs, and have wives and families to prove it. But their wives and families play no part in their public lives and have no political power. Although the wife of a senior civil servant is addressed as “Lady”, she has much less pull than the Ladies, or even the mistresses, of previous ages.

She is kept in purdah in the suburbs, well away from the corridors of power. Nor is it any advantage to be the child of a civil servant. Britain is an enthusiastic meritocracy, and parental pull is rigidly excluded from all selection processes. We deal with the problem of sex by legitimating it but separating it from everything of public importance. A rigid separation between public and private life ensures that amorous ambitions and family loyalties have no influence on the course of events.


The thrust of this study is to examine or discuss the Platonic Republic and the challenges of Nigerian State. It is baffling that the role of leadership corruption in the Nigerian state is a challenge and had exponentially deepened that the nation Nigeria has not been able to think out a proper framework for engagement on this rapid growth of leadership failure since it gained its Independence in 1960. This was observed when the country returned to civil rule since 1999, there is no doubt that leadership failure has been the bane of democratic stability and survival.
Therefore, news about bad leadership that effect corruption is no longer stunning (Ogundiya, 2009).
Regrettably, since independence a notable surviving legacy of the successive politic






Africa has been by far the most important regional setting for the peacekeeping operations of the United Nations. This is as a result of decades of unending and increasing tensions which have been complex and multidimensional in Africa. This research gives a general background on the emergence and causes of conflict in Africa. It critically analyzes the reasons why most countries engulfed by war especially the Democratic Republic Congo have
always allowed the United Nations to mediate in their conflicts. Therefore, in the context of the research, we are able to articulate whether the UN peacekeeping efforts in Africa have been able and effective in preventing wars in the region, whether the Congo crises is beyond the capacity of the United Nations and whether peacekeeping operation is capable of resolving the intractable conflicts which have ravaged Africa over the years. Having
subjected the above questions to empirical verification, it was however concluded that the United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Africa have not been effective in preventing wars in the region, that the Congo crises is beyond the capacity of the UN and that only peacekeeping operations cannot resolve the conflicts in Africa. The systems theory enunciated by David Easton serves as the explanatory framework to understand better how the UN operates to achieve its goals. Data gathering is mainly on secondary sources. Our findings in this dissertation however provide evidence that recovery from war and its aftermath is a protracted process in conflict impacted states such as the Democratic Republic of Congo especially when war is superimposed on decades of social, economic and political decline. In the light of the above findings, we recommend that UN should be constructively reformed to better respond to modern realities. The protection of the civilians, provision of the basic amenities of life and improvement in human rights should be the top priority of the government of Democratic Republic of Congo. Unless good governance is prized, Africa will not break free of the threat and the reality of conflicts which are so evident today.



Most nations in Africa got their Independence in the 1960s, after series of struggles to emerge free from European colonialism. After those years of nationalist struggle, the muchvaunted stability by African states has become an illusion. This is due to the fact that conflict has continuously been an ever present phenomenon in the affairs of Africa. Thus, one can say that conflicts in the past years are multifaceted and manifest in various forms that is ethnic, religious, economic, social, political and so on. More often than not, these conflicts have engendered in spirit of disunity, acrimony and hatred in some African societies and sometimes culminate in violence and even armed conflicts.

The ethnic and religious crises have enormously increased conflicts and tensions especially in Africa. These conflicts have gulped an appalling toll of human lives and property as well as polarizing many African states. Ethnic nationalism and consciousness have a force in the armed conflict in most African states like that of Sudan (between the “Amharans” and minorities like Tigreans Oromis etc) and also the major source of political instability in Nigeria, Togo, Libya, Congo, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, just to mention a few countries. Many Sub-Saharan African states have been warring since the 1980s. Poverty is also a cause of instability and civil conflict across the continent.

Political corruption, no respect for rule of law is also reasons for much of the strife. Artificial borders were drawn through territories by European colonists, throwing unfamiliar groups of Africans together and thus, inciting conflicts Colonialism in no doubt also contributed to the escalation of conflicts in Africa. Since the Berlin Conference during the late 1800s, European nations have been carving up Africa and settling regions for themselves. European administrations were put in place with the help of Africans. Many Africans gained power by inventing lineages that were supposed to prove their right to rule. These actions incited tribalism and led to strife amongst the people.

