The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State 

 

ABSTRACT

The status of soybean production, processing and utilization in . . Okutu, Gzalla and Enugu urban, the three project sites investigated by the RFA and-conventional survey methods to document the status production, processing and utilization. A multidisciplinary team of nutritionist, food technologist, socio-economist and an agronomist were involved in the,surveys. Several IERn tools and a structured validated and pretested questionnaire were used for data collection, Non-parametric statistical methods were used. .

The results showed from analysis that in both Okutu, about half of the respondents knew what soybean is. In Ozalla, about half had heard of soybean but none knew what it is, Soybean was introduced into the Okutu community by an Agricultural Officer from old Anambra Agricultural Development Projects (ASADEP) but .production has not continued because the people could neither eat their seeds because they did not know how to use it. Local persons could not purchase the grains from luck of  knowledge . Consequently, only one) person who knew how to use it was  at the time of the survey and there was no production in Ozalla.

Processing and utilization were also very low even in Enugu val mills were available and urban consumers use more soybean. It is concluded that promotional activities on u emphasized since soybean is available in the urban markets. Additionally, production should be taught to none-producing areas
since the people of Ozalla were most willing to embark on soybean .production.

Marketing channels should also be arranged for the farmers. The major factors the farmers enumerate.ed that would stimulate them to produce soybeans were knowledge of how to cook and eat it; having markets to retail it and viable seeds to plant. . .

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The problem of inadequate nutritional intake has been emphasized by ?ral investigators (Atinmo, 1983, Olusanya, 1980; Nnayelngo et a]., 1985). Among the nutrients, protein seems to be the one whose intake level is likely to be inadequate. This is because of the high cost of animal protein sources such as meat, fish, eggs and cultural factors which often forbid their use by certain physiological groups (Atimmo, 1983). Majority of the population therefore rely on plant protein sources for their protein intake.

Among the plant proteins legumes are widely consumed particularly in the Southern and Eastern parts of the country (Olusanya, 1980; Onochie, 1975; Nnanyelngo, 1982). Cowpeas, because o.f their ease of availability and preparation have been the major legume consumed in Nigeria. Soybean (Glvcine max), is a more proteinous and cheaper legume (Osho, 1988) and is grown in Nigeria, its use has been limited because production has been limited to the Northern states and most Nigerians neither know what it is nor how to use it., Soybean contains 40% protein compared to about 25% protein in cow-peas and its amino acid profile comes closest to that of animal products(1hepononye and Nnanyelngo, 1987).

The high nutritional value of soybean has groused the interest of many National and international agencies concerned with eradication of col[aboration with’ IITA initiated research on soybean utilization in IIrl’A and IAR&T. The first phaso (Phase I) of the project established that soybean is a versatile crop, that can be used for formulation of new recipes and fortification’of traditional foods in a highly acceptable manner. The success of this first phase of the project
stimulated the sponsors to extend the second phase of the project to other parts of the country of which Enugu state is one. The objective of the work in Enugu state was to promote the production, processing and utilization of soybean in the state

. However, before such a project could be started, it was necessary to do a baseline survey in order to establish baseline data against which the success of the
project could be measured. The work reported here aimed at investigating the leyds of production, processing and utilization of soybean in selected
locations in Enugu state, Nigeria.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The rapid rural.l appraisal (RRA) methodology and conventional research methodologies were used for the investigation. ‘ A multidisciplinary team made up of a nutritionist, a food technologist, a socioeconomic and an agronomist were involved in the study. Tlie RRA techniques uved included gathering  secondary data, direct observations, diagramming and mapping, wealth ranking find establishing c r o p~~i ncga lenders far wybcan. Others were hietoricltl
profiling, workshops, key informant interviews, checklists and semi-structured questionnaires and interviewing selected members of the  community individually, and in groups

The main instruction of the conventional survey was a validated and pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed in three parts, one for soybean producers, the second for a non-soybean producing area and the third for small scale processors. The first section sought information on socioeconomic characteristics of soybean producing  and non-producing populations. Additional information gathered for the producing populations were history of soybean production, processing and utilization. For non-producers, the questions centred on why they are producing and their willingness to start production . For the small scale processors information was sought on their volume and methods of soybean processing, packaging, storage and marketing.

 

 

The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State

methods of investigation

 

 

The names of soybean producing and non-producing villages were obtained from the agricultural officer in charge of Enugu state ADP at Nsukka. Permission was obtained from the Local Government Chairman and Chiefs of the selected villages and, towns as well as the Chairman of b Enugu urban to do the work in these areas. Two further visits were made by the coordinator and the socioeconomic to create some rapport with the 6 people and arrange for accommodation for the RRA work before the team moved into the locations.

During the RRA survey, members of the communities were interviewed until optimal ignorance as judged by the multidisciplinary team. As for the conventional survey, a list o f d l households in the villagers

 

 

The Status of Soybean Production, Processing and Utilization in Okutu, Ozalla and Enugu in Enugu State

 

EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (A STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE 1999-2010)

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (A STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE 1999-2010)

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to examine the political corruption and its effect in the Nigerian government and politics. The study looked into political livies of Anambra state citizens being the case study of the work. For comprehensive understanding of the place and its impact of this study. The work has been divided into five chapters. In chapter one, comprises of statement of problems, significance of the study, purpose and research of the study and others. In chapter two comprises of the causes of corruption and poverty in Nigeria, Nigeria’s political godfathers, the evils of corruption, the effects of corruption in Nigeria which had put the federation into high jump from 1999    2010 in Nigeria especially Anambra state. in the same chapter two we have another concept which is madness of second tenure system in Nigeria government as a major causes. In chapter five we have the recommendations and suggestions based on the findings from the research work from 2000 – 2010 political lives of Nigerian citizens.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria and political corruption – political corruption is not a recent phenomenon that pervades the Nigerian state. Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of officials misuse of resources, embezzlement of funds, looting of government property for personal enrichment “the rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events seen to have led to a litany of ignorable corrupt practices in the country over the years, the country has seen its wealth withered with little to show in living condition of the common man.

