PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY

 

ABSTRACT

This research work is embarked upon to examine the company’s performance with the aim of establishing the relationship between economic variable. This study made efforts to discuss issues, facts and environmental factors surrounding the wave of company restructuring in Nigeria, even as various company professionals, marketers of company services and company experts alike are adapting to various buzzwords in the bid to sell their company restructuring products or services. To achieve this objective, data were collected through primary and secondary source. The research instruments used in the data collection were questionnaires. The needed data were collected respondents which comparised from the staff, dealers and customers of unilever Nigeria Plc. The data collected were tabulated into frequencies and percentages. The researcher employed chi-square statistics to analyze and test hypothesis. The result of the analysis revealed that corporate restructuring brings about positive change in the composition of company’s portfolio. However, the finding, conclusion and recommendation are hoped to the great impoauthorities concerned.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 1.1

 

 

          According to Hoskisson and Turk (1990:26), stated that corporate Restructuring is the major changes in the composition of a firm’s assets combined with a major change in its corporate strategy. It usually involves selling off (or liquidation) business in m-form firms either voluntarily through spin-offs or involuntarily through hoistile takeover.

          Corporate restructuring involves making radical changes in the composition of the business in the company’s portfolio.

          One uses the word “restructuring in a general sense, but exactly what it encompasses will differ from firm to firm. Those that have made change to organization structure and those that have not and investigate the effects that restructuring has on value-added and labour productivity. Furthermore, by comparing subsequent changes in the number of employees and the level of their ways in the respective firms.

          Generally speaking, any restructuring of the lability and stockholders equity components of a financial balance sheets, normally undertaken because the issuer does not generate enough cashflows to service its debt and other liabilities. Restructuring may include difference of principal or interest payment on debts, equalization of debt or other liabilities.

          Restructuring is also the corporate management term for the partially dismantling or otherwise reorganizing a company for the purpose of making it more efficient and therefore more profitable. It generally involves selling off portions of the company and making server staff reductions. Restructuring is often done as part of a bankruptcy or of a takeover by another firms, particularly a leverage buyout by a private equity firm. It may also be done by a new CEO hired specifically to make the difficult and controversial decisions required to save or reposition the company.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       


The practical problems in Unilever company therefore, should be focused on the multifarious constraints under which the company has to be performed.

          Identification of the possible areas of constraints which, through cannot be exhaustively examined in this research will nevertheless serve to illustrate some of the factors that may, inhabit performance of the unilever company and solutions to which, should be a challenge to the company.

The following problems have been responsible for the situation are:

  1. Lack of research organization that could conduct research on the raw materials to see whether they can be used for the production of goods
  2. Lack of capital: Companies are generally establish requiring large sums of money for improvement of the company.
  • Lack of skilled personnel: The company do not have very highly trained personal required for the company project.

The objective of this study include the following:

  1. The infrastructure is still in its infancy in many of the companies. As such most of the local raw materials cannot be exploited for industrial use, nor can the finished products be carried to wider areas. Without the necessary infrastructure, it would not be possible to engage in any effective industrial programmes.
  2. Poor storage facilities: This makes it difficult for raw material to be preserved until they are needed.

        1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To examine the impact of corporate restructuring in effective product or service delivery.
  2. To change in corporate management, (usually with golden parachutes).
  • Retention of corporate management sometimes “stay bonus” payments or equity grants.
  1. Sale of underutilized assets, such as patents or brands.
  2. Outsourcing of operations such as payroll and technical support to a more efficient third party.
  3. Moving of operations such as manufacturing to lower-cost locations.
  • Reorganization of functions such as sales, marketing and distribution.
  • Renegotiation of labour contracts to reduce overhead.
  1. Refinancing of corporate debt to reduce overhead.
  2. A major public relations campaign to reposition the company with consumers. 

    PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY

    1.4 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

 

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the Unilever company had played in the Nigeria environment which however, they have gone into meet the everyday needs of people everywhere and anticipate the aspirations of their consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competively with branded products and services which raise in the quality of life. Their deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are their unparalleled inheritance and the foundation for their future growth. They will bring their wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers a truly multi-local multinational standards of performance and productivity to working together effectively and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. They believe that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards their employees, consumers and societies and world in which they live. This is Unilever’s road to sustainable profitable growth for their business and long-term value creation for their shareholders and employees.

