Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is a human right that should be given to all human beings. There are lots of international human right instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right, which include the universal declaration of human right (1948), international convention on economic, social and cultural right (1960), etc. The relationship between education and development is well established, such that education is a lay index of development.

Research has shown that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labour. This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens to have access to basic education. It has however been established by researchers that improving female education is crucial for national development (UNESCO, 2007). Education is a basic human right and has been recognized as such since the 1948 adoption of the universal declaration of human rights.

Since then, numerous human rights treaties have reaffirmed these rights and have supported entitlement to free compulsory primary education for all children. In 1990 for example, the education for all (EFA) communication was launched to ensure that by 2015, all children particularly girls, those in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.

 According to UNESCO (2007), about 90 million children are not in school and majority of them are girl- children. Most girls do not have access to education despite the fact that it is their rights. The child is often saddled with responsibilities, which may make him or her not to have access to quality education. A 2007 UNESCO and UNICEF report addressed the issue of education from a rights-based approach. Three interrelated rights were specified and must be addressed in concert in order to provide education for all. The three interrelated rights are:

  • The right of access to education. That is, education must be available for, accessible to and inclusive of all children.
  • The right to quality education: Education needs to be child-centred, relevant and embrace a broad curriculum and be appropriately resourced and monitored.
  • The right to respect within the learning environment: Education must be provided in a way that is consistent with human rights, equal for culture, religion and language and free from all forms of violence.

Beyond the basic needs for education to support one’s self and family in later years, many social ills occur in the vacuum of free and accessible education. UNICEF underscored the link between child labour and a lack of education in their 2008 education for all global monitoring reports, over 100 million children was account for 70 percent of all child labourer, work in agriculture in rural areas where access to schools, availability of trained teachers and educational supplies is severely limited.

Though, the education gap runs much deeper than a rural-urban divide. Even in urban areas, poor and marginalized children are not able to benefit from greater access to school facilities because of cost, culture, etc.

It is true that many governments make provision for the education of their citizens, but the provisions most of the time do not take into cognizance the peculiarities of the girl. In that case, the girl-child may not have access to education, which is a fundamental human right. Research has shown that millions of girls do not have access to schools, despite the concerted efforts to push the cause forward.

Okeke, Nzewi and Njoku (2008) identify child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship, quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken home, engagement of children and house helps as factors or the clog in the wheel of children’s access to education. Abdulahi in Maduagwu and Mohammed (2006) notes that the importance of education in the life of an individual cannot be over emphasized. Central to the most basic problems facing the child is access to qualitative education. This is because without education, the realization of all other rights- socio-economic and political rights becomes impossible.

According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, child labour refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. Child labour was employed to varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workers’ and children’s rights.

In many developed countries, it is considered inappropriate or exploitative if a child below a certain age works (excluding household chores, in a family shop, or school-related work). An employer is usually not permitted to hire a child below a certain minimum age. This minimum age depends on the country and the type of work involved. States ratifying the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1973, have adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16.

The incidence of child labour in the world decreased from 25 to 10 percent between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. Based on this understanding of the use of children as labourers, it is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. Child labour can also be defined as the full-time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age.

According to UNICEF, there are an estimated 250 million children aged 5 to 14 in child labour worldwide, excluding child domestic labour. The United Nations and the International Labour Organization consider child labour exploitative, with the UN stipulating, in article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child that: States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Although globally there is an estimated 250 million children working.

Children living in the poorest households and in rural areas are most likely to be engaged in child labour. Those burdened with household chores are overwhelmingly girls. Millions of girls who work as domestic servants are especially vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Labour often interferes with children’s education. Ensuring that all children go to school and that their education is of good quality are keys to preventing child labour. It is therefore in line with the above that the researcher intends to find out the role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM      

Education is seen as the process of acquiring skills, knowledge, etc, which will help an individual to perform better in a society. It is the process of transmitting values, cultures, etc, from one generation to the other. Education is seen as a human right that should be given to all human beings. The issue is about the child. The child is the dawn, the bedrock and the future of any nation or society aspiring for sustainable development. However, the predicaments of children in Kaduna South are better imagined.

Today, throughout the world, around 215 million children work, many full-time. They do not go to school and have little or no time to play. Many do not receive proper nutrition or care. They are denied the chance to be children. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labour such as work in hazardous environments, slavery, or other forms of forced labour, illicit activities including drug trafficking and prostitution, as well as involvement in armed conflict.

Child labour is still common in some parts of the world today, including Kaduna South Local Government Area and it can be factory work, mining, prostitution, quarrying, agriculture, helping in the parents’ business, having one’s own small business (for example selling food) or doing odd jobs. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants (where they may also work as waiters).

Other children are forced to do tedious and repetitive jobs such as: assembling boxes, polishing shoes, stocking a store’s products, or cleaning. However, rather than in factories and sweatshops, most child labour occurs in the informal sector, “selling many things on the streets, at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses—far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny.”

And all the work that they did was done in all types of weather; and was also done for minimal pay. As long as there is family poverty there will be child labour. Against this backdrop, it becomes pertinent to ask: how can education be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.          Thus, the problem this study seeks to investigate is the issue of child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.     This forms the basis for the study.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The broad objective of this study is to assess the role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Specifically however, the study aims at:

  1. Finding out the extent to which the children have access to education in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
  2. Finding out the factors (if any), which impede the effective education of children in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
  3. Finding out the sex that is more engaged in labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area
  4. Determining how education can be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          Based on the problem and the objectives of the study stated above, the following research questions will be drawn to guide the study:

  1. To what extent do children have access to education in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  2. What are the factors that hinder the effective education of children in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  3. What sex is more engaged in labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  4. Can education be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

          The following is the statement of hypothesis for the study:

Ho1:   There is no relationship between education and child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

H1:     There is relationship between education and child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study cannot be over emphasized. It is hoped that the study will reveal how education can be used to curb child labour, not only in Kaduna South Local Government Area, but across the country. Furthermore, it is also hoped that the result of the study and the re-commendations will in a large measure assist the entire local government and the entire government educational policy makers to formulate policies that will favour the child, especially the girl-child.

The study serves as a reservoir of knowledge where future researchers can easily tap knowledge as the work will be documented. The study is significant in the sense that it looks at how child labour can negatively affect the child and the nation at large.

1.7     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          The study is restricted to education as a means to curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area. Geographically however, the study is limited to Angwan Muazu, Tudunwada and Kakuri.

1.8     OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERM

          The following key terms are defined:

Education: Education is the process of providing information to an inexperienced person to help him or her develop physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically. It means the process of helping an individual to acquire adequate and appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes and values known as cognitive, psychomotor and affective behaviours to be able to function optimally as a citizen.

The Child: The child is a biological female or male offspring from birth to eighteen (18) years of age. It is the age before one becomes young adult. This period covers the crèche, nursery or early childhood (0 – 5years) primary (6 – 12). During this period, the young child is totally under the care of the adult who may be her parents or guardians and older siblings. It is made up of infancy, childhood, early and adolescent stages of development. During this period, the child is malleable, builds and develops his or her personality and character. He or she is very dependent on the significant others, those on whom he models his behaviour through observation, repetition and imitation.

Child Labour: The term child labour refers to involvement of children below 15 years in work or employment in a regular basis with the aim of earning a livelihood for themselves or their families. When children, especially young ones are exposed to long hours of work in dangerous environment, or are entrusted with too much responsibility without compensatory psycho-social reward or work, which does not prepare them adequately for the future in modernizing society, it becomes exploitative child labour. Child labour and child work are placed on a continuum where the dividing line is very slim. When children’s work is exploitative and occurs in harsh and dangerous environments, which threaten the lives and limbs of children as well as jeopardize their normal physical, mental, emotional and moral development, it is termed child labour. Any type of work that prevents schooling when it is available is exploitative.

Challenges: The term can simply be referred to as obstacles, hindrances that stand on the way of someone. They are those things that prevent someone from achieving certain goals. Challenges could also mean problems. That is, the problems that one is passing through.

Informal education: It is the type of educational system in which someone acquires knowledge, skills, etc under one’s native culture.

Formal education: It is the type that takes place in a formal setting, where you have a teacher who is professionally trained to teach. This is the type of education we find in our primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.

Non-formal education: This is the type of education that is neither formal nor informal.

Socio-cultural: It simply refers to the people’s way of life and their belief.

Gender: This is the sum of cultural values, attitude, roles, practices and characteristics of attributes based on sex.

Curbing: To curb is to prevent or stop something from further taking place.

Child labour: UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the type of work. Such work is considered harmful to the child and should therefore be eliminated.

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

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