In this view, a Nigerian political leader, Obafemi Awolowo raised a silent issue when he said since independence, of few holding the cow for the strongest and most cunning to milk”, under those circumstances everybody runs over everybody to make good at the expense of others. Characteristically, apologist for the failings of African governments have blamed colonist for the pervasive corruption. According to this view, the nations’ colonial history may have restricted any easily influence in an ethnical revolution through out the colonial period.

Most Nigerians were stunk in ignorance and poverty. The trapping of flash cars, houses and success of the colonialists many influence the poor to see the colonialist as symbols of success and to emulate the colonists in different political ways. Involvement in the agenda of colonial rule may also inhibit idealism in the easily stage of the nascent nations’ development. A view common held during the colonial days was that the colonists property (cars, houses, farms etc) is not our property.

Thus vandalism and looting of public property was not seen as a crime against society. This view is what has degenerated into them or sent disregard for public property and lack of public trust and concern for public goods as collective national property. According to Sen (1999 p. 225) states that corruption is “an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means private gain at public expenses or a misuse of public power for private benefit”.

Therefore electoral corruption includes the purchase of vote with money, promises of offices or special favours, coercion, intimidation and interference with freedom of election (Nigeria is a good example where this practice is common, botes are bought, people are killed or maimed in the name of election, losers end up as the winners where voters turns up in areas where vogues were not cast. Generally, the implication of political corruption appears in different forms such as electoral corruptions, bribery, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, nepotism godfatherism, favouritism, madness of second tenure system and others.

The implication of political corruption as an impediment to the economical, social cultural and political stability is not a recent phenomenon that pervades the Nigerian state. It started as far back as the colonial era among the colonists but grown to its apex / climax since, the creation of modern public administration in the country. There have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment. Nigeria’s political godfathers, which came into existence as a result of inability of some aspirants of political officers to afford or sources their fund to run the election political godfathers there are those who are the powerful wealthy men who sponsor the political aspirants in Nigeria palace known as political godfathers in which their political fathering activities has been culminating to political polarizations, political traumas, political upheavals and political brouhaha which has become the talk of the day.

What is known as Anambra state today was created as far back as 1991 under the leadership of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida, Anambra today is one of the largest and dominating southeast state and comprises of (21) twenty one local governments. Since 19991, the violence, corruption and godfatherrism” occurring elsewhere in Nigeria have run a rampant in Anambra since then Anambra has been proved by some political analysis to remain the eyes of the most political corrupt state in Nigeria in which a wealthy member of Chris Uba is an iconic example of the godfathers phenomenon in Nigeria as a prove in 2003 Anambra gubernatorial  election when PDP candidate Dr. Chris Nwabueze Ngige was sponsored and financed to rig the 2003 election in Anambra which the whole world witnessed their high level of electoral rigging, political irregularities political quagmires, political traumas and political upheavals as a result of godfatherrism, favoritism second tenure madness, nepotisms and other. By virtue of this unattainable agreement between Dr. Christ Nwabueze Ngige and his godfather Christ Uba, the two political gladiators degenerated a series of political traumas, electoral irregularities riggings, thurgry, kidnapping, killing, vandalization, false impeachment and all that.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (A STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE 1999-2010)

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Nigeria as a nation is facing serious political corruption problems namely:

i        Lack of political education

ii       Godfatherism concept

iii      Electoral irregularities

iv      Lack of party ideology

v       Political polarizations, upheavals, quagmires, traumas and brouhaha.

vii     Ethnicisms, nepotism, sectionalism and tribalism among the politicians.

vii     Madness of second tenure concept

viii    Lack of patriotism among he leaders

ix      Marginalization

x        High level of insecurity

xi      Poverty at its climax heralding to high level of thugry and violent.

xii     Centralization of power at the state level a case study of Anambra.

From all indications, challenges are daily, weekly monthly and yearly and may be to complete in the near  future, unless there is a panel committee set up to eradicate the situation. However, they have to educate and internalize the masses to a lager extent using electronic voting system as to ensure transparency, justice, equity, good condense and free and fair elections. A question just came to my mind now, saying how can massive thurgry, been reduced in Anambra state election? The answer says that there should be an adequate provision of job opportunity as to engage the youths in one job or the other so that it will limit their state of poverty as an off-shoot of thurgry.

Based on these, the researcher has to vividly analyze those things that contributes to political corruption and its effect in Anambra state.

1.2     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to examine and provide the following in depth through analysis of political stability in Nigerian government and polities.

i        To provide adequate political education to the Anambra youth and other politicians.

ii       To provide suitable  environment to enhance political stabilities.

iii      To give a stop to luke warm concept of godfatherism in politics.

iv      To provide job opportunities to Nigerian & Anambra youths to reduce the level of poverty which has  been an offshoot of massive thurgry and kidnapping during election.

v       To give proper causation and warning to the fraudulent INEC officials on the side of their electoral fraud and regulates which has been culminating to political traumas and qaugmire in Anambra state.

vi      To mandate the state government to delegate power to the local government level as to enhance mass participation and political enlightment.

vii     To ensure political stability which may conversely heralds to free and fair election in Anambra state

viii    To encourage electronic voting system in Anambra state for more effective and efficient politicking and free and fair elections.

ix      To ensure mass participation in the political activities

x        To ensure adequate party ideology in Nigeria government and politics.

More so, the study has the following aim to explain why Anambra state elections had never once been conducted free and fair.