          Finally, suggest and recommend ways by which the problem faced by these company could be solved in order to make.    

    1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

In this survey, the researcher used the following hypothesis.

Ho: Corporate restructuring does not make any changes in the composition of the businesses in the company’s portfolio.

H1: Corporate restructuring makes a positive changes in the composition of the businesses in the company’s portfolio.

HYPOTHESIS II

Ho: Restructuring has not enhanced operational efficiency and more profitable in Unilever company Plc.

H1: Restructuring has enhanced operational efficiency and more profitable in Unilever company Plc.

HYPOTHESIS III

Ho: Restructuring has not done any part of a bankruptcy in Unilever Nigeria Plc.

H1: Restructuring has often done a part of bankruptcy in Unilever Plc.


HYPOTHESIS IV

Ho: Company that had not been restructured increase unemployment of the firm.

 

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This research study will serve many purpose. The purpose of the study will appreciated if one considers that since the inception of Unilever Company into the Nigerian industry system, their role to significance have been very negligible and  problematic despite the several policies of effort that have been made by the corporate management of the company to enhance the effective of the corporate restructuring of the performance of Nigerian company.

  1. The study will be usefully to employee and management of the Unilever company, in the sense that it will provide a solution ways to tackle the problems containing their operations.
  2. The study will beneficially to government who will then make policies that will promote efficiency in Unilever Company in the manufacturing industries system.
  • It will be useful to Unilever Company on how to implement their policies.
  1. In addition, scholars and follow researchers will find the work very important because they serve as basic for future study.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers the impact of corporate restructuring on the performance of the Nigeria company as they perform their primary objective.

          In view of this, Unilever Company was used as a case study so as enhance data collection.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher decided to limit this study to only Unilever Nigeria Company due to some problem beyond her control such as inadequate material, data, hence she could only lay hand on few secondary data such as, Textbook, Internet and some data collected from the Unilever Nigeria Plc.

          Finance and time also was a major constraint as this research was done during the period of examination of which time and money were scare for the research.  

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Corporate: Corporate is a group of people having authority to operate as a single unit with a separate legal existence, e.g for business, urban development corporation.

Restructuring: Restructuring is the corporate management term for the partially dismantling or otherwise reorganizing a Company for the purpose of making it more efficient and therefore more profitable.

Performance: Is the ability to operate efficiently react quickly, etc. improving business performance is a continuous quest.

Company: Is an association to persons for carrying out a commercial or industrial enterprise. But technically the world “Company” is often used to refer to those business enterprises that have been incorporated.

Strategy: Is a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. It can also the process of planning or carrying out a plan in a skilful way.

PROJECT TOPIC:IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY

PROJECT TOPIC: FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ADULT EDUCATION IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Adult education programme are activities geared towards educating adults in every country. There are associations and organizations that promote adult education in the world.
These are groups or organizations can be distinguished into two: governmental and non-governmental bodies. The last two centuries to be precise in the middle of the 19th century ago in the adult education programme in the world. Roman Catholic Church made a bold stride with the formation of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)A IN Paris in 1855).
According to Eya et al (2001), this became indisputably one of the early pioneers of adult education in the international circle

. The aim of (YMCA) was the development of the whole man-mind, body ad spirit. The church believed that an educated person should be able to take care of his body in order to be healthy so as to read and understand the scriptures for his spirited growth. This philosophy become the underlining force for the activities of these missionaries.
The need to get every individual prompted the formation of the women counterparts in 1892, the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA).

Both associations remained the architect of international adult education for a very long time and they fit into non-governmental organization.
The first every worldwide step was made in 1918 with the formation of the World Association for Education founded in Britain.

It is otherwise known as t he Adult Education which held its first international conference in adult education in Cambridge in 1929. Apart from the global sphere, there are those international organization of adult education which are regional, for example, the African Association for Literacy Adult education with its seat in Nairobi and those that are national, the National Association of Adult Education and even Some Charitable institutions and Clubs like the People’s Club in Nigeria, yet there are continental interest in the North, South East and West.

PROJECT TOPIC: FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ADULT EDUCATION IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is an example which strives to promote the education of the adults through its agencies. There are also inter-governmental organizations which have interest in adult education. For example, Nigeria and Cameroon may come together to promote adult education. On the global scale, the organization of adult education came in the form of those that have adult education as their exclusive concern, those in which adult education form an important part of their work and those in which there are some educational content in their work

. Other global associations relevant in this study are the International Council for Correspondence Education (IICE) founded in 1938. international Federation of Education workers Association (1947), International Congress of University Adult Education (1960), International Council for Adult Education (1972) among others.
Regionally, we have some inter-governmental organization such as the African Adult Education Association such as the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education, Association and South Pacific, Bureau of Adult Education, European Bureau of Adult Education, Federation Canadian Association for Adult Education.

 All these organizations through journals, newsletters, seminars, conferences and worship train practioners and educators of Adult education.
They in turn contribute to the development of human resources through building and strengthening self-reliant organizations in the field of literacy and adult education. They also aim at achieving participatory programme of activities, identification and involvement of various development oriented groups, mobilization of resources, taking initiative and leadership positions addressing new topical issues of concern as they affect adult education programmes.

In 1985, the Director General of United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, Mr. Amadou Mahter M boin announced during the World Conference of Ministers of Education on eradication of illiteracy in Terran, that 18th September every year being declared international/national literacy day celebration.
According to Dr Alumode B.E. (2002: P. 113) UNESCO campaign for mass literacy arouse of the Nigeria’s interest in Adult and non-formal education.
According to Mereni and Osuala (1989: 99), Adult education as a process by which men and women seek to improve themselves or their society by increasing their skill and their sensitivities or any process by which individuals, groups or institutions try to help men and women to improve their ways.
Though, the Federal Government enthusiastically accepted the Ashby report, there was a major criticism of the report: even tough Echer and Leidholm (1970) declared that the report issued at the time of independence won wide acclaim and acceptance throughout the nation.

Ayila and Onitiri (ed) (1971) pointed out that both Ashby report and the white paper has nothing to say on adult literacy an adult education for masses.
The decision to offer and propagate the programme for mass literacy was accepted by the federal government and officially launched in Nigeria on 8th September, 1982. it was also translated to and launched in the former Anambra state on 29th October 1984, all geared towards the implementation of the National Policy on Education. According to Alumode (2002), National Policy on Education does not separate mass literacy and adult education from non-formal education. According to Eya et al (2001) in 1977 the National Policy on Education (NPE) was established and has been revised twice in 1981 and 1998. the special significance to the study in the NPE is the formulation objective for adult, non-formal education.
According to the policy (1998: 36), mass literacy, Adult and non-formal education encompass all of functional education given to youths and adults outside the formal school system such as functional literacy, remedial and vocational education. Others include continuing education aesthetic, cultural and civic education.
In view of the laudable programme that the nation embarked on in order to eradicate illiteracy in the country. Adult education being part of the literacy programme was introduced in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State in the year 1996 with Mathias O. as the organizer. But it has been observed that the effect of the great programme for the nation has no yet received the expected attention from the rural populace of Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
In addition, there are political problems and also problem of low level of education among rural adults. Its effects often parochial outlook life conservation and recreationary tendencies among people of Ezza-North Local Government area.
According to President Obasanjo (1990: 18), no matter how well a nation might be endowed by nature, the attitude of the people is a major thing in their progress or retrogress. It is because of the observation an also the importance of adult-education that the research deemed it necessary to research on the factors militating against the programme in Ezza-North Local Government Area.

