Role of public relation and advertising in ensuring credible election a case study of the 2011 general election in Nigeria
This paper examines the Role of public relation and advertising in ensuring credible election a case study of the 2011 general election in Nigeria. It studies the newspaper, magazine, radio and television as public relation agent. Nigeria is the second country in West Africa to pass legislation that explicitly protects access to information, a universal human right. After more than ten years of pushing for this law, Nigerian journalists and citizens finally have the right to request and receive information from government institution which we firmly believe will help promote transparency, combat; corruption and allow journalists to dig deeper.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
I want to tell people that public relation played a very important role during the 2011 general election they help to maintain absolute transparency and order during the election and as we go on we are going to see how the public election ensured credible election in Nigeria.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The public relations advertising used to promote the public welfare is called public service ”advertising, it promotes traffic, election, equal employment opportunities, etc. the role of public relation can not be over looked in any ration or country because public relation can be seen as the brain child of every nations economy and development.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to expose our minds to the knowledge of public relation and how the public relations also helped in ensuring credible in Nigeria during the 2011 general election.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
People are going to learn some various channels or avenues through which the public relations used in the area of advertisement and so many other things.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This paper talks more of the public relation advertising and how the public relation had been able to ensure that the election was free and fare.
What is public relation?
The role of public relation in ensuring credible election?
The style that I used its qualitative- God is my major source and inspiration in accomplishing this study. The grammar that I used is very simple but however, the use of dictionary is advised in case of any big words.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
THE MEANING OF PUBLIC RELATION
Most people do not agree exactly on what public relations is for this reason, it is a difficult subject to approach it is a relatively new, emerging concept for which there is no full consensus an a precise definition-The widespread, haphazard usage of the term public relations has tended to obscure its meaning for many people? The involvement the function has undergone from are that was basically different in nature and purpose has in like manner resulted in a misunderstanding of it’s true role in modern society.
Webster’s new world dictionary defines public relations as “Relations with the general public, as through publicity, specifically, those function of a corporation, organization e.t.c concerned with attempting to create favourable public opinion for itself.
A more specific definition, which emphasizes the special responsibility, is favoured by public relation news: “public relations is the management function which evaluates, public attitude, identifies, the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest and executes, a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.”
PRINCIPLE OBJECTIVES OF PUBLIC RELATION ADVERTISING
- TO CREATE A FAVOURABLE IMAGE OF AN ORGANIZATION:
Public relations advertising is used by an organization to enharve the public’s confidence in it and it’s product or services. A company that succeeds in developing favourable attitudes on the part of the public can reasonably aspire more of it’s products, attract desirable employees, reduce labour turnover, secure community support, attract and hold good suppliers and stock holders, win the favor of government officials and build a loyal dealer organization.
- TO CORRECT MISCONCEPTION: Misunderstandings may seriously affect the sales and profits of a company or the financial support, volunteer aid, and attitude of the member ship of a nonprofit association, to correct misunderstanding, many companies and facts about their policies and practices to the public.
- TO SECURE AND KEEP GOOD SUPPLIERS: An increasing number of manufacturers and merchants advertise interest suppliers in trade papers and business magazines to the manufacturers and merchants, to inuite suppliers to open houses, and to promote the welfare of resources.
- 4. TO AROUSE THE INTEREST OF STOCKHOLDERS AND THE FINANCIAL COMMUNITY: Corporations advertise in the financial sections of newspapers and in financial magazines to inform shareholders and the financial community about their financial condition
- TO INFORM AND SERVE CONSUMERS: Consumer magazines radio and television reach consumers with information about the just concluded credible general election in Nigeria to public welfare.
- TO RENDER A PUBLIC SERVICE: Advertising is increasingly used by corporations, to promote a free general and acceptable election, national health, charitable work, forest fire prevention, better schools, occident prevention , and the American Economic system, American Red cross, the united Nations, high way safety etc.
- TO INFORM GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: Advertising is used to discuss the issues involved in pending legislation and to seek the support of city, state, and National government official voters are also apprised through advertising of issues affecting them, their community and their company.
MEDIA OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ADVERTISING
Newspapers: Newspaper advertising is used locally in community relations and nationally to communicate with general public-large corporations, use both messages addressed to homemakers are run on the lifestyles page; those advertised to business people, in the business pages- in Sunday papers, a variety of special sections appeals to readers with such desperate interest as music, books gardening, travel, and the theater.