The UN Secretary General however noted in a report to the UN Security Council that: Colonial rule bequeathed to Africa not only arbitrary boundaries which contributed to conflicts between states and made national unity within states more difficult, but it also left a legacy of authoritarian governance. In far too many African countries, the leaders of the newly independent states pursued a heavy centralization of political and economic power and suppressed political pluralism.

This often led to corruption, nepotism, complacency and the abuse of power. (Kofi, 1998:10). As to why ethnic conflict is more severe in Africa than other parts of the world, Okwudiba Nnoli(1998:38) provide various explanations, including the fact that colonial incursions exploited and compounded inter-ethnic inimicable relations. For example, in countries like Nigeria, Burundi, Rwanda, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mauritania, Kenya, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zimbabwe, colonial powers utilized the segmentation of ethnic groups to their advantage.

The divide-and-rule policies of colonial administrators assured the docility of different ethnic groups and thus shielded them from the menace of insurrection. In other words, it was feasible to divide ethnic groups and pit them against each other so that they could focus their energies on fighting one another rather than overthrowing colonial governments.
Nnoli, also noted that capitalism is also responsible for the severity of ethnic conflict in Africa. As people perceive other groups to be more economically secure, they often turn to ethnicity as an anchor, particularly if those who are economically better off belong to a different ethnic group. This is not mere jealousy, but a need for every person to be economically secured, exacerbated by the inability or refusal of those who possess wealth to equally distribute resources. Whether it is the peasants in rural Nigeria, the impoverished indigenous people of Liberia, or blacks in Mauritania, they are all pushed into conflict by socio-economic needs.



Despite decades of con flict, death and tragedy, coverage of issues in Africa has often been ignored, oversimplified, or excessively focused on limited aspects. Deeper analysis, background and context has often been lacking, so despite what seems like constant images of starving children in famines, news of billions in aid to Africa from generous donor countries, the background context and analysis is often missing. Whether aid makes the situation worse, or why there is famine and hunger in Africa when African nations are exporting crops to other parts of the world are rarely asked by the mainstream.

However, following the failure of the league of Nations to maintain a global peace and security leading to a disastrous Second World War which dealt heavy blow on the people and property of the nations, cognizance of the fact that war was so unrivaled in the history of wars in terms of extent of destruction of lives and property, following the fears and opinion expressed by the nations and individuals as regards the possibility of a reoccurrence of such war on a more devastating scale if the desires of nations are not checked and the need to check them in the interest of mankind, the United Nations Organization was set up in 1945.

In other words, it should be noted however that as the Second World War unfolded, it became clear that the League had failed in its chief aim of keeping the peace. The League had no military power of its own. It depended on its members’ contributions; and its members were not willing to use sanctions, economic or military. Moral authority was insufficient. A report from the United Nations publications in 2000 noted that several Big Powers failed to support the League: the United States crucially never joined; Germany was a member for only seven years from 1926 and the USSR for only five years from 1934; Japan and Italy both withdrew in the 30s.

The League then depended mainly on Britain and France, who were understandably hesitant to act forcefully. It was indeed difficult for governments long accustomed to operating independently to work through this new organization. Even as the Second World War raged, the leaders of Britain, China, the US and the USSR, under intense pressure from the press and public, discussed the details of a post-war organization. In 1944 representatives of China, the UK, the US and the USSR meeting at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, prepared a blueprint for an international organization.

Towards the end of the war representatives of 50 countries gathered in San Francisco between April and June 1945 to hammer out the final text, which would lay the foundations of international cooperation. This was the Charter of the United Nations, signed on 26 June by 50 countries. Poland, the 51st country, was not able to send a representative to the San Francisco conference but is considered an original member. Although the League was abandoned, most of its ideals and some of its structure were kept by the United Nations and outlined in its Charter. The ideals of peace and social and economic progress remained the basic goals of the new world organization. However, these were developed to fit the new and more complex post-war world. The United Nations Organization as mentioned above came into existence in 1945 following the end of six years of cascading blood bath, the worst painful conflict ever to erupt in the world.
Originally and specifically, the United Nations was formed and trusted with the onerous mandate of maintaining permanent international peace and security in the world. In an international system made up of multiplicity of entities and social classes of divergent world view, ideology, goals, aspirations and orientations, the United Nations mandate becomes, as it were a nuclear and complex one .It is in line with the above that Holt and Berkman
acknowledged however that: The United Nations has a broad mandate to act against threats to international peace and security.

The UN authorizes and leads peace operations and authorizes actions led by individual countries, coalitions as multinational forces (MNFs), and regional bodies in response to threats to international peace and security. Traditionally when the Security Council cited Chapter VII of the UN Charter and authorized a mission to use “all necessary means” to implement its mandate, the resulting operations were referred to as “peace enforcement” missions, reflecting the charter’s language. The UN typically has not led these kinds of missions. By early 2006, the UN had increasingly taken on the leadership of many complex operations however— most with Chapter VII mandates. (Holt and Berkman, 2006:58).






Nigeria U.S relations can be best desirable as a tale of two giants representing the periphery and the centre. Since the inception of democratic
governance in 1999, the U.S has not only invigorated its diplomatic relations with Nigeria but has also been willing to increase its financial assistance to
the country. The central aim of this study was to critically evaluate how the foreign aid from U.S fosters Nigeria’s dependence on the U.S undermine the
development aid and food security support from the U.S undermine the development of indigenous health care and food security programmes.
Likewise it tried to establish he link between U.S ODA and Nigeria’s external debt burden. The study was guided by three research questions and
three hypotheses to analyze the issues raised. The study was anchored on the dependency theory. The theory x-rayed the structural inequality in the
international system and how the centre states such as U.S uses strategies like economic assistance to ensure the continued dependence and
exploitation of periphery states such as Nigeria. Our research design was expost facto. We made used do both primary and secondary sources of data.
The primary sources included official documents from government agencies of both the U.S and Nigeria on flow of economic health care and food
security assistance from the U.S to Nigeria. Likewise the secondary sources included current textbooks, journals, seminar and conference papers on the
topic of study and other similar topics. The research questions were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis and statistical tables. After a detailed
review of existing literature and analysis of available data, the following findings were made: the U.S intervention aid impedes the development of
indigenous health care and food security programmes. The U.S official development Assistance (ODA) predisposes Nigeria to external borrowings
to finance western modeled projects thereby increasing external debt burden.



Nigeria is a neocolonial state, whose economy is greatly influenced by external factors. Basically Nigeria occupies a peripheral status in the global
economic order. Thus she is dependent on the external support of the western capitalist countries, for the promulgation and enforcement of
programmes aimed at the development of her economy. Many scholars such as Ake (1996); Offiong (1980, 2001) and Adegbite (2008) have considered
the negative impact of the dependence status of the Nigerian economy on its development objectives.

The dependence status of Nigeria has greatly influenced her quest to achieve economic growth. Nigeria relies on the advanced capitalist countries for basically, everything; starting from technology, economic reform packages and most importantly finance. This excessive reliance have greatly affected and deepened Nigeria’s ‘Dependence status’ in the global economic order. The dependence status of Nigeria has greatly influenced her quest to achieve economic growth.
Nigeria relies on the advanced capitalist countries for basically everything; starting from technology, economic reform packages and most importantly
finance. This excessive reliance has greatly affected Nigeria’s ‘Dependence status’ in the global economic order.
In fact, Nigerian leaders and policy maker’s believe that Nigeria can not do without external aid; so they keep borrowing funds for phantom and
white elephant projects. Nigeria faces intense pressure to accept multibillion dollar loans for railroads, power plants, roads and other infrastructure
( These borrowings in turn increases Nigeria’s debt burden. Moreover our leaders advocate foreign aid as a panacea for resuscitating our ailing economy. The point here is not only about the quest among Nigerian leaders for foreign aid but more importantly
on how such foreign aid engulfs Nigeria in a cobweb of conditionality.

This conditionality consequently ensure that Nigerian economy remains open for the continued exploitation by the advanced capitalist countries such as; the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan and Italy. Offiong (2001:195) corroborates the foregoing assertion by noting that “cheered on by the Western countries that dominate the World Bank, IMF and the Paris Club, the key aid donor, the two International Financial Institutions (IFIs) impose incessant conditionalities to make sure that these poor countries continue to pay their debts” The irony of the whole situation is that “a country rated as the 6th largest exporter of crude oil, is also among the least developed countries of the world” (Olurunfemi: 1998:3).