 PROJECT TOPIC: FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ADULT EDUCATION IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The factors militating against adult education n Ezza-North Local Government Area has posed serious problems on the part of both participants, instructors and the organizers, since the introduction of adult education in Ezza-North Local Government Area. It has not received the much expected much attention from the populace of Ezza-North Local Government. Some of the existing adult education centers in Ezza-North local government area such as UPE Ebije center, CPS Okposi center, CPC Umuome center to mention but few are not functioning properly due to the factors militating against adult education programme.
The ineffectiveness or poor response to adult education centers in Ezza-North local government area is what the research wants to investigate and possibly suggest solutions, to the problem in order to forge ahead to make the great programmed initiated by the federal government a huge success.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors militating against adult education in ezza-north local government area of ebonyi state, in terms of inadequate response and lack of its national outlook in Ezza-North local government area in particular. It is also geared towards ascertaining the effectiveness of the organization in Ezza-North.
Finally, the study is to make useful suggestions and recommendation towards the improvement of the existing standard and thereby helping to eliminate the factors militating against adult education in Ezza-North local government area of Ebonyi State.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Following the need for mass literacy campaign which the federal government launched in this country and that education is a life-long process programme that started in the cradle and end in the grave. The researcher has embarked on this study because of its importance. In Ezza-North local government area, modern ways of dressing, building houses, agriculture and forms of learning are in use today which is of improvement on the socio-economic and political life of the people of Ezza-North local government area has made the cost of living standard and its importance to human existence.

Various other importance are abolition of primitive practices like case of slavery, killing of twins, ostracism and plundering of the property of minorities got stop or was no more in practice because of the knowledge they have acquired. It will serve as reference point for other researchers that would like to write on the same topic in future. It will add to the existing knowledge and it will also contribute to the advancement of knowledge and social activities in Nigeria.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this stud, the following questions will be addressed:
i. Are there enough people attending Adult Education classes?
ii. Is there enough government support for Adult Education?
iii. What is the level of performance in Adult Education?
iv. What is the population of those attending Adult Education classes?
v. Are there enough teaches for Adult Education programme?

 PROJECT TOPIC: FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST ADULT EDUCATION IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE  

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

 

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the attitude of parents towards sex education, the sample constituted 300 parents randomly selected from 2 main wards in Olomu Local Government Area, the questionnaires were administered to the subjects with 100 percent return rate, four research questions were proposed to guide the study, mean and grand mean were used for data analysis. The following results were obtained. The mean score of the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education was 2.3 which is lower than the criterion mean of 2.5. The means score of parents towards the objective of sex education was 2.6 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5. The approach use by those teachers teaching sex education was 2.7 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5, the qualification of those teaching sex education was 3.1 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5. Based on the result, the following recommendations were made. Health education should be intensified in school, work place and women forum to disabuse parents of myths, misconception and ignorance of teaching sex education, the sex education curriculum should be reviewed to ensure its comprehensiveness and should also be reviewed to meet the needs of different age levels; cultural factors, religious beliefs and other factors that affect the teaching of sex education should be discouraged.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Sex education in the Nigerian society is very complex and very important to be overlooked in everyday life, this observation may be true in many societies of the world. At present, the issue of sex education in many Nigerian communities is covered by strong cultural, religious beliefs and other factors, in some families, a mere mention of sex organ is regarded as a taboo, Achalu (2000), reported that in some Nigeria families parents find it difficult to discuss sexual behaviours with their children, as observed by Darymple (2000) many people feel a great deal of discomfort and anxiety when sex is mentioned, this he attributed to culture and ignorance, when it comes to sex education in Olomu local government may not be an exception to this type of habit or attitude. This is because in Olomu local government there is little or no distinction between the rural community and the urban, the habit and life styles of the urban dwellers may be influenced by the traditional and cultural beliefs and more of the rural community. As a matter of fact, the behaviour of parents in Olomu local government area may not be different, although fear has been expressed in some quarters that sex education may stimulate young people to experience sex.

Posse and Melgosa (2002), in their definition of family life education, opined that: “it is that aspect of heath education which prepares the child, adolescent or young adults to become responsible members of their family.” They asset that, it helps the individual to understand his development biologically, psychologically and socially to full maturity as a man or woman.
Sex education can also be defined as a comprehensive programme on sex knowledge, behaviour and attitude extending from infancy to maturity, planned and executed to produce socially and morally desirable attitude, practice and personal behaviour. (Briggs 2002). The above definition laid credence to Achalu (2000) who asserts that sex education is an aspect of health education programme arrived at providing accurate information to help people to develop positive and healthy sex attitude, values, goals, and practices to enable them express their sexual impulse and behaviour in a socially and ethically acceptable manner.