To communicate with ethnic groups, specialized newspapers are used, such as the foreign-languages, press, which includes newspapers printed in German, Danish, French, Greek, Norwegion, Arabic, polish, Portuguese and Spanish.
Newspaper national rates usually are quoted in agate lines. An agate by one column wide. Weeklies and some small dailies may quote their rates in column inches that is a space one inch deep by one column wide. There are however, different rater for different types of advertising- for example, the retail or local rate is generally lower than the general or national rate. Classified advertising (“want ads”) differ usually being quoted on cost per word.
General or national line rates are open or flat. Open rates provide for rate discounts; flat rates are given if no document is offered.
Some newspapers require advertisers to pay the full agate line rate even if they have a contrast period, for bulks or frequency rates. At the end of the contract period, they adjust the rates and rebate the differences to the advertisers. On the other hand, some newspapers charge the advertiser on the bases of the lowest contracted rate from the onset. However, if the advertiser does not meet the terms of the contract at the end of the contract period, the advertiser must pay the difference to the newspaper. This difference is known as short rate.
MAGAZINE: Advertising is placed in trade, technical, and business magazines and specialized religious, agricultural, fraternal and recreational publications to communicate within business and special- interest groups.
General magazines are used for institutional advertising to the general public. Business, professional and vocational magazines carry public relations messages that appeal to the particular interest of influential persons, farmers, teachers, business executives, ministers, doctors, journalists, and politics etc.
Consumer magazines offer the advertiser on opportunity to reach highly selected adherence. Today it is possible to buy advertising on a limited geographical basis. Farm and business publications can reach virtually any segments of agriculture or trade, the industries or the professions effectively and selectively.
Magazine space is usually sold in units such as the whole page, half page, garter page, and so forth- some periodicals quote rates by agate line. Many of them offer discounts usually on the basis of frequency (number of inbertions) or volume.
RADIO AND TELEVISION: Radio and Television broadcasts are used to communicate with community regional and national publics. Network broadcasts involve the use of general stations simultaneously in a region or nationally-spot or local broadcasts by individual stations are employed for community communications.
Public relations radio and television advertising programs includes, interviews, addresses, entertainment and service programmes. Newscast are sponsored as a public service and inter sprees with institutional announcements describing a company’s activities. Special event programme feature corporations open houses or anniversary celebration. Audience participation program include customers employees, suppliers, neighbors, and representatives of various public comedy and dramatic broadcasts carry institutional announcements. Public service programme may by based on authoritative suggestions, about ways to prevent accidents, to sew, cook, play golf make a garden or pursue other leisure activities, food, appliance and drug manufacturers frequently sponsor consumer service programs featuring home making , cooking and child care.
In the opinion of Dennis Ritzel, manager of national advertising strengths of the Eaton corporation, television has special strengths that are only beginning to be appreciated for the cooperation wanting to make a significant impact and do it as quickly as possible, television power, heavers, is unsurpassed for the thing it is a prestige medium, employees take pride in their company’s sponsorship of other media. Also it is a medium of great social magnitude because of its extraordinary reach of course, the advertising objectives availability of adequate funds utilize television effectively, proper scheduling of all must be stations and especially program content.
Cable Television (CATV) is a system that receives the programme of broadcast stations by a central receiving antenna or by microware relay. It then delivers these signals from the point of reception to the home of its subscribers originally conceived to provide receptions in areas remote from television stations, it was later pound to have value in cities having television but with some areas that experienced poor reception because of intereferance.
Today it has moved into a new phase in addition to transmitting the programme of broadcast station , it also originates programs and caries advertising moreover, experimentation is now under way to use CATV on a two-way basis which would permit the viewer to place orders for goods or services being advertised, or to respond to, and/or vote on, statements being made. The potentials are tremendous for local and national advertisers who win to use television to reach specific markets or for tests markets. Of equal importance are its possibilities for commutation research.
ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC RELATION ADVERTISING
Public relations advertising is a responsibility of a public relations department cooperating with a cooperate advertising staff and perhaps on advertising agency. In small companies where there is a limited volume of public relations advertising, it is logical for an advertising department to handle both public relations and product advertising Also, when public relations has primarily marketing objectives, an advertising department should play an important role in advertising.
However, in large cooperation committed to a large expenditure through institutional advertising, a separate section specializing in public relation advertising of the General motors cooperation.
The public relations advertising programme of subsidiary to meet its own needs; or, the planning, production and placing of advertising may be handled by an advertising agency under the supervision of the public relations department. In some cases, an agency is employed to handle institutional advertising exclusive.
Public relation advertising programs, designed to some problems of contemporary life, are sponsored by the advertising council, a non profit organization support by advertisers, advertising agencies, and media. The council approves requests for advertising assistance from social welfare organization and leading advertisers, media, and agencies who are members of the council and prepares and runs the advertising at their expense –some of the public service/relation advertising programs that have been sponsored by the council are those on better racial relations, American Red Cross, “keep America Beautiful”, Mental relation traffic safety, religion and U.S savings Bonds.
PUBLIC RELATIONS ADVERTISING TERMS
- THE INSTITUTIONAL THEME: Much pubic relations advertising is on an institutional theme, to create of favourable image of an organization as a public service institution. Institutional advertisement fells how a corporation serves the public interest through research, good products and service, progressive policies, and modern facilities.
Institutional advertising describes how a company recognizes its social responsibilities to the public by contributing to charitable and educational activities in the area it services.
- THE PUBLIC SERVICE THEME: The public service offers solutions to such social problem, as highway safety, racial relations, Youth fitness, mental health, equal employment opportunity, crime prevention, election rigging prevention, credible election strategy and so on. It was this type of theme that public relation adopted in ensuring credible election in Nigeria during the 2011 general election.
- THE ECONOMIC THEME: The economic theme seeks better public understanding of how our American business system operates and the advertising of the free enterprise systems
- THE LABOR RELATIONS THEME: To inform employees and improve labor relations, advertising is published in plant magazines and community newspapers to bring about a better understanding of company policies, problems and practices, employee services and benefits, employment stabilization and equitable wage rates.
- THE SPECIAL EVENT THEME: Public relations advertising in plant city newspapers, in radio and television broadcasts, and in outdoor posters is used to invite the public to a special event, such as an open house, an anniversary celebration a stockholder’s meeting, the dedication of new plant or office building, a new facility, the introduction of a new product, or a special display or exhibit.
ADVERTISING ROLE OF THE PUBLIC RELATION IN ENSURING CREDIBLE ELECTION
The public relation advertising played a very important role in ensuring credible election in Nigeria during the 2011 general election conducted from the month of April. Public relations started advertising of this general election even as of last year 2010 they started the advertising programme telling the world about the forth coming election and when the date reaches on the 9th of April 2011 the election started and the election was free and fare, there was no form of malpractice or election rigging the public relation advertising was current they were ever ready to answer to the needs of the voters, they are the one responsible for the announcement of votes and result.
Even the present chief Justice of the federation Alhaji Alloysius Katisna Alu commended the public relations on there effort in ensuring credible election. He also auges them to keep on with there good work, he said that the citizens are happy with them and the entire federation also.
The INEC chairman Mohammed Arterhirue Jega also thanked the public relation for there cooperation in ensuring credible election in the state.
MEDIA THROUGH WHICH THE PUBLIC RELATION ADOPTED IN ENSURING CREDIBLE ELECTION
The public relation adopted both the print media and the electronic media in ensuring free flow of information during the just concluded 2011 general election and they are:
(1). Newspaper: Public relation used newspapers in the dissemination of information on political issues, they are used locally in community relations, and nationally to communicate with the general public the political and election results. This means is also cheap and at an affordable price, it covers the election information in details the whole account of the election result, some and so on, people where daily informed on the current issues regarding the electoral press and some other special events
(2). Magazines: This is one of the vital tools adopted by the public relation in ensuring a credible election during the 2011 general election in Nigeria some magazines such as current affairs are used to announce the result of some political leaders and even also some of our past leaders from the day of independent till date. The use of magazine makes a responsible citizen to become current and even more responsible.
- Radio and Television: This is a very important and essential vital tool adopted by the public relation in ensuring credible election during the 2011 general election in Nigeria. People where informed and through the use of cable television and radio many people who where connected are informed live, they don’t need to be present at the place where the election was going on, they can just seat at there homes and be watching the programme.
Summary: public relation and advertising role ensured truly a very credible election during the 2011 general election. The audience or citizens never lack behind on what is going on concerning the election and when the result was announcement even when some states tries to rig or prove stubborn during the election it was still public relation that settled it is as matter of fact the public relation is one of the brainchild behind the success of the just conduced 2011 general election in Nigeria.
Frazer Moore, (2007) Public Relation, 7.K, Kolhapur Road, Kanula Nagar, Delhi LLO 077, India, Subject Publication