Thus the abundant wealth of the nation has not been transformed into tangible improvements in the lives of her citizenry. The Nigerian government is basically, withdrawing from her status as the dispenser of social amenities to the masses and gradually the development agencies of the advanced capitalist countries are taking over. The point been made here is that Nigerian economy have over the years suffered from economic stagnation and general underdevelopment. Which cannot be properly analyzed and understood outside the context of colonialism and neocolonialism. Put in another form, colonialism led to the integration of the Nigerian economy into the world capitalist economy.
Before the exit of the colonialists, they created a class that would accommodate and protect their economic interests in Nigeria. Thus the formal ending of colonial imperialism has ushered in neocolonialism.


Neocolonialism has continued to preserve the colonial relationship of western dominance and Nigerian’s dependence in the global capitalist
economy by means other than direct political control (Ake, 1996) Nigeria remains a peripheral state, who’s economic and foreign policies are greatly
shaped by the advanced capitalist nation. The Nigerian state has been crippled by abject poverty, spiraling inflation, unemployment, diseases and general underdevelopment.

As a panacea to this problem, Nigerian leaders have over the years sought various from of assistance form the advanced capitalist countries. Experts on economic growth have called for more foreign direct investment (FDI), loans and grants from these western capitalist countries. However, the disenchantment with how such foreign assistance is managed by local authorities led to the establishment of agencies, which are charged with the administration of such aid.
Such agencies like the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Department for International Development
(DFID) of Britain are now charged with the direct administration of Aid funds in benefiting countries. These agencies have a country Mission,
containing key areas that have posed a major problem to underdeveloped countries. In contradistinction, it is pertinent to note that the activities of
such agencies, greatly affect the ability of home governments to evolve indigenous development programmes. Thus they remain tied to the
conditionalities of these advanced capitalist countries. With this new pattern the underdeveloped world would remain in perpetual dependence and
reliance on the advanced capitalist countries.
The programmes of USAID in Nigeria covers the key areas of the government’s responsibilities. They assist the Nigerian government in
formulation and execution of health care and agricultural programmes.

They even reach the grassroots more than the government of Nigeria. With this development, it is evident that the
Nigerian state is just, an appendage of the U.S territory. Thus the aid from the U.S deepens Nigerian dependence. Meanwhile, our leaders prefer that
their duties are done by external donors, ignorant of its consequences on the development of the country.


The problem of Nigeria’s underdevelopment cannot be properly analyzed without recourse to the roles of neocolonialism and dependence of
her economy on those of the advanced capitalist nations. The United States has over the years been involved in Nigeria’s quest to achieve sustainable
economic growth and development. The emphasis on Nigeria by the United States is based not only on the formers stated rejection of global terrorism
but also on the trade relations between the two countries (albeit a patronclient trade relationship).

The United States is the largest consumer of Nigeria’s petroleum product Moreover; most of her oil multinational corporations are operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. So the United States gains a lot of material benefit from Nigeria. This favourable disposition of Nigerian economy to American foreign policy and economic interests attracts a concern with the problems of development and poverty; that have constituted a cog in the wheel of development of the Nigeria economy.

However, it is pertinent to note that the concern shown by the United States government to Nigeria’s problems of underdevelopment and poverty stems from her continued enjoyment of the latter’s support of her foreign policy and economic interests within her territory and the African continent. Thus United States government Aid to Nigerian government can be viewed as a veritable tool for maintaining the patron-client relationship between the two countries. The United States uses its foreign assistance to Nigeria to perpetuate the dependence of Nigerian economy on the United States.

Despite the economic and political underpinnings of United States Aid to Nigeria; Nigerian leaders perceive U.S aid as a veritable means for achieving rapid economic growth and development. The foregoing is in congruence with the western model of foreign assistance. The western capitalist nations adumbrate the use of foreign aid to attract economic development to the third world countries. Goldstein and Pevehouse (2008: 419). Thus they conceptualize foreign aid as overseas development assistance; which is essential for the take off for third world countries economic development. However, the dimension of United States aid to third world countries have changed considerably, in the after math of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the United States (Goldstein & Pevehouse: 492). The United States subsequently raised its aid budget with the aim of fighting poverty, which breeds extremism.
The United States aid to third world countries such as Nigeria have not been left on the hands of the recipient government to administer. Rather
the United States Agency for international Development (USAID) is charged with the responsibility of administering aid in recipient coun