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          The researcher put down the following questions when he was carrying out this project.

i        To what extent does political corruption affects the Anambra state political, social and economical lives of people?

ii       What ways could the political leaders, followers and INEC officials would be baptized (improved) so as to ensure higher equity, transparency, free and fair elections?

ii       How can electronics voting system effect or culminates or heralds to free and fair election in Anambra state?

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be significant in the need to improve political stability in Nigeria with particular emphasis to Anambra state is imperative in the following.

i        In the view of improving political equality among the Anambrarians.

ii       In the view of eradicating high level of political illiteracy among the Anambra youths through political education.

iii      This study will also be significant in finding solution to the rampant political thugry, mass kidnapping, frequent abductions, killing etc.

iv      It will also be significant in eradicating high level of insecurity in Anambra state.

v       This study will also be significant in prohibiting any thing concerning godfatherism in Anambra state.

vi      This study will also be significant in effecting political stabilities thereby resulting to free and fair election heralding to credible representatives.

vii     This study will be significant in giving room for the state government delegating political, financial and administrative autonomy to the local government in Anambra state.

viii    This study will also be significant in enlightening Nigerian politicians with party ideology rather than their formal party without ideology system.

ix      It will be significant in leaving little or no change for political irregularities, electoral fraud and other political traumas in Nigeria particularly Anambra state.

In this report, the researcher will also be significant in eradicating of political arsons, kidnapping and other political upheavals and how Anambra and its neighbouring states can benefit or gain from the refined effective and efficient political administration both economically, politically, socially and cultural harmony and stability.

 1.5    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

There are several ways of studying any phenomenon in any schoarlarly enquiry inorder to ensure a systematic and objective analysis for the purpose of this discourse I don’t prehendal theory of democracy working on the assumption that power is central to politics the starting point of Richard Joseph Prehendal theory is that the Nigeria political life is entirely characterized and dominated by corruption Omo O. (1993 p 16) central to prehenda analysis are the concepts of clietlism and prehendalism. He sees chetelism as patron diet ties clietlism he further argues is the very channel throng which one joins the dominant class and a practise which is then seen as fundamental to the continued enjoyment of the prequisties of that class. He define prehendalism as the procurement of office of state either through examinations or as a reward for loyal service to a lord or a rule A critical assignment of post independent Africa states reveals that to be ruler whether at the federal. State or local level is to be in charge of the treasury and use the wealth that properly belongs to the people to legitimately enrich party faithful investors in elections friends clients and proves godfather allies to sustain a corruption life style.

From the above prehensalism provide a framework through which Africa and Nigeria affairs as it relates to corruption and development can be studied higher equity, transparency, free and fair elections?

iii      How can electronics voting system effect or culminates or heralds to free and fair election in Aambra state?

iv      How has godfatherism contributed to the present high level of political brouhaha, political traumas, political upheavals in Anambra state?

v       How does purchasing of votes, collection of votes, where and when election was not conducted nor votes being cast contributes to the electoral malpractices in Anambra state.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In studying the political corruption in Nigeria government and politics, it becomes imperative to confine this to a democratic dispensation in actualizing transparency, equity, justice, good conscience and free and fair election to an extent within the constraint of time and of the study.

Consequently, Anambra state. government was used as a case study

1.7     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Research was not problem free.

In this work, the researcher was faced or confronted with some major problems which tampered for hindered the progress of this work. Prominent among these was the issue of distribution of the questionnaires. The researcher used to go from local government to local government and from staff to staff, among the twenty one (21) local government in Anambra state. In research for the solution to the problem as a result of this, the researcher run these regular visits to different (Hpm) of the local governments.

More  so  adequate explanations was made to explain the need for questionnaires. The researcher spend more time going from one staff to the other in various offices in the state, that is time that they are suppose to use for another thing.

Also money for transportation to meet them i.e the staff in their various houses and a times, when you got to some, they will not respond to you some i.e the staff will just tell you that they do not have time to discuss anything with you concerning to that now.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Corruption: in a layman understanding, corruption is defined as a perversion or change from good to bad. Therefore corrupt behaviour involves violation of established rules for personal gain and profit (Sen 1999 P. 275). Corruption is also an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense or misuse of public power for private benefit

ii       Godfathers in Nigeria: The term godfathers (alkla money bag, alkla loan-shacks) refers to superfluously very wealthy men (no known women yet) that finance elections.

Note: when the godfathers sponsor election, they normally cover the government treasury and control the government in order to recoup their investment.

iii      Madness of second Tenure: This simply means the sit tight system adopted in Nigeria governance where by the governors, chairpersons, president will be on the government seat and lying or agitating for second tenure for him to be re-elected into the seat.

iv      Political polarization: this simply means the dividing house (party) into different groups of people with different opinion or idea, in a state as a result of politics, i.e disapproval among the individual in the society as in Anambra politics.

v       Political Brouhaha and upheavals: this is unnecessary estimate, criticism or activity especially in news report to show disapprovals.

vi      Electoral corruption: This includes purchase of votes with money, promises of office or special favours, coercion, intimidation and interference with freedom of election.

vii     Fraud: It involves some kind of trickery, swindle and detect counterfeiting, acketing, smuggling and forgery (Ibid Pu).

Viii   Embezzlement: This is theft of public resources by public officials. It is when a state officials steals from the public institution in which he / she is employed.

ix      Extortion: This is money and other resources extracted by the use of coercion violence or threats to use force. (Bafart et al 1997, P.11).

x        Favouritism: this is a mechanism of power abuse implying a highly biased distribution of state resources.

