STRATEGIES FOR PROPER UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN EBONYI STATE
Background of the Study
The discovery of electricity many decades ago marked an important era in modern civilization. A lot of research has been carried out in the area of electrical installation systems. The study of electrical installation technology is lucrative and fascinating as it gives an individual the ample opportunity to be creative with all the necessary competencies required to enter the world of work. According to Donnelly (1995), electrical installation is a process of mounting, fixing and installing the electrical cables, apparatus, conductors in a circuit, building or sub-station for the purpose of carrying electric current. According to National policy on Education (2004), the goals of any vocational education programme is to
- Provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for industrial, agricultural, commercial and economic development.
- Provide trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft, advance craft and technical levels.
- Give training and import the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self reliant economically.
However, to achieve the set goals, effective instructional materials should be used in teaching of electrical installation in technical colleges in Ebonyi State. Esomonu (1998) defined instructional materials as those things which a teacher uses at appropriate points during a lesson which help the teacher to communicate effectively to the student. Instructional materials can also be defined as the information designed specifically to fulfil objectives in teaching and learning situations, Akanbi (1988). Onwuegbuna, (1985), maintains that materials are used by teachers in the process of instructing in order to enhance learning. Materials make learning more permanent and often a reality of experience which stimulates self activity on the learners, (Umuogbai 1995). They awaken desires and interests in learning; provide motivation and stimulation to learning. The usefulness of any instructional material depends on what the teacher makes out of it as they do not achieve any of the attributed values on their own. Qualified teachers with saleable and employable skills as well as knowledge for imparting skills and theories to others are necessary to ensure the implementation of new curriculum in our technical colleges introduced recently by the National Board for Technical Education. Tarpeh, (1994), remarked that academic staffs are the mainstay of any institution and their number and quality affect the efficiency of the teaching and learning process. He described them as a crucial input in the transformation of students and research into graduate and knowledge and solution to societal problems.
Many countries are described as developed today because of their technological advancement and innovations. In Nigeria, the inadequacy of qualified technical teachers is one factor that is militating against a boost in technological manpower. Ogunnowo (1992), Nwaokolo (1997). Principals Annual Report for Technical Colleges, (1998) and Aina (2000) all admitted that there is a problem of inadequate qualified technical teachers at almost all levels and types of education in Nigeria. According to Okoh (2001), most of our teachers in Ebonyi State are emptier than children they are supposed to teach. Fafunwa, (1987) asserted that no training could take place without adequate materials for instruction and competent teachers to handle it. These teachers are trained in both occupational skill and instructional management. The researcher observed that the inadequacy of instructional materials and insufficient qualified technical teachers who teach electrical installation technology in technical colleges leads to the production of half-baked and unproductive graduates who lack the necessary competencies to enter into the occupation. This necessitated the study which is intended to identify the strategies for proper utilization of instructional materials in teaching of electrical installation in technical colleges in Ebonyi State.
Statement of the Problem
Technology in a rapidly changing society poses a challenge to technical teachers to develop appropriate teaching method and use of appropriate instructional materials. They are also to find more effective solutions to the teaching learning problems. These challenges have added more impetus to current researches and development efforts in technical education. The importance of the usage of instructional materials and qualified technical teachers in electrical installation technology cannot be over emphasized. They make teaching and learning more permanent and often a reality of experience which stimulates self activity on the learners, (Umuogbai 1993). According to Okoh (2001), many teachers in Ebonyi State schools are unqualified; they badly use available instructional materials. While some have been teaching for years without the use of materials, such practices make their lessons abstract, meaningless, and uninteresting above all the desired objectives not being achieved.
The problem therefore was that the researcher gathered information from the National Business and Technical examination Board Enugu 2005 – 2007 result sheet, that over 70% of students fail electrical installation subject This sad situation is a clear indication that the students have not learnt any thing and could be caused by inadequacy of materials and inappropriate utilization of materials for teaching electrical installation, inappropriate teaching method, and unqualified technical teachers. This automatically will transcend to the production of unskilled craftsmen and technicians who lack the desired basic and scientific knowledge, skills and attitude for entry to the world of work.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine the strategies for proper utilization of instructional materials in teaching of electrical installation. Specifically, the study will
- Identify the availability of instructional materials for effective teaching of electrical installation.
- Determine the adequacy of instructional materials used for electrical installation in technical colleges in Ebonyi State.
- Determine the qualities of technical teachers who teach electrical installation in technical colleges in Ebonyi state.
- Find out the strategies used for effective teaching of electrical installation technology in technical colleges in Ebonyi State.
Significance of the Study
The electrical installation technology teachers shall benefit from this study because they will now be better equipped with the problems associated with the use of instructional materials and the best way to make improvement. The study will also be beneficial to the students in technical colleges in Ebonyi State as teaching and learning will be improved since it will bring viable strategies that could improve electrical installation. The result of this study will also be beneficial to principals and other administrators of technical education in Ebonyi State as proper utilization of material in electrical installation and the curriculum implementation will be enhanced since appropriate method used in electrical installation technology will emanate.
The findings of this study will also be beneficial to our private and public industries as well as it will foster the production of skilled manpower through improved instructions.
Scope of the Study
This study has its focus on the following areas, strategies for proper utilization of instructional materials in teaching of electrical installation in technical colleges in Ebonyi State. The study intends to address the poor performance of electrical installation technology teachers and also identification of the instructional materials used in the teaching of electrical installation technology. On the other hand, they have no need studying job satisfaction among teachers or students, because they will contribute nothing to the main purpose of this study.
The study addressed the following pertinent questions.
- What is the adequacy of the instructional materials for the effective teaching of electrical installation?
- Are instructional materials for effective teaching of electrical installation sufficiently available?
- What relevant teaching methods can be used for effective teaching of electrical installation?
- What strategies could be used to improve the standard of electrical installation in the technical colleges in Ebonyi state?