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

From the above statement we can deduced that sex education is not mainly aimed at the provision of sex knowledge or information nor is it to acquire necessary skills in sex act; it goes beyond sex information and sexual performance. It helps people to understand scientific, social and physiological implications of sex. Sex education is supposed to offer accurate information about individuals according to age, environment and social status so as to keep them well informed.
Hence it should be one of the accepted course of study taught in all levels of educational institutions any where in the world including Nigeria. In this study, sex education means the process of exposing an individual to positive and negative sexual behaviour and knowledge on sexual habit in order for him/her to live safe and healthy sexual life. The National curriculum (1985) for senior secondary schools provides for the teaching of sex education as one of the school subjects, the curriculum should based upon problems, personal and social needs as well as the interest of the students. Sex education in its sense has been designed to dispel ignorance of sexual matters and to clarify misconceptions.
From personal experience, it is doubtful if schools in Olomu Local government give a serious attention to the teaching of sex education as a subject, the consequence of this may be associated with the incidence of several cases of health problems like teenage pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases, negative attitude and beliefs people hold about the teaching of sex education in the homes, and the schools.
In the same way, Nancy, (1998) as observed through the internet, asserts that rather than trying to determine or frighten young people from having sex, effective sex education to enable young people to choose whether or not to have sexual relationship should be taken into account because of the potential risks of sexual activity. Briggs (2001) also stated that “when ever compulsory sex education is introduced in school, natural tension rises between the schools and parents.” This type of situation may not be ruled out in a place like Olomu local Government Area of Delta State; hence sex education is not taken as an important subject despite its inclusion in the school curriculum. In-addition, Briggs (2001) also believes that public sensitivity to sex education is often shaped by cultural and religious perceptions.
To understand a person’s action we must be aware of the fact that his behaviour is influenced by his sense of values, the experience that have confronted him and the attitude that developed from those experiences predisposes an individual to react in a particular way and behaviour is the test or result of this state that attitudes are favourable towards those activities of meeting needs. Negative attitudes are held towards things or situations which are believed to be harmful.
Ademuwagun, (1981) stressed that the need for inclusion of human reproduction as a major focus and looked at sex education as concern with human sexuality as distinguished characteristics between male and female, physically, socially and culturally. He went further by giving consideration to sex education as it involves traditional and cultural attitudes and behaviour towards sex relation and dilemma of modern practices and perception; parent according to Pelt (2002) are confused part, because of the films, newspaper stories, magazines, television shows that distort their children’s views about sex and sexual love. He further stated that in the face of glazing immorality, parents should endeavor to teach their children basic anatomy and moral values as regards to sex, mothers and fathers get shocked and upset when children are involved in sex play. Sex play and experimentation are common among adolescent and parents should talk quietly with their children about the matter sex, answering the question’s and giving explanations to avoid development of unwholesome attitude, feeling of shame and guilt among them.

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

Adolescence is a period starting from 13 to 19 in a lifetime (Pelt 2002). It is the most discussed period of life span.
Uka (1983) Described adolescent as a critical period of life, a time of “storm” and “stress” for the maturing individual. Awala (2005) also stated that adolescence can be turbulent times that are usually assaulted. He also describes adolescence as “a period of transition commonly characterized by stress and anxiety”, the young ones are often inexperienced to handle stress and anxiety in a positive way and this may lead them to fall easily into destructive forms of behaviour.
According to Awake (2005) if describes adolescents to involve in misbehaviour such as promiscuous sex, violence and pregnancy out of wedlock.
Parents should guide and lead heir children in knowing the truth which is less disturbing than not knowing the fact, the issue of experimentation according to Pelf (2005) comes most frequently from uniformed children, for experimentation is one way of getting information. He further stated that sex offenders usually come from a home where little or no sex education is taught.