However, this is seen as a natural human productivity to favour friends, fairly and anybody close and trusted.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF POLITICAL CORRUPTION ON NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (A STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE 1999-2010)

CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ITS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC BENIN BRANCH, EDO STATE)

PROJECT TOPIC- CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ITS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC BENIN BRANCH, EDO STATE)

ABSTRACT

The project is a comprehensive study of the changes in Accounting standard, the impact on financial statement with a study of Guiness Nigeria Plc Benin Branch, Edo state. This project is aimed at determining the impact of Accounting standard on the users of financial statement and also the needs of the Accounting standard. Data were collected, through primary and secondary sources. The finding revealed that the changes in Accounting standard play a vital role of the financial statment of the companies that adopted the change. Therefore, the impact of Accounting standard cannot be over emphasized hence it depends on the conferment of a given organizaitonal setting from the conclusion of the study, it can be observed that there will be serious potentials for misunderstaniding and suspicious resulting form information based on mix of conflicting accounting policies. It is therefore recommended that since international financial reporting standard has come to stay with thirteen standards already to its credit. Therefore one would except  that the standard should be aplied on small scale business that are not quoted, and also non-compliance with accounting standard should not be seen only as a statutory offence but also as a criminal offence which can probably lead to closure of such business.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In recent years, there has been a lot of criticism about accounting standard and the impact of the recent changes in financial report they prepare. A lot of people have led to question the validity of the profit measuring procedures applied in arising at the profit disclosed in published accounting. Quite a number of proposal have been made in an attempt to reform the methods generally in used. This has resulted in coming together of different countries with a view to working out modalities for the standardization of these profit measuring and reporting procedures.

The international accounting standard committee (IASC) produces international accounting standards (IAS) to be followed by all member countries, of which Nigeria is one of them. Also they also produce additional statement to accounting standard (SAS) in an attempt to make the international standard meet with the local condition with the aid of globalization and increasing demand for transparency. The (IASC) as reconstructed in 2001 by creating the international accounting standard board (IASB) among other changes.

A new set of rules, which would align Nigeria with other countries and also improve investors confidence was formed in May 2011 known as international financial reporting standards (IFRS) which was issued out by international accounting standard boards which is globally accepted specially IFRS are defined in comprise

  • 13 in issue of the international financial reporting standard (IFRS) issued by IASB from 2001
  • 29 is issue of international accounting standard (IAS) issued by IAS before April 2001.
  • 15 in issue of interpretations originated from the internation financial reporting standard international committee (IFRSIC)
  • 11 in issue of the standard interpretation committee (SIC) statement, issued before April 2001.

The 13 IFRS in issue are:

IFRS  1       –        First time adoption of IFRS

IFRS  2       –        Share based payment

IFRS  3       –        Business combination

IFRS  4       –        Insurance contract

IFRS  5       –         Non-current asset held for sale and discontinued

operation.

IFRS  6       –        Exploitation for and evaluation of mineral resources

IFRS  7       –        Financial instruments disclosure

IFRS  8       –        operating segments

IFRS  9       –        Financial instrument

IFRS  10     –        Consolidated financial statement

IFRS  11     –        Joint arrangements

IFRS  12     –        Disclosure of interest in other entities

IFRS 13      –        Fair value measurement.

This work intends to analyze and examine the impact of these standards, the financial statement with particular emphasis on Guinness Nigeria Plc Benin, Edo state.

PROJECT TOPIC- CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ITS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC BENIN BRANCH, EDO STATE)

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Good accounting practice means that the account must be in accordance with the international financial reporting standard (IFRS), and the international accounting standard (IAS). The impact of accounting standard in the finance statement of an organization cannot be over emphasizes.

Moreover, the problem can be summarized below:

a        Lack of personnel with adequate knowledge of accounting standard is a major issues affecting the changes.

b       Lack of infrastructures and equipment which help to obtain most accurate information and report.

c        Inadequate accounting standard applied on financial statement to provide information for its users.

d        The problem of poorly designed accounting system in organization

e        The effect if faulty financial statement and report and the analysis produced by the management towards the achievement of the organizational goal.

f        The effect of financial statement and report which are not prepared at the appropriate tine.

g        Ineffectiveness of financial statement due to its improper application.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this research work is intended to do the following:

A       To revealed that the changes in accounting standard play a vital role on the financial statement of the companies that adopted the changed.

B       To determine information about the changes in the net resources of the business organization

C       To find out if accounting standard is cumbersome and create problem.

D       To determine whether accounting and financial statement enhance accountability, transparency and improve quality to financial results of the organization.

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTION

The following are research questions postulates to guide the study.

  • What impact has this standard made on Nigeria economy?
  • How adequate is this accounting standard that is been applied in the financial statement helping to provide information to its users?
  • How necessary is the adopting of the accounting standard in the preparation of financial statement?
  • Of what importance is the extent of compliance in the preparation of the financial statement of an organization
  • To what extent has the change in the accounting standard help to harmonize and improve the accounting standard?

1.5         RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis were formulated in order to determine the validity and reliability of the study.

a             HO: The changes in accounting has no impact on the financial statement.

Hi:          The changes in accounting has impact on the financial statement.

b            Ho: Adoption of the accounting standards does not help in the standardization are harmonization of financial statement

Ho: Adoption of the accounting standards help in the standardization are harmonization of financial statement

c            Ho: it is of no importance to determine the extent of compliance of some organization in the preparation of the financial statement.

1.6         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The accounting standards are developed to ensure higher degree of standardization in the published of financial statement. They provide the necessary information about how accounting information should be presented in order to enhance the value of its content and facilitated through understanding.

The significance of this study to the academic world cannot be over emphasized. It is of benefit to all users of accounting information who need to interprets and use proper understanding of the financial standard and the information so derived in making management decision for the interest of the organization.

Another most importance of the study is to reveal to the management of (Guinness Nigeria Plc Benin, Edo state) on the standards in financial statement and also an accounting guides to staff of the organization

Lastly, this study would also serve as reference literature to further researchers on the changes and impact of accounting standards.

1.7         SCOPE / DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Despite the fact that the study is based on the impact of accounting standards in financial statement. It also covers the importance of the standard, application, compliance thus the need for the standards and also the main aim of this standardization.

The limitation is as a result of limited time, insufficient fund available with the researcher and limited source of material. Restriction of some vital information about the company with a response of confidential issue.

1.8         DEFINITION OF TERMS

A           Standards: The simply means the regulations governing the use of financial statements.

B           Changes: This simply means the process of becoming different form he former state.

C           Fair values: The price that would be received to see and asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement data

D           Financial statements: These are statements used in recording financial transaction of any balance sheet of business.

E            Joint Arrangement: An arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

F            Financial instrument: A document that has a monetary value or represents a legally enforceable agreement between two parties e.g shares.

G       Accounting: The development and use of a system for recording and analyzing the financial transactions and financial status of a business or other organization.

PROJECT TOPIC- CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ITS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC BENIN BRANCH, EDO STATE)

CHALLENGE AND PROSPECTS OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP

PROJECT TOPIC- CHALLENGE AND PROSPECTS OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Historically, sole proprietorship is defined as the oldest, most common and simplest form of business organization. Sole proprietorship is unofficial because it is not subject to federal or state regulation, also it is relatively simple to manage and control. In this type of business, one person that is the proprietor provides all the capital required to carry on the business. Characteristics of sole proprietorship are that the owners are inseparable from the business. More so, that proprietor provides the initiative controls the business and retains all the profit arising from the business. The owner takes all the risks and bears all the losses sustained in any bad year.

However, we should remember that those who lend money and extend credit to the sole proprietorship also should be part of the risk in that. A loss, incuitably falls on them if the owner proves unable to pay the debts. A sole proprietorship is a company which is not registered with the state as a limited liability company or corporation. The owner does not pay income tax separately for the company but he/she reports business income or losses on his/individual income tax return.

However there are other forms of business organization such as:

Partnership Business: Which is the association of people who co-owned a business for the purpose of making profit?

Limited Liability Company: Is a business owned by a number of people, operated as a legal person on behalf of its owner with the usual motive of profit.

All these business organizations are formed for the purpose of making profit. Despite these forms of business statistics shows that much eighty five percent business organization in Nigeria today is sole proprietorship whether in small scale or collage industries.  However, one of the characteristics of sole proprietorship which is profit motive has been created by making a good production in other to satisfy their customer. Therefore, sole proprietors should try to produce the right product in other to satisfy the customers. Business organization therefore should research on the challenges and prospect which will help them in a good production. Also this research work of Ugomentus enterprises Nigeria limited will be of help.

PROJECT TOPIC- CHALLENGE AND PROSPECTS OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP

  • Statement of the Problems

It has been observed that sole proprietors contend with daunting challenges. Taking the plunge and becoming your own boss is risky at the best of times, but the danger for sole traders is higher than for other types of business. According to official statistics, sole traders are more likely to fail than any other kind of small business with 20% of self-employed people packing up their ventures each year. It is easy to see why the cost and time pressures of establishing a business is a huge burden for just one person. Indeed, there are amyriad of challenges that face sole trader when they standout.

Sole proprietors have to realize that a one person company can’t keep up with businesses that have multiple employees. The world more so quality today and sole proprietors will have to think about how to evolve their business and potentially bring on management team. No matter what industry they are in, its most important for sole proprietors to be organized are efficient in order to succeed. Another challenge of sole proprietorship is “decision making” and management control.

Sole proprietors are in full control of every aspect of the business. Sole proprietors do not engage the services of competent and qualified personnel. The result in taking irrational decisions which impact negatively on business operation. Hence, lack of requisite skills and knowledge pose daunting impediments to the growth of the business. Life is a challenge to sole proprietorship. A sole proprietorship will automatically end if the owner dies, decides to retire, or sell the business. This is in contrast to a corporation or LLC (Limited Liability Company) which enjoy continuity.

  • Purpose of Study

The broad objectives of the study are to examine that challenge and prospects of sole proprietorship. The study also includes:

  1. Determine the sources of fund for the sole proprietor.
  2. Determine the challenges of sole proprietorship.
  3. Determine solution to these challenges.
  4. Determine how concentration of ownership policy and management control of an individual favour sole proprietorship.
  5. Determine how external environment favour sole proprietorship.
  6. Determine those factors that will facilitate the growth of sole proprietorship.
    • Significance of the Study

The study will go a long way in solving most organizational problem with regards to solve proprietorship organization.

The study will help sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation and enterprises in Nigeria especially Ugomentus Enterprises Nigeria Ltd in contending with the daunting challenges of the business environment and in tapping the existing opportunities fully. It will help the sole proprietors to gain better insights into the management of their business ventures. Future researchers will also use the study as a spring board for conducting their studies. It will help the sole proprietor to manage their business ventures efficiently.

  • Research Question
  1. What are the sources of fund to the sole proprietorship?
  2. What are the challenges of sole proprietorship?
  3. What are the solutions to the challenges of sole proprietorship?
  4. Does concentration of ownership policy and management control favour sole proprietorship?
  5. Does external environment favour sole proprietorship?
  6. What are those factors that would facilitate the growth of sole proprietorship?
    • Scope of the Study

The research work is concerned with the challenge and prospects of Ugomentus Nigeria Ltd, Oba.

  • Definition of Terms
  • Sole Proprietorship: Is the simplest and oldest form of business organization. It is owned and controlled by one person.
  • Capital: The money or wealth needed to produce goods and services.
  • Partnership Business: This is a single business where two or more people share ownership.
  • Registered Company: An association or collection of individuals, whether national persons, legal persons or a mixture of both, registered under the company’s act.
  • Limited Liability Company (LLC): It is a business structure than combines the pass through taxation of a partnership or sole proprietorship with limited liability of a corporation.
  • Limited Liability: Is where a person’s financing liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value fo aperson’s investment in a company.
  • Enterprise: A company, business, organization or other purposeful endeavours.
  • Insurance: A means of indemnity against a future occurance of an uncertain event.

Tax: Money paid to the government other than for transaction – specific goods and services.

PROJECT TOPIC- CHALLENGE AND PROSPECTS OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC AWKA BRANCH)

PROJECT TOPIC- SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC AWKA BRANCH)

ABSTRACT

This research work highlighted the social responsibilities of commercial bank in social economic development of Nigeria with the emphasis of union bank of Nigeria Plc Awka branch, in undertaking this project. Therefore, a research method of data collection use were both primary and secondary data, the primary data were denied from questionnaires administered to staff of union bank Awka branch. Also some of the senior staff were interview while in getting information through secondary data related literature was received. Furthermore, the questionnaire administers were analyzed using simple percentage statistical method of analysis. As a guide to the study, five objectives and questions were formulated to guide the researcher. At the end of the research finally revealed that there is no assistance of the customers in areas of social facilities in union bank Plc Awka branch. In conclusion the researcher recommend that there were based on finding these are: the banking industry should also reappraise its designated clinics so that it can meet the expectation of its staff, the banking industry guielts branch the right to undertake development project in the area of operation and they should abide by the provision of loans and advances infrastructural facilities, educational maternal etc so as to enhance development in their everyday life.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Banking originate in ancient Mesopotamia where the royal palace and temple provided secure place the state keeping of grains and other commodities. Eventually,  Private house in Mesopotamia also got involved in these banking law regulations. In Egypt to the contralizaiton of harvest are states where house also leaded to the development of a system of banking. The strong of bank start with gold smith in a small middle ages city has a strong vault to keep his own  gold supplies indeed, he was gold own by other citizens for a small fee. A business that store money in it’s vaults for a fees is called a bank of deposited.

Naturally to keep the record clear, freed gives customers receipt for their deposit. Later these receipt were used as exchange for goods and each receipt says fed the gold smith will pay to the bearer on demandone gold flooring and these receipt is acceptable as money in free town because of the faith they have in feed and wall********* honors that promise, that is how paper money come to bring. Primitive forms of used in calculation and for safe keep included mainly as in west Africa wampum in North America, whale teek by the figions cowries eggs, feathers, ivory bead etc.

In Africa generally, money is defined as anything that is widely used in making payment and accounting for depth and credits. In Nigeria, the period between 1892 and 1952 was when convactional banking began remembered as a period free for all banking with no financial requirement and no regulation to restrict and control the establishment and operation of banking almost all the new banks especially those established indigenous initiatives, followed up as rapidly as they were set up owning to inadequate capital personal and ****** expansion and other structural constraint.

The GD patron repot investigating the banking pratice in Nigeria was the bases for the first banking ordinance of 1952, the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) which is the controller of banks became fully CBN is under supervision of ministry of finance. The board comprising of the CBN governor,s assited by the deputy governor,s director general, federal ministry of finance, managing directors, director general, federal ministry of finance, Nigeria deposted insurance co-operation NDIC and four other members.

Today’s banking system has revolutionized from the primitive method of banking to a more sophisticate, easy and quick electronic form of banking, were virtually leading to cashless society through the use of credit cards and internet banking. In recent past there have been reported cases of business failure in the banking industry due to poor management such as management of fund etc. Report have been indicated that many businesses have failed as a result of poor fund management which constitute a major problem in growth of banking industries insufficient funds also hampered the smooth operation of the banks.

These were some of the problems that resulted into the excitement of the first banking ordinance of 1952. Basically, the facts are that the business sector has a duty to he society as a whole apart from its shareholders, who also belong to the society, and that extension of government powers into private sector may not be in the best interest of the society and that may judicious exercise of its responsibility. The commercial and merchant banks can reduce the need for such extension of government free to pursue its function of regulating policy, the society according to present rule of conduct.

The commercial and merchant bank can be said to issue social responsibility  for the social and economic development of the society Nigeria and its costumers which is a new concept compared to the former making irrespective of the consequences operating on their operation areas. These responsibilities that merchant and commercial banks should offer for the social and economic development of Nigeria include facilities, natural disaster, poverty and to solve major social problems to te society so that they may expect success in their business.

PROJECT TOPIC- SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC AWKA BRANCH)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA IN PLC

Union bank of Nigeria Plc was established in the 1917 as a colonial bank with the first branch in Lagos. In the 1925, Barclays bank with acquired the colonial bank which resulted in change of bank name Barclay bank (Dominion colonial and over seas). Following the enactment of the companies act 1968 and legal requirements for all foreign subsidiaries to be incorporated locally bank (D.C.O) in 2007 was incorporated as Barclays bank, remained unchanged until 1971 when 8.33% of the bank was listed  on the Nigeria enterprise promotion act of 1972. The federal government of Nigeria Barclays bank Plc London with only 40% by the enactment acts, Barclays bank international disposed its share holdings ot Nigaeria in 2009.

To reflect the new ownership structure and in compliance and allied matter act 1990, it assumed the name union bank of Nigeria Plc in consonance with the government programmed of public enterprise, the federal government in 1993 sold it shaers in union bank to private individual, thus union bank becomes fully owned by Nigeria and organization. In line with the central banks of Nigeria’s banking sector consolidation policy, union bank Plc acquired the unueral trust bank plc, broad bank  limited, the bank also increases in shareholders fund through a public offer / right issues in the last share quarter of 2005 with this development union remains one of the most capitalized bank in Nigeria. It has a share holder fund 7 N119.600 billion and operates through 405 networks of banches that are well spread across the country all of which are online real time.

Today union bank remains the oldest private owned commercial bank wholly owned and managed by Nigerians. As a leading commercial bank it renders high quality retail bankings services to its numerous customers through the 268 branches including a fledged off share branch or London and a reprensentative office in Johannesburg, south Africa. Secondary as a result of its age union bank has come to possess a large corps of trained, and professional and experience bankers this has come about to because of the policy of the bank to invest in man power, we have a large comprehensive manpower training and development policy in union bank who produced a good crops of professional experience in their various field and who are a great asset to the bank.

Thirdly through its branch network policy, union bank is the second largest in terms of branch network with about 280 branches throughout the country. This is a source of strength for the bank as through this branch are able to mobilize the capital requirement which is part of the functions of our commercial bank anyway to mobilize capital. So through sa***ung or deposit base in the country today about 80 billions in deposit, the highest in branch network policies have contributed to the growth of union bank over the years.

Business description union bank of Nigeria is a Nigeria based bank; it is engaged in providing personal and business banking services and product, the bank portfolio includes current and samng accounts, short and long term loans, overdraft, projects finance, international money transfer, as well as customized product such as account for graduate and teenagers; it also promotes, telephone banking and online banking service. In addition, union bank   is one of the 10 banks rescued by the central bank of Nigeria in 2007 after which N620 billions wes injected into banking sector.

1.2     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Based on the performance of the commercial and merchant bank in respect to their social responsibilities of the social and economic development of the society and their employment at large, business operates as major component of a large social system within thus system a process of interaction, interdependence and complex interrelationship occurs, the expectation and value of the customers are reflected on this process on those changes over fine.

In view of the role that should be played by the commercial and merchant banks in the social and economic development of the society should stress the need to know is to whether the customers and the entire community has default form its operation. These study skills is to know whether there is legislation that prevent the banking industry from performing such duties well also highlight loasn and advance to their customers due to either loan epayment default or not.

The researcher therefore tends to suggest possible way of improving the conditions the offer of social responsibilities to their customers so as to boost their moral and the employees at large, also the researcher tends to book on the oprration of merchant banks which is limited by he thinnes of the capital market itself.

1.3     OBJCTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major objective of this study is to determine and identify the aim and objective of union bank of Nigeria.

  • To highlight the problem of mis management of fund.
  • To evaluate the major cause of effiaency and effectiveness
  • To evaluate the social responsibilities of commercial bank in social and economic development of Nigeria.
  • To identify the effectiveness of commercial bank.
    • RESEARCH QUESTION

This study is aimed at prounding anser to the following question.

  • What does the modalities adopted by organization in ensuring effective utiliies and maximum economic development of Nigeria?
  • To what extent effective use of training and career development effort improve individual and organization effectiveness?
  • What are the major ways by which organization can achieve its goals of well trained and well-motivated employee?

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE SATUDY

The staudy which is on the social responsibilities of commercial banks on the social and economic development will cover union bank of Nigeria Plc as a whole in term of its operations and its provision of activities to the entire. Community. thus will be much more emphasized on the union bank of Nigeria Plc Awka branch because resource will be made available for the research work. It will be limited on union bank of Nigeria Plc Awka branch because of some contrast that may come our way especially on the area of fine, money, transportation and any other factor. These resources may be obtained form both main branch regional offices.

1.6     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significant of this research work cannot be our emphasized but based on it increasing improvement. In its performance,e it intends to raise awareness within the ommunities in which they operate to demand such serve room the bank since the field is relatively new when compared to other management field.

The study which is on social responsibilities of social and economic developemtn of Niger taking a study of union bank will also help the bank as to where and when to render such services. Since it is a sanitation study both the customer and the bank will find the world useful for reference purpose thereby enhancing morl and urban development.

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

There are included in the following

  • Social Responsibility: Is an ethical or ideological theory that business should not function a morally but instead should contribute to
  • Social Responsibility: Is the obligation of an organization management towards the welfare and interest of that organization.
  • Social: this rlating to society of its organization
  • Economic development: This is the increase in the standard of hung in a nation population with sustained growth from a simple.
  • Commercial bans: This involves the operation of a money transfer services on behalf of customer and tahe maintenance of a national network of branches.
  • B.N: The central bank of Nigeria may be defined as the only financial institution established and change with the day to day management and control of the nation’s monetary affairs, the supervision and co-ordination of banking and financial activities of the country.
  • S.E: A Nigeria ste****** exchange may be defined as a market where share, stocks and other securities are sold and bought.

S.E.C: Securities and exchange commission is the governing body of the stock exchange market.

PROJECT TOPIC- SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANK IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC AWKA BRANCH)

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE: (AN APPRAISAL OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE)

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE: (AN APPRAISAL OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE)

ABSTRACT

This project work was geared towards examining and ascertaining the public administration and community development in Anambra State, with particular reference to selected communities in Aguata Local government Area of Anambra. In the bid to achieve this aim or target, primary or secondary sources were used in data collection. The primary source include questionnaire, while the secondary source include text books. A sample size of 500 persons out of the total population of 58.998 persons in the communities under study, comprising both indigenes and non-indigenes from all works of life, was drawn using sample ramdom sampling techniques in view of the sample size, 500 questionnaires were drafted and personally distributed to the sample size, out of which 350 were retrieved and presented accordingly, using frequency distribution tables with research questions, number of respondents, responses and percentages simple enough to understand from the findings, it was discovered that there were some inherent problems in the community of which a greater percentage were aware of it. Government have however in recent past intervened by putting up strategies but the performance of these strategies were not worth the salt, and as a result, able bodied men of the communities have fled to other communities in search for a better life thereby, leaving the communities static and under developed. It was however suggested by the people that the urgent intervention of government of government through the instrumentality of public administration was expedient and necessary and that such intervention should be in all the sectors of the polity or Economy such as economy, agriculture polities, education, health, power and energy infrastructure, etc, since the role of government was considered in evitable, however in reaction to these problems, the research found-out and in response to the findings, the researcher recommended some possible solutions which include: that government should intervene by setting up strategies to curb the problems and bring the situation to its barest minimum, people should shun all acts of corruption a cordial relationship should be maintained by government with the members of the community and finally, the monitoring agencies should be established to monitor projects and implementers to ensure strict compliance to laid-down procedures as well as curb the incidence of corruption, by officers. Finally and conclusively some constraints were encountered in the course of writing his work, such as response to questionnaires, etc. suggestions for further research were also made by the researcher.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

During the colonial period in Nigeria the government performed very limited functions such as the maintenance of law and order, defense and collection of revenue. But after attaining independence, the government has totally changed. The government has gone beyond the traditional function of maintaining law and order, defense and revenue collection. Their functions now include both development and national building activities.

Investigations carried out proved that in community development in Nigeria, with particular reference to selected communities in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, the people especially the poor, expect many things from the set of public Administration or the government   . The poor expect many things from government. The poor and weaker sections look up to government to improve their lot and allieviate their misery.

Thus, in response to the rising expectations of the people, governemtns of these communities in Aguata Local Government have assumed enormous responsibilities in order to improve the social and economic conditions of the people, thus bringing community development through the instrumentality of Public Administration. Consequently, since developing societies are engaged in rapid socio-economic transformation under the leadership of government, public administration necessarily has a very crucial and fundamental impact in the society. Thus, this work is designed and set to find out public administration and community development with particular reference to selected communities in Aguata Local government Area of Anambra State, as well as make recommendations.

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE: (AN APPRAISAL OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE)

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

From the background of the study, it is evidenced that some problems actually necessitated the changing of government in these communities after independence, prominent among them include: 1.  Lack of social amenities in these communities.

  1. Poor infrastructural facilities, such as good roads, schools, hospitals, electricity etc which led to the non-development of these communities.
  2. The social and economic condition of the people was very poor.
  3. Poverty engulfed the weaker section of the people of which many died as a result of hunger, starvation and mal-nutrition, especially the women and children.

Consequently, the issue which arises from this study is to ascertain the importance of Public “Administration in Anambra State in order to alleviate or reduce these problems evidenced in these communities to it’s bearest minimum.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this study, the following questions are considered important and were used to find suitable answers to these problems. They are:

  1. What is the problem facing the communities?
  2. Does the government strategies to proffer solution to the challenges facing the community?
  3. What is the relationship between the communities and the government ?

1.4   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The broad purpose of this study is to ascertain the impact of Public Administration and community development to selected communities in Aguata Local Government and the developing societies at large.

  1. To find out the impact of Public Administration in developing societies in general, particularly the selected communities of Aguata Local Government.
  2. To find out the causes and effects of poverty and other problems of the developing societies in community development with particular reference to the selected communities in Aguata Local Government in Anambra Sate.
  3. To find out the reason or reasons behind the changing of government in community development with particular reference to the selected communities in Aguata Local government in Anambra State.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        The overall significance or importance of this study, and  the beneficiaries of this research work are as follows;

  1. It will be of great value to potential administrators, and policy makers to embark on efficient policy and decision making.
  2. It will help the people of developing societies or communities to be aware of the essential and crucial of Public Administration in the community, thus, support and embrace the subject matter.
  3. Students of Public Administration will also benefit as they will begin to understand and appreciate their course of study in improving community development and the national economy.
  4. Finally, this study after documentation will serve as a reference material for similar studies in the future.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is geared towards ascertaining Public Administration and community development in Anambra State, focusing on some selected communities in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State.

Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State is made up to fourteen (14) communities namely:  Ekwulobia, Isuofia, Agulu-Ezechukwu, Uga, Achina, Umuchu, Amesi, Akpo, Nkologwu, Ikenga, Ezinifite, Umuoha, Igbo-ukwu, Ora, eri. This study will however be limited to Ekwulobia and Isuofia communities only, so as to ensure an in-depth study.

1.8   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In the course of writing this project research work, the research encounted some inevitable constraints in an effort to make the study a reality. Some of these constraints include:

  1. Financial constraints: In as much as finance is fundamental to the meaningful completion of the study the researcher found it a bit difficult raising the needed and required finance.
  2. Time constraints: the paucity of time had a serious impact in conducting the research work. The time lay between the approval of the project topic and the submissions was a serious problem as the researcher had to battle with the limited time available to conduct the research concurrently with his academic schedules.
  3. There was also the problem of insufficient data within the research of the researcher.
  4. Finally, there was little delay in responding to the questionnaire due to the busy and tight schedule of the respondents as at the time of this study.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

        These are terms used in this research work which are worthy of definition. They are as follows:

  1. Public Administration: This means governmental administration it is the study of the management of the public agencies that carryout public policy or policies in order to fulfill the state purpose in the public interest.
  2. Community Development: This is a set of values and practices which plays to overcome poverty and disadvantages knitting societies together at the grass root and depending democracy.
  3. Colonial period: This is the period or era when the third world countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America Counties were colonized by the European powers. In Nigeria, this period connotes the period between 1900-1960 when Nigeria was under the colonization of Britain.

PROJECT TOPIC- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE: (AN APPRAISAL OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE)