Roles of environment, age and education on adult engagement in vocational skills in Abakaliki urban and rural metropolis

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION  

 Background to the Study: 

          A vocational skill can be describe as any type of skill or education with the primary purpose of preparing persons for employment in re-organised occupations (Okoro, 1993). The Nigeria National policy on education defines vocational skill as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving in addition to general education the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. (Nigeria policy on education 2005).Thus any education that is geared towards teaching technical skills and attitudes suitable to such skills can be regarded as vocational skill.   

          Uwaifo (2009) posits that vocational skill is the training of technically oriented personal who are to be the initiators, facilitators and implement of technological development of a nation. He opined that this training of its citizenry on the need to be technically literate would lead to self –reliance and sustainability. He stressed that vocational skills can thrive more than any other professionals and has direct impact on national welfare. The practical nature of techniques make it unique in content and approach thereby requiring special care and attention that is why this research work is seeking adult engagement to empower acquired skills and ideas to promote entrepreneurship as well as reduce e unemployment in a bid to curb their involvement in national insecurity (Ifedigbo 2011). He stressed that acquired skills improve productivity and healthy, and reduce negative prospects through empowerment (Okeh 2004) described vocational skills as an aspect of education designed to prepare adults for industry agriculture, commerce and home economics. 

          However, vocational skills have continued to thrive in many societies unfortunately, Nigerians are not taking the concept ofengagement seriously. It is seen as deficient in citizenship or leadership training (Freedman 2009). But could engage adult to become productive entrepreneur and engender creative and innovative ideas that would enlarge the nation’s economics pie and increase freedom.

          Environment is important variable to this study. It can be defined as the total surrounding including basic infrastructures, tools used during the training. In the course of this work environment is not limited to physical aspect of our dwelling, it includes impact and quality assessment, such as proper policies, adequate funding positive incentives for vocational skills instructors, adequate and modern training facilities, adequate skilled manpower, relevant and appropriate curricular of vocational skills and regular supervision, monitoring and evaluation of the scheme.      

          The provision of vocational skills has a long history. Before the industrial revolution (b/w 1750 and 1830) home is apprenticeship system where the principal vocational skills are learnt, parents keep on giving their children/wards a specific task such as using clay to mould pot, using palm fronts to make baskets, brooms and sponges. They grow up with it and many develop interest in skill acquisition programmers, which the early man referred as commercial secondary school. However societies were forced by the decline of hand work and craft skills and this led to the introduction of what we known as Government Technical Colleges (G.T.C) whose curriculum covers painting, drawing, metal work, graphics, design, electrical work, fashion design, wood work, carpentry, hair dressing, e.t.c

          Age is an interested variable to this study, what is the role age plays in adult engagement activities roles of age is evident using list vocational engagement activities technique, in which the participant in indicate to which of the participant indicate to which of the skills design studies belongs regency judgement test, in which the participants must select the most recently or fashioned techniques presented in test items constructed form pairs of studies and serial order reconstruction tests which require participant to organised a set  of studied designs into the other in which they were initially presented, shows that age differences remain stable across manipulations that aspects overall level of performance (Kestrel N. Philips, Edgecombe 2000). 

          (Merriam, 2001) supports the idea of (age) long life learning as viable for healthy adults and while the speed of learning skills may slow overtime, the older learners makeup for speed through their experiences and knowledge base and usually able to mentally process at a drawing, analysis, conceptualization, creativity, designs and judgement abilities. Overall, this means that the instructor needs to implement only slight and subtle modifications for an older learner in vocational skills. While most adult learners are not as fast at note memorization and may not he interested in content driven courses, that contains a lot of memorization, and they appear to be very adopt at engagements of skills based on required critical thinking. Regardless of these age variable recently, people have tended to classify learning in that same context. There appears to be on going shift regarding the issue of adult learning that can be dated back to the post-world war III era and the vocational bill of rights which resulted in millions of veterans flooding college campuses (Sheppard, 2002). This legislation further promoted the growing notion that higher education was available for the common citizen, irrespective of age. Out of that setting came a generation of adult forming different views as to who could such learning be appropriate. Post-world II generation began taking aging adult approach in mastering vocational skills, which has resulted man important cultural change that has increased economic productivity, while improving the quality of life as well. Increasingly, older adults are seeking formal educational opportunities echoed in the demographic that reports 33 percentage of vocational skills students are age 25yrs or older (king, Anderson and Corrign 2003). “Education” as a factor on adult engagement in vocational skills. Education can be defined as a process of receiving and giving a systematic instruction, especially at a school or tertiary institution. It can also be seen as an act or process of impacting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the power of reasoning and judgement (Akiritunde, 2008). Education has an important role to play in improving the profile of vocational skills for an individual to  achieve a fundamental skills, such as listening, reading writing speaking English, digital literacy and the use of mathematical ideals, which creates the access ability in acquiring vocational skills, one need to pass through subject curriculum (Education). It can be argued that the major reasons why the many past intervention programmes on vocational skills by adult have failed to yield the desired result is what appears to be the “disconnect” between skill acquisition and skill management in other wards, it is not enough to acquire a skill without the capacity to manage one’s self due to lack of education. For any person to compete effectively (Hamel and Partialad 1994) in an emerging economy that is knowledge-driven, he or she must posses relevant job competencies, including technical business, cultural inter person and intellectual competences which could be obtained from functional technical and vocational colleges of education (Dike, 2009). Improving access to education is critical to vocational skills acquisition and a reduction in unemployment. This is because; less educated people have access to fewer jobs. As UNDP (United Nations Developments policy, 2004) has noted basic education is a pre-requisite for training young people. Youth unemployment is partly the result of a mismatch between inadequate educational outcomes and skills demand. The education system must provide the skills profile required by the labour market to enhance vocational skills, in order to be employable.

Statement of the Problem:

          Vocational skills are being challenge by various factors which interfere with the acquired skills in an emerging economy, knowledge driven must be related with competencies an access environment full of basic infrastructures, tools and technical that produce required outcome it is on this current issues that necessitated the researcher to investigate the roles of age and education on adult engagement on vocational skills. Therefore, studies will proffer anteaters to the following research questions:

  1. Does an Environmental factor affect adult engagement on skills acquisition?
  2. Will age difference affect on adult engagement on vocational skills?
  3. Will Educational access influence adult engagement on vocational skills education?

Objectives of the Study:

          This research sets out to investigate the roles of environment, age and education on adult engagement in vocational skills in Abakaliki urban and rural metropolis specifically this research work will achieve the following objectives: 

  1. To access if performances of adults engaging in vocational skills depend on the age of the participants
  2. To determine the roles of environment on adult engagement on vocational skills.
  3. To determine the level of education as an enhancement or adult engagement on vocational skills.

 

Operational Definition of Terms:

  1. Environment: in this context refers to the Abakaliki urban metropolis and Onicha Igboeze rural setting where sampled of my respondent drawn from their respective workshop.
  2. Age: This refers to the years an adult has reached or attained during the time of acquiring vocational skills. It can be seen in premise of young school as (12-2 yrs) middle adolescence and full grown adult (21-35 yrs) such as young adolescence (12-20 yrs) middle adolescence (20-35 yrs)
  3. Education here means acquisition of skills necessary for living.
  4. Adult: the feeling of being healthy and has attend maturation with a full potential of manhood. In the eye of manage his or her own affairs.
  5. Vocational skills: These refer to practical skills one acquired on a specific area of interest or field. It can be a tist, carpentry, welding, hair dressing, fashion designing & that was acquired in vocational settings to become self-dependent.

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