The problems encountered in our society as a result of lack of effective sex education cannot be overemphasized, it is necessary for parents, teachers and even youths to collaborate in a coordinated effort to implement sex education curriculum both in homes and schools, this will go a long way to reduce over excitement, misinformation, ignorance and over exposure over sex issues.
Statement of the Problem
It is painful to note that there is an increase in the rate of teenage pregnancy and abandoned children in Olomu Local Government Area of Delta State. According to Odo (2003) he stated that there is an increase in human immune deficiency virus (H.I.V.) infection among youths in Olomu irrespective of condom message of protection against sexually transmitted diseases, in our society today, there are lots of marriages and broken homes which are also attributed to lack of sex education Pet (2002) Olomu communities are not left out in these existing problems, the youths in Olomu local Government are over sexually permissive because of lack of sex education Odo (2003).
The issue of sex in many Nigeria communities is covered by strong cultural, religious beliefs and ignorance, furthermore many people feel a great deal of discomfort and anxiety when sex is mentioned, based on the above problems this study becomes necessary.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in Olomu Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study intends to find out:
(1) The attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education.
(2) Objective of sex education
(3) The approach use by those teachers teaching sex education.
(4) The qualification of those teaching sex educations.
Significance of the Study
(1) The result of this study will sensitize literate parents on the need for teaching sex education in schools and homes.
(2) The result will also help the human immune deficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome control unit in Olomu Local Government Area to intensify its campaign against the scourge of sexually transmitted diseases through a programme of sex education in school.
(3) Furthermore, the result of this study will help literate parents and adolescents to know that sex education is not only concerned with sexual relationship between man and woman.
(4) The study will help health education curriculum planners to plan curriculum to suit the youth in secondary school.
Research Questions
The following research questions are proposed to guide this study;
(1) What is the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education?
(2) What is the objective of sex education?
(3) What is the approach use by those teachers teaching sex education?
(4) What is the qualification of those teaching sex educations?

 

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

LIQUIDITY PROBLEMS IN COMMERCIAL BANKING IN NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

 

In this study, chi-square method was used to regressed the data collected. Data were sources from primary and secondary data. At the end of this research work, it is pertinent to note that liquidity shortage imposed some problems to commercial banks while excess liquidity boom the commercial banks in Nigeria. Excess liquidity as has shown in the regression, might signify unrestrained credit expansion, excess profit and guaranteed growth in commercial banks if properly utilized contrary, liquidity shortage is a great impediment problem to commercial banks such impediments are inhabitation of business expansion, low profitability etc.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

“ Liquidity is the word that the banker uses to describe his ability to satisfy demand for cash in exchange for deposits”. It can also be defined as the capacity of a bank to prompt demands that it payment obligation. A bank is considered to be liquid when it has sufficient cash and other liquid assets, together with the ability to raise funds quickly from other sources, to enable it to meet its payment obligations and financial commitments in a timely manner. In addition, there should be a sufficient liquidity buffer to meet almost any financial emergency.

How much liquidity to hold and in what form to hold it is a constant concern of bank management. Banks are required to comply with legal reserve requirements. In addition, banks need liquidity to meet seasonal and unexpected loan demands and deposit fluctuations. The majority of these transactions can be anticipated in advance and met from expected cash inflows from deposits, loan repayments or earnings. Cash reserves also are needed to take advantage of unexpected profit opportunities, or for what might be termed aggressive purposes. When a business firm that the bank has been working to secure as a customer finally represents a loan application, or a particularly desirable investment develops, the bank must have funds available to seize these opportunities. During periods of expanding economic activity, banks are frequently presented with attractive loan situations which can only be met if banks maintain adequate liquidity. To determine the liquidity what a bank needs at a particular time is to find the ratio of loans to deposits.

The higher this ratio is, the less willing banks will be in lending out and vice versa.

In Nigeria, commercial banks activities are regulated strictly by the banking Act of 1969 as amended under the control of the central Bank of Nigeria. As a result of these regulations by the central bank, the commercial banks are required to hold specific assets equal to a certain percentage of their deposits and certain other liabilities in liquid form. This is known as the legal reserve requirements. The legal reserve requirements are liquidity ratio requirement, cash reserves requirements, stabilization securities issued by the central Bank and special deposits. Liquidity problems, for the purpose of this study, are looked at as the problems, encountered by bank managers who are responsible for liquidity management,   when there is either excess liquidity or liquidity squeeze in the banking system or in the commercial banks.

It will be noted that since the end of the Nigerian civil war, the Nigerian financial system has been experiencing economic transformation which started as a result of the increasing inflow of foreign exchange receipts from the oil sector. This increase exerted preponderant influence on the liquidity of the economy. There was excess liquidity in the banking system. The Banks had little outlets for short term resources and yet were not ready to commit the bulk of its short-term resources to long-term instruments. Commercial banks were faced with excess liquidity problems they had more funds than they can profitably employ.

But it is believed that the situation reversed with the introduction of second tier foreign exchange market (SFEM) under SAP. Banks are now faced with the shortage liquidity. This stems from the fact that they have been using the liquidity at their disposal to buy foreign exchange for sale to their various customers, chiefly, for importation. This is because of the abolition of the import license system of foreign allocation.

LIQUIDITY PROBLEMS IN COMMERCIAL BANKING IN NIGERIA

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS      

There is no gain-saying, the fact that prior to the introduction of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) of which the second tier foreign exchange market (SFEM) is the nucleus, the commercial banks in Nigeria has been wallowing in excess liquidity. Consequently they maintained excess liquidity ratios and were in the habit of refusing deposits from the public.These may be accountable to some deficiencies in the management policies of the central Bank of Nigeria and the overall under-developed nature of the entire economic system. However, the structural adjustment programme with SFEM as the chief feature changed the trend. The situation became that of shortage of liquidity or liquidity crunch, as it is popularly called.

In any case, for the purpose of this research, the liquidity problems of commercial banks have been identified from two perspective:One is that they had excess liquidity before the advent of second-tier foreign Exchange Market (SFEM).The other is that shortage of liquidity have been telling hard on them since the existence of SFEM under SAP. In other words, this research takes a PRE-SFEM and POST-SFEM stance on the liquidity problem of commercial banks.With respect to the excess liquidity situation, this study intends to find out the effect of the excess liquidity in the banking system that is on the profitability of commercial banks. It investigates whether or not the policies imposed on the commercial banks by the central Bank have succeeded in mopping up the liquidity in the banking system, and finally whether or not the excess liquidity in commercial banks affects loans and advances to their customers.

  On the other hand, the shortage of liquidity perspective, focuses on its (shortage of liquidity) effect on the profitability of commercial banks, whether or not the policies of the Central Bank can actually corrects the shortage of liquidity position of commercial banks, and above all how shortage of liquidity affects loans and advances to customers.

LIQUIDITY PROBLEMS IN COMMERCIAL BANKING IN NIGERIA

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PROJECT TOPIC :EFFECTS OF DIVORCE CHILDREN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN OREINTA PRIMARY SCHOOL ETITI EDD IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

ABSTRACT

This study is designed to known the effects of divorce children academic performance in Oreinta primary school Etiti Edd in Afikpo south Ebonyi State.  As children here affected by divorce and here used as sample for the study. The instrument administered in the collection of data was the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution table and simple percentages and the result of this study revealed that the effects ranges from poor academic performance, not having relevant social material psychological and sociological imbalance. The study also reveals that if both parents should contribute their effort in the childs training it would help in reducing the effect of divorce on the child academic performance. At the end of the thesis suggestions and recommendations have made.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Divorce is a legal termination of valid marriage. If a marriage is not valid when contracted, there cannot be a divorce because there cannot be a divorce because there was not really a marriage. Martial unhappiness is only as a result of the various factors that predispose martial instability. Marital conflict is inevitable in any society as long as husband and wife are different individuals and their actions are important to each other. With such view divorce is a mechanism for dealing with the pressure and problem inevitably caused by marriage because without marriage their would be no divorce.
The negative effect of parental divorce upon children depend upon factors, including the age and sex of the child at the time, it occurs, the amount of conflict within the family unity, and the degree of co-operation between the divorced or separated parents. Each of these factors, alone or interaction with each other, influences the psychological health of the child and the ability of the child to do well at school.
The manner by which parents, interact with each other, both begin and after the divorce, may have a far reaching impact on the child than the actual divorce itself. Indeed, it is often difficult to separate the effects of divorce from the effects of a conflictual family relationship in this manner, the negative effects of divorce may stem from per-existing differences in the family unit, prior to the divorce itself, and these negative effects may be more related to the emotional separation that precedes the legal divorce.
In general, children who have recently experienced a family dissolution have a more difficult time with education and academic expectations at school than children from a stable family or “happy family”. This is visible in the children’s ability to adjust to the reality of their parents divorce, most circumstances, children of divorce homes, are only disposed to the negative effect of their current family situation such children show resilience in adjusting to the effects of parental divorce. Indeed, children who thrive of their current family situation such children show resilience in adjusting to the effects of parental divorce. Indeed, children who thrive well in family dissolution are more likely to live in homes characterized by other family members support.
Therefore, children do better when parents provide consistent coordinated and understanding qualities in which they monitor their children and provide them with love, kindness and guidance such situation requires a problem-solving approach in which the separated parents deny their children, as a result of parental disagreement.
Despite such resilience, many children of divorced parentage experience intense, long term effects that the impact show negative upon their school performance, and a few children carry this long lasting effects into their own adulthood, this in turn seriously impair their ability to develop and maintain a long-lasting social and mutual relationship.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study is intended to investigate among others why, with all the abundant food and material resources, within Etiti community in Ebonyi State, parent end age themselves and divorce which has negative effects on the child academic performance.
Children from separated homes are more likely to exhibit signs of early disengagement from school, and also associated with it, is the truancy and more negative attitudes towards school.
Children from separated homes report lower educational performance, as a result of less monitoring of school work by both parents.

PROJECT TOPIC :EFFECTS OF DIVORCE CHILDREN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN OREINTA PRIMARY SCHOOL ETITI EDD IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

Despite the effect it has on the children academic achievement, it also strain the couples relationship with other members of the family and the church.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To solve the research problem and achieve the objective of the questions will be addressed.
a. In what way are children divorce family affected.
b. What are the effects of divorce on children academic performance?
c. What are the best strategies or solutions to adopt to reduce the effect or divorce on children academic performance?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the specific objectives of this research.
a. To examine the cause of divorce
b. To examine the extent to which divorce affected children, and effect on children academic performance?
c. Identifying the strategy to reduce the effect of divorce of children academic performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very timely, especially today that hands are on— to reduce of the divorce in the county.
The study will be of immense benefit to both the public and private individuals who are greatly convinced about the rate of increase in divorce in Ebonyi State with reference to Etiti which us in Afikpo South.
It would be of great help to the public to know how they can render to the affected children of divorce homes.
It would help the government to know the impact of divorce on children and service that should be provided to help these children in solving their problems.
Lastly, the study will help to educate the children of the divorce parents about the need for them to report heir problem to other family members and social welfare officers for assistance instead of indulging in anti-social behaviour.

PROJECT TOPIC :EFFECTS OF DIVORCE CHILDREN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN OREINTA PRIMARY SCHOOL ETITI EDD IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

1.6 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Marriage: It is a legal valid, traditional or the normal procedure of relationship which binds the husband and wife.
Social welfare service: A system that is organized by the government to help people who have financial problem by given advice or assistance.
Psychological: Having to do with the mind and emotions of the individual.
Family: A group that consist mainly of the father, mother and children.
1.7 AREA OF STUDY
This study is carried out in Orienta primary school Etiti Edd in Afikpo South Ebonyi State.
Orienta is located in the tropical—- zone with the average daily temperature of about 27-28c, relative humanity of 70-80 percent, and annual rainfall 1,720-200m. The two main climatic season are the raining season, lasting from April to October, and the dry season which is between November and March.
Orienta primary school is cultivated Ezi Edda among — Iuguzu road and it is in Etiti community in Afikpo South Ebonyi State. Orienta shares common boundary with Etiti secondary school, Ndeaba and hospital Etiti Edda.
The cover of the school uniform is white and blue. The school is made up of nine hundred and eighty one (981) students, from various parts of the villages. It has twenty three (23) causes and thrity seven teachers. Which consists of 14 men and 23 women.
It has a – child that is standard where the children play during their — period.

PROJECT TOPIC :EFFECTS OF DIVORCE CHILDREN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN OREINTA PRIMARY SCHOOL ETITI EDD IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE