Strategies for effective management of school resources in Abakaliki Educational Zone
Background to the Study
Education is the Process by which society through school deliberately transmits its cultural heritage (accumulated knowledge, values and skills) from one generation to another. Education as an instrument of change plays a very important role in both developed and developing countries of the world (Ikuemenison, 2003). Through the ages, education has been known to be the antidote to poverty and ignorance and the key for unlocking natural resources (Obaji, 2006). This shows that the vital role of education is the transformation of the society to ensure an improved standard of living such crucial transformation depends mainly on the quality of instruction learners received.
The learners are likely to give back what they have learnt when exposed to the world of work (Mkpa, 2001) therefore, if economic development in Nigeria is to be achieved and sustained, productive and sustainable education among the youths should be established and pursued vigorously.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria in her policy on education (2004) considers education as an instruments per excellence for affecting national development. This national policy on education spelt out national educational aims and objectives as: The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.
The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. The training of the mind in the understanding of world around and the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competence as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004)
Effective implementation of the national policy therefore will enhance the success of the Nigerian educational system. Ugwu (2007) states that any policy of developing countries is viewed in terms of its contribution to national development and this does in any way mean that all policies result in measurable and remarkable national development. Awaritefe (2002) supported this view by stating that majority of the products of Nigerian education systems are not well equipped and therefore lack confidence to undertake self-employment in technical and other productive vocational careers. The above assertions mixed with the global technological advances show that there is need to take a critical look at the resources in educational system in Nigeria.
This is important since the quality of instruction given to trainees depends on the quantity and quality of resources available. Osuala (2006) postulate that the indispensability of learning resources in the realization of the objectives of national policy on education has been emphasized in many literature. School resources are devices, methods or experiences used for teaching purposes, including textbooks, supplementary reading materials, audio visuals and other sensory materials used for effective teaching, and learning process. They include all materials and equipment used in connection with teaching and learning.
School resources are classified into financial, school plant resources, personnel resources and motivational resources. Financial resources are concerned with decision on how to procure, expand and give account of funds provided for the implementation of the programs of the organization. Onwurah (2004) defines school plant as the school building, the playgrounds and the equipment and other material resources provided to school to facilitate teaching and learning operation in the schools. In other words school plant are material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in the schools. Aghenta (2000) defines personnel resources as human beings that function to aid teaching and learning including classroom teachers, subject teachers, members of Administrative staff, cooks, cleaners and security personnel in the school. This implies that personnel resources as human beings that operate in school.
Motivational resources are those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of action towards particular objectives (Chuaghan, 2002). Therefore motivational resources can be defined as those resources which energize a person to do something. Educational management is a variety of sequential and related activities designed and carried out in order to effectively and efficiently meets the goals of teaching and learning (Nwadiani, 1998 and Adeyemi, 2004). Thus educational management is concerned with the planning and formulation of educational policies for the purpose of achieving educational goals.
Any school organization that wants to achieve its objectives should incorporate sound and effective managerial strategies for managing and utilizing its limited resources. Modalities are defines as strategies which are referred to as a general programme of action implying commitment of emphasis and resources to attain broad objective of the organization (Inyang, 2002).
Management of resources is the effective use of resources in an organization in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Wikipedia (2008) defines management of resources as the efficient and effective deployment of organization’s resources when they are needed. This means that management of school resources is an intellectual demanding job of the school administrator/manager, principal and teacher therefore requires combined talent and activities of an educational management. In the management of school resources, the key players are the teachers, the principals and the government (Igboabuchi, 2007). The principals and the teachers play very important roles in the management of school resources. The principals should manage wisely the resources available to him to obtain the stated objectives of education. The principal in his managerial strategies provides the enabling environment where teachers operate and where the community is involved in the school affairs. According to Egwunyenga (2002) the task of the school principal include, provision of instruction and academic leadership, responsibility to staff, responsibility to students and financial responsibility. The teachers represent the model before the student. Their nature, qualifications and organizational abilities seriously affect their managerial strategies. Igbabuchi (2007) observes that the shaping of the destiny of future generations of citizens is put in their hands and this is an enormous responsibility. However, it is pathetic to find out that most school administrator/managers, principal and teacher do not consider it necessary to adopt proper strategies for effective management of school resources.
The researcher’s experience shows that most schools resources in some secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone are poorly utilized for the purpose of which they were supplied. Some imported machines are found lying waste and beaten by sun and rain where they are dumped outside the school environment for years (Agoha, 2008), Anioke (2001) also observed that in most schools, the introductory technology workshops are permanently closed down and the installation confined and left alone to rust. These installations are subjected to vandalization and theft due to non-use.
Most laboratories have been noted to be under-utilized leaving the costly equipment and reagents to waste as a result of misuse while students are constantly denied the opportunity of utilization the resources provided by the government. As a result of wastage in resources, Students pass out of schools without theoretical knowledge (half-baked knowledge) that cannot be used in the world of work (Mamah, 1999)
Dilapidated buildings, broken chairs, desks and broken windows and roots, blown off roofs and bushy surroundings and cracked walls are some phenomenal in most secondary schools in the zone. Ogbannaya (2002) found out that most secondary schools in Abakaliki have dilapidated structures including broken roofs such that teachers and students do not have comfortable classroom for effective teaching and learning. Based on a close interaction between the researcher and some of the school administrators/managers, principals and teachers, it is certain that greater number of this administrators/managers, principals and teachers do not make adequate efforts to manage the existing resources due to apathy while some show concern over the deteriorating state of their school resources and the effort they have made to manage these resources. Some constraints to the management of school resources are inadequate fund, inadequate school plant, personnel related factors and lack of motivation.
Inadequate fund has been the key handicap towards effective management of school resources. Odor (1995) recognized that capital resources allocation to education is low compared with the competing needs. Lack of school plant or their inadequacy constitutes a constraint to management of school resources. Ogbonnaya (2004) served that most educational institution in Nigeria have inadequate school building, teaching aid and equipment. Personnel related factors such as lack of qualified and experienced staff hinder management of school resources. Lack of motivation hinders management of school resources Akwam (2002) noted that lack of qualified and experienced staff hinder effective use and management of school resources. Lack of motivation hinders management of school resources. Enyi (2004) observes that people naturally hate to be ordered by their leader instead they prefer to be motivated.
Based on this background, the study therefore, was undertaken to investigate the strategies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone.
Statement of the Problem
Management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone have not been looked into. To this effect, constant vandalization, wastage and disuse of educational equipment and installations, dilapidated buildings, broken chairs and tables, cracked walls, blown off roots and bushy surroundings become some common phenomena in the secondary schools. The increase rate of poor science and technical skill acquisition among secondary school students also tend to raise doubts in the possibility of achieving the objectives of the national policy on education.
Educational resources have been the indispensable tools in teaching and learning, but research efforts were not channeled toward identifying the strategies for their effective management. Although the poor management of educational resources in secondary schools are spread and quite alarming, much efforts have not been put toward the identification of the strategies for effective management of school resources. These pathetic conditions of management of school resources in secondary schools in this zone have become the major concern of school administrators, managers, principals, teachers, students and the general public. This is because if the situation is not well addressed, the school environment will become unfovourable for effective teaching and learning process. The problem of this study therefore was to explore the strategies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to determine strategies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Find out ways in which finance can be utilized for effective management.
- Ascertain ways school personnel can effectively manage the available school resources.
- Ascertain the availability of materials necessary for effective management in secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone.
- Determine the role of machinery in management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone.
Significant of the study
This study identified the strategies for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone. The result of this study is of great importance to principals, teachers, government, and ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy maker, students, all stakeholders and researcher.
The findings of the study will sensitize the principals and teachers on the need to adopt result oriented strategies toward the effective management of the existing school resources so as to ensure their maximum utilization and benefits. It will provide useful information to principals and teachers who may be ignorant in management of school resources. The knowledge and implementation of these strategies will make them competent principals and teachers.
This study will also enable government, ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy makers to know the strategies for effective management of school resources and device ways of improving on them. They will realize the constraints to management of school resources and organize work shop to educate newly appointed ignorant principals and teachers on how to manage their school resources. The student will also benefit from this study. This is because they will know the advantages of using proper strategies for the management of school resources in secondary schools. All stakeholder, the community and ever body that is associated with the school will benefits from this study. It will enable them to be aware of the strategies for effective management of school resources. This will sensitize them to participate actively in the management of school resources, programmes of the schools.
Finally, it will serves as a poll of data for researchers whenever they are carrying out studies on effective management of school resources. This provides them direction and guideline for their study.
The following research questions guided the study:
- In what ways can finance be utilized for effective management?
- How can school personnel be provided for effective management of available school resources?
- How can materials be provided for effective management in secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone?
- What are the roles of machinery in management of school resources in secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone?
Scope of the Study
This study is set to find out the strategies for effective management of school resources and tends to cover secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone.