Our Blog

List of recently published project topics and materials

PROJECT TOPIC:THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD (A CASE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. (EBSEPA)

THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD (A CASE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. (EBSEPA)

 

 ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research work is to find out the causes and consequences of Urban Environmental hazards In every part of Nigeria, most especially in the cities, we experience sweeping social urbanization which has brought about large urban decay. Waste management, otherwise known as inadequate sanitation, slums and overcrowding, housing hardships, pollution, delinquencies, child labour and so on. The word “hazardous” is any waste material that when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and it is the duty of the EBSEPA to see that human health is not affected by any means. Because most of this hazardous waste can also occur through contaminated gases and through chemical production, manufacturing and other industrial activities. It could also come as a result of unwanted noise, that causes distraction to human life. In an effort to remedy existing problems it is necessary to conduct research into the causes and consequences of urban environmental hazards and to find ways of continuing or at least minimizing their effects on human health.

 

     CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCT

 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

  Environmental hazard is a broad term used in defining such phenomenon as earthquake, and pollution, which are brought about as a result of active forces within the earth or on the earth’s surface, or by man’s activities.

Considering ever present threat of these hazards to the destruction, are likely to damage both lives and property. It is necessary to conduct research and studies into the nature causes and consequences of urban environmental hazard and also to know the different ways in  which the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) have contributed in solving these problems. To appreciate this work, it will be important to look into the brief on the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agencies (EBSEPA) is an organisation, which was established on December 1999 following he creation of Ebonyi State

The EBSEPA’s major statutory function is to maintain a programme of technical assistance for individuals and bodies whether public or private in order to achieve excellent standard of environmental cleanliness, regulations an standards set out under the Edicts, the agency applied for the excellency’s approval of an environmental tribunal/court as recommended in the EBSEPA Edict of 1999. The spontaneous reaction and approval of His excellency made EBSEPA’s dream a reality as the tribunal come into being in December 1999.

This paper was organised in an attempt to foster a better understanding of environmental hazard mitigation and the management of their effects on physical properties and human resources as well as to examine the situation as it  exists today in Ebonyi State for instance Uyo’s episode in the West African  sub-region is prone to effects of earthquake and volcanism. Flood and other hazards have also occurred in different parts of the sub-region in the pest. There is a need therefore, for more information from the policy of these phenomenon which should pave w ay for a policy readiness so that the countries, states, towns an villages in the sub-region can no longer continue with the consequences of the socio-economic aspects of these hazards in the future.

There is a major aim of the planned project as well as field study. The above organisation (EBSEPA) started as a result of a task force charged with the responsibility to  restrict and control every forms of pollution in both federal and state capitals.

Industrialisation is vital to a nation’s  socio-economic development as well as its political stature in the international committee of nations. It provides employment opportunities for a good percentage of the population in medium to highly developed economies however, industries vary according to products, characteristics by complexity of waters discharged. In developing countries such as Nigeria, siting industries is determined by various criteria, some of which are environmentally unacceptable threat posing serious threat to public health.

Although industrialisation is inevitable, various devastating ecological and human disaster, which have continuously occurred over the last three decades or so implicate industries as major contributors to environmental degradation and pollution problems of various magnitudes. Industrial waste and emissions contain toxic and hazardous substances most of which can be detrimental to human health. These include heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBS) dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), petrochemicals and phenolic compounds. For instance, there  was the case of the “Minamata disease” in Japan, which the patient has received untreated effluents from the low level of environmental awareness in developing countries such as Nigeria, coupled with the non-existence of  environmental  protection laws, and the abject poverty of these nations the developed countries have  within the last decade, embarked upon “toxic  waste trade or illegal dumping of toxic wastes in poor, debt-strapped developing  countries.

THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD (A CASE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. (EBSEPA)

 

          1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Several views and concern have been expressed by various people about pollution and its effects on living organisms especially in man. Pollution is the contamination of the environment by biological, chemical and physical agents that may arise through natural events, human activity or the interaction of the two. Natural pollution, as from volcanic eruption tends to be short-lived an overtime, self-correcting. Pollution resulting from human action is often persists longer in terms duration and may be only partially remediable especially when the natural characteristics of local or global ecosystems are altered, for example through the destruction of forests, depletion of the ozone layers, or acid rain, environmental pollution effects human health both directly. Acute or long term, direct effects result from exposure to pathogens, toxics or radiation, indirect effects arise from loss of the land, water, air or food resources, required to sustain life and well being.

The environmental conditions that determine human health depends on the relationship between ecosystems, their populations and the patterns of economic and social development which may contribute  positively to human health or when the side-effects of development are not controlled may have negative effects.

Four main ways in which the environment can be polluted are as follows: 

  1. Physical Alteration of the Natural Environment.

        This occurs when physical growth and development been takes place in the cities, the construction of large scale water impoundments, the destruction of forests areas or the paving of major highways. As ecosystems changes, further compensating alterations may be included.

  1. Improper Management of Human Waste

        Excretion, domestic waste and discarded finishing improperly managed may spread disease, increase vector population, consume land,  contain innate air, increase the probability of injury an destroy natural beauty.  

  1. Damage Caused by Industrial and Agricultural Waste Products

        The pollutions resulting from industrial and agricultural production includes manufacturing process waste, discarded, packaging, used up products and leakages of toxic substances. Apart from the  occupational hazard that are posed by these pollutions, the increase of agricultural chemicals can damage aquatic organisms and water quality. They can also introduce toxic  substances into the  water reaching consumers. Ancillary process of storage, transportation and handling can add to pollution burden. 

  1. Accidental Discharge and Spillage of Toxic Products

       The accidental discharge into the  environment of toxic gases or substances, including petroleum or of ionising radiation can have immediate and or long term consequences to human health, including plants in the food chain. One type of human activity often stimulates another industrial activity, for example, the concentration of human settlements and changes in consumption patterns. It is also  associated with the extraction of resources from the discharge of waste into the environment which consequently is physically altered more advance technologies man increase the risk to accidents and produce unanticipated side effects making prevention and appropriate responses more difficult.

THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD (A CASE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. (EBSEPA)

 

 

TO GET THE FULL PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL DELIVERED TO YOUR INBOX OR DOWNLOAD INSTANTLY, PAY N5000 Via: BANK
BANKACCOUNT NAME
ACCOUNT NUMBER
DIAMOND BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
007 031 2905
FIDELITY BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
560 028 4107
GTBFREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION013 772 5121
ZENITH BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
101 326 3297
OR Pay Online with ATMAfter Payment, you can use the chat app at the right-hand side of your browser to download the material immediately or Text Name, Title of the project paid for, your email address to 08060755653.Do you prefer paying with Bitcoin? Bitcoin Payment for material purchase

Was the material helpful? Comment below. Need the material? Call 08060755653.