KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AMONG TEACHERS’ IN BASIC SCHOOLS ON NURSING IN SOUTHEAST ZONE, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

The assessment of learning outcome provides objective evidence necessary in the decision –making process in educational system. This study  investigated the knowledge and use of continuous assessment among teachers in basic schools of Nursing in South East zone of Nigeria. Descriptive survey was adopted for the study. Four objectives and five hypotheses guided the study. The subjects studied were all the 194 teachers in the basic schools of Nursing who gave their informed consent.

A face and content validated structured questionnaire in point likert scale format with a reliability of 0.96 was used for data collection. Data were analysed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Major findings revealed that  majority of the teachers have knowledge of Continuous Assessment (means score = 3.0), most teachers do not use various continuous assessment techniques in carrying out continuous assessment (means score = 2.3), continuous assessment data is not adequately used in decision making in most schools (mean score = 2.4), there is a significant positive relationship between knowledge and practice of continuous assessment (P < 0.05), and there is a significant difference in the practice of continuous assessment between teachers with diploma and teachers with university degree (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the practice of continuous assessment between male and female teachers (p > 0.05), there is a significant difference in the practice of continuous  assessment as regards years of work experience (p < 0.05) but there is no significant difference in the use of continuous assessment as regards years of work experience (p > 0.05). Based on the findings above, the researcher recommended among other things that more emphasis be placed on the knowledge of the teachers on the use of continuous assessment.

The main limitation of the study is great dearth of knowledge and literature in this area. Suggestions for further research were also highlighted.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Academic assessment is vital in teaching and learning process and it provides the necessary feedback required in order to evaluate effectively the outcome of educational efforts and objectives. The assessment of learning outcomes provides objective evidences necessary in the decisionmaking process in education. As correctly pointed out in Bassavanthappa (2009), good measurement resulting in accurate data is the foundation of sound decision making. There is little doubt among educational practitioners about the special value of educational assessment as a basic condition for effective learning and decision making. In the classroom, assessment aims at determining the extent of students’ mastery or competence over a body of knowledge and skills in a subject (Airasian, 2006).

Assessment can be defined as the process of gathering data and fashioning them into interpretable form for decision – making. It involves collecting data with a view to making value judgement about the quality of a person, object, group or event. (Ajuonuma, 2007). Educational assessment may generally be used for formative or summative purposes. Formative assessment (continuous assessment) is designed to help the teacher make effective teaching and learning decisions throughout the period of teaching. It provides continuous information or feedback to the teacher as well as to the student about their relative performance in teaching and learning. The information is then used for improving the quality of instruction (Clarance, 2009). The summative type of
assessment involves an overall assessment of learning outcomes for certification, placement, promotion or decision concerning the worth of an educational programme.

The concept of continuous assessment is not new in education in developed countries where continuous assessment is in-built into the teaching and learning as posited by Izard (2007). Moreover, previous studies on the subject have revealed that in the international scenarios, formative assessment had already been practised in schools including Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, Finland and Scotland (Adebowale & Alao, 2008).  The continuous assessment grading system requires the assessment of the change in behaviors, in terms of cognitive, effective and psycho-motor domains. The students are evaluated from one stage to the other through tests, assignments, projects and other school activities. At the end of the term or year these tests are used for determining the performance or achievement of the students in a particular course of study or subject. Race (2007) equally stressed that continuous assessment is more useful to the students, since it provides them with on-going feedback on their performance, helps them to become more selfcritical, and encourages them to attempt to master material as they actually work through a course or course unit rather than leaving the real learning process to the very end.

It is also much fairer, in that it allows students to demonstrate their ability and development on an on-going basis, so that the student who works steadily and consistently well but is not very good at sitting for examinations is not placed at a disadvantage compared with the lazy student who does the minimum amount of work needed to pass such examinations, or the student who is skillful at the “examination game” but otherwise not particularly competent.
However, for several years, the educational systems of many African nations were dominated by the one-short summative type of assessment, (Alausa, 2005). The examination system, up to the time of the introduction of continuous assessment was also based purely on the single summative assessment (Fafunwa, 2004). Students, teachers, parents and even textbooks were focused more on the single examination. Students were coached to pass
examinations so as to move up the education ladder. It was to counter the problems of the single summative examination that suggestions for a broader approach to assessment, which would be flexible and also provide valid and reliable results, were made.

According to Ball (2004), an understanding of intentions embedded in policy is a factor for its effective implementation. The extent to which teachers  assess and deal with strength and weaknesses manifested by learners when responding to assessment tasks reveal their understanding of what continuous assessment is all about. Reineke (2007) asserts that the aim of continuous assessment is no longer to improve test scores, but to find ways in which assessment impacts on the way teaching occured and learners learnt, so as to contribute to improvement in the education system. According to Cochran-Smith (2004), this cannot happen without teachers’ knowledge of continuous assessment. It is when people know about innovation they are to adopt that they are motivated to embrace its practices. Through the National Policy on Education (NPE), the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004)
stated that educational assessment at all levels of education would be liberalized by basing them in whole or part on continuous assessment.

This recommendation was based on some deficiencies identified in the nation’s way of assessing students. The traditional system of assessment
concentrated only on the cognitive domain, with little or no attempt made to assess the affective and psychomotor domains. This system encourages students to study only during the period of examination. This is done by the memorization of facts, which are forgotten after the examination (FGN, 2004 and Obe, 2005). It was based on these reasons and more that the committee set for National Policy on Education in 1971, recommended the use of continuous assessment in NigeriaEducational System. In pursuance of this policy statement, National University Commission (NUC) allotted 30% and 70% of the total score of the university students to continuous assessment and end of semester examination respectively. The Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria also approved the practice of Continuous Assessment as one of the general method of evaluation of student nurses (Okafor and Iweze, 2012). The continuous assessment shall constitute 30% of the total marks obtained by the student during the programme while the final examination shall constitute 70%.

Comments have been made on continuous assessment since its introduction in Nigerian schools in 1977, (Adebowale & Alao, 2008). Ekwuonye and Ezeoke (2005), observed that problems exist in the practice of continuous assessment in all subject areas in Nigeria. Ekwonye (2005) specifically mentioned that teachers do not possess the required competencies for implementation of continuous assessment. Obe (2005), concurred that teachers’ general lack of skill in objective test construction and incompetencies in observational techniques for assessing behaviour contributes to the poor practice of continuous assessment in Nigerian schools. Kanno (2006), reported that teachers focused their greatest attention on measuring cognitive attainment rather than effective and psychomotor behaviours.  Therefore, since the overall achievement and placement of the student depends on how well teachers carry out continuous assessment, the researcher of this paper is prompted to investigate the knowledge and use of continuous assessment among teachers in basic nursing schools in southeast zone Nigeria.

 

KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AMONG TEACHERS’ IN BASIC SCHOOLS ON NURSING IN SOUTHEAST ZONE, NIGERIA

Statement of the Problem

Kanno (2006) stated that many teachers appeared to be lacking in knowledge and understanding of continuous assessment. What is practiced in many schools in Nigeria is “continuous testing” where teachers administer tests on students on a fortnightly or monthly basis. Some schools set-aside
specific days in the month for what is referred to as “continuous assessment”. Test scores are computed as Continuous assessment scores for the term or semester of school year. This approach does not differ from the old system of assessment. The mode of interpretation does not take into account other factors that may affect the students and the learning process. Some schools also give a test in the middle or toward end of a course and use the scores as continuous assessment. The researcher being a nurse educator observed that some schools of nursing visited for hospital final qualifying examinations did not have a continuous assessment records, which would have been used to rectify problems identified when evaluating some students who had academic problems, thus making decisions at that particular point difficult.

This observation prompted the researcher to examine whether teachers in schools of nursing in southeast zone know, practice and use continuous assessment data of the students and also to identify the challenges teachers encounter while doing so. Evidence from literature review shows that there is a dearth of literature on this topic in Nigeria and even abroad to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, hence the desire to carry out the study to fill
the gap in knowledge and also to provide a baseline study upon which other studies may be anchored.

KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AMONG TEACHERS’ IN BASIC SCHOOLS ON NURSING IN SOUTHEAST ZONE, NIGERIA

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AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GREY LITERATURE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN SOUTH EAST,NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to find out the availability and use of grey literature for scientific and technological research in university libraries in south eastern Nigeria. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. Six research questions bothering on extent of availability; use made of available grey literature; problems affecting the availability; problems affecting the use; strategies for overcoming the problems of availability; and strategies for  enhancing the use of grey literature were formulated to guide the study. The sample consisted of seven (7) university librarians and two hundred and forty (240) postgraduate researchers in science and technology drawn from seven (7) universities in south eastern Nigeria.

Data was collected using a combination of questionnaire and observation checklist. The data collected were analysed using percentages, mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study showed that grey literature was marginally available for science and technology research in the libraries; the available grey literature was used to a high extent; the availability of grey literature in the libraries was hindered by such factors as inadequate funds, and absence of library acquisition policies; while the use of grey literature for science and technology research was hindered by difficulty in finding needed materials among others. The findings had implications drawn for the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in designing appropriate policy for the capture, storage, dissemination and use of grey literature; the administrators of the university libraries in Nigeria; the users of scientific and technological literature in the libraries; as well as the staff of the university libraries. Based on these implications, some major recommendations were made.

These included the revision of the national policy on scientific and technological information to include measures on grey literature acquisition and use; allocation of adequate funds to university libraries to ensure grey literature availability and the digitization of available grey literature to enhance access to them.

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The term, grey literature, came into the professional vocabulary of librarianship about three and half decades ago. Despite this relatively long history, some librarians and information professionals are yet to be aware of its existence. Others who at all know about it appear confused over its exact meaning. (Auger,1998). This state of confusion, it seems, has given way to several varied definitions of grey literature. In some attempts to define it, authors have
often used equally obscure terms such as semi-published, non-conventional, and elusive (Schmidmaier, 1986; Keenan, 1996). Others have become rather simplistic in approach and defined it as that material which is not available through normal book selling channels (Wood, 1982; Auger, 1998). The British library (1994) also viewed it as any document, which is not a book or a journal, or any document (other than a journal), which will not stand up on the shelves on its own.

Further efforts have been made at overcoming the definitional problem of grey literature by listing the materials that fall under it. This usually included a long list of such items as technical reports, theses and dissertations conference proceedings, preprints, official publications, fact sheets, standards, patents, working papers, business documents, newsletters, symposia, bulletins. Aside from being endless, the list can be equally confusing because, according to the Science and Technology Section (STS), Subject and Bibliographic Access Committee (2003:1), “virtually everything we read outside of journals and books can be considered grey literature”. However, the list is often broken down into four component categories. The first category is made up of  publications issued by pressure groups and similar bodies with special interest. From time to time, such organizations have the need to publish quickly, their funds are limited, and there is no time for the niceties of sales or return and trade discounts. In consequence, sales are achieved by direct mail or through
specialist outlets. The second category is made up of privately published materials ranging from small volumes of poetry through carefully researched family and local histories to topical stories presented with a particular point of view.

The third category, sometimes referred to as alternative literature, consists of materials on topics or perspectives unknown or marginalized in the mainstream of publishing and usually absent from library collections. The fourth category, often called ephemera, consists of materials that carry verbal messages and are produced by printing or illustrative processes but not in a standard book, periodical or pamphlet formats. Most items of ephemera are produced for short-term purposes, e.g. bus tickets, timetables, and posters. What appears to be an international consensus at defining grey literature emerged at the third International Conference on Grey Literature held in Luxembourg in 1997. The conference defined grey literature as that (information resource) which is produced by government, academics, business and industries, both in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishing interests and where publishing is not the primary activity of the organization. (Aina, 2000: 25).

Debachere (1995:94-95) has further distinguished between two major groups of grey literature based on content. The first group consists of publications with scientific content: reports of studies, research, meetings, proceedings of conferences and seminars not published by a publishing house, and doctoral dissertations. The second group is made up of unconventional documentary material: in house publications by companies, publications by chambers of commerce and industry, associations, political parties and trade unions, non-administrative statistics; economic letters and correspondence, plans and expertise for development, leaflets, tracts, etc For the purpose of this study, grey literature is taken to mean the overall body of human knowledge having
scientific and technical content but are produced by organizations without commercial publishing interests and without publishing as their primary activity. This includes technical reports, theses and dissertations, conference proceedings, patents newsletters and fact sheets.

There are many and varied reasons why authors do not use commercial circuits in publishing. Sometimes, as the urgency of the demand for the content requires, authors are deterred by the times taken between the writing of an article and its appearance in a periodical or for a book. At other times, authors think that their report is targeted to a narrow group of specialists and hence may be too long or too short to be treated as a commercial publication. Another important reason is derived from the need to publish inexpensively by utilizing the in-house automation faculties. In spite of these benefits, grey literature appears to receive lackluster treatment by librarians and information professionals. The major reasons for this are apparent difficulties in identifying, procuring and processing it. Generally, due to its diverse origins and unconventionally published nature, grey literature can be difficult to find.

It is often found by searching for the agency or institution that is most likely to produce the literature. Such search may require looking at a large number of sources, some of whom may not have a list of what they produce in the first place. As Wood (1982:278) noted : As well as being the subject of haphazard or specialized distribution arrangements it also has a number of other distinguishing characteristics –small print runs, variable standards of editing and  production, poor publicity, poor bibliographic control, unacceptable format… and poor availability in libraries. Availability can be seen in four perspectives – physical, bibliographic, intellectual and online. Physical availability, which is the thrust of this work, refers to the existence of the grey literature document in a library.

This means that users have the opportunity to undertake detailed consultation of the contents. Bibliographic availability implies the presence of references made to the documents or their content without necessarily having the document itself in the library collection. Efforts at bibliographic control of grey  literature have been made in some countries. In Europe, for instance, a grey literature policy has resulted in the creation of the European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation (EAGLE).  International conferences have also been held on grey literature since 1993 and these have awakened national interest in grey literature in such countries as Sierra Leone, Sudan, Benin, Lesotho, Senegal, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Tanzania (Debachere, 1995; Muswazi, 2001).

Intellectual availability means the existence of critical or interpretative works on the host grey literature documents. Intellectual access in most cases may
satisfy the users’ information need without the extra need to see the document. Online availability on the other hand, refers to the existence of the grey literature in computer systems that are accessible through computer-to-computer interactions. In this case, the content can still be rendered physically available (by downloading) even though the documents containing them are not physically available in the library. Availability remains, perhaps, the greatest problem affecting the appreciation of the value as well as consequent use of grey literature in libraries. Even though items may be available in libraries without being accessible (due, perhaps, to poor organisation), they may not be accessible without being available in some form.

This seems to imply that the use of grey literature is dependent upon its availability in libraries. When items of information are available in libraries, use studies become strong indicators of the value attached to such materials by the users. However, this may not always be entirely true because sometimes people use what they see not because it is what they desire but because it is what is immediately available. In any case, data emanating from use studies are major ingredients of library collection development policies. Such data are, however, often difficult to generate as a result of confusion arising from how to determine what amounts to real use of library materials. To some, use is best measured by collecting data directly from the users themselves and relying solely upon their responses , whereas to others, evidence of use become more realistic when it is built up from references made by the users to what they have used.

The measurement of use by inference from citations to used items by the users has been criticized as being unreliable because people are often constrained to use what is available. With particular reference to grey literature, which suffers from availability problems, a more reliable data on use can only emanate from a direct interaction with the users themselves. The problems associated with the use of grey literature have made people, librarians and end-users alike; lose sight of its benefits. As observed by Wood (1982), it contains information likely to be of use to a considerable number of people. The advantages of grey literature over other means of information dissemination are quick access, greater flexibility and the opportunity to go into considerable detail when necessary (Auger, 1989).

As a primary source of information, grey literature is even more current than the journal because most journal articles have existed in one grey form or the other prior to publication. For instance, papers presented at conferences are often later published as articles in journals, sometimes years after they were presented. There is no doubt that grey literature is going to be far more important in the future given the development of information communication technologies that seem to enhance its access. As Weintraub (2000:3) observed, “In a world in which free trade and instantaneous communication have eliminated many of the barriers to information flow, grey literature is gaining greater importance as a source of information for much of the world’s population.” Grey literature is invaluable in all areas of science and technology, but its usefulness has been more particularly documented in agriculture (Omeje, 2003:1); geology (Bitchteler, 1991:40) and energy (Cutler, 1999: 2).

Deriving from its tendency to be original and recent, grey literature is more particularly valuable in sciences and technology. As a result of its currency, grey literature is useful in establishing the exact realms of contemporary scientific and technological knowledge thereby delineating gaps in knowledge that needed to be filled by further research. Its quick and rapid means of generation helps to obviate the rapid obsolescence of scientific and technological literature, which usually stifles research in science and technology. Bunge (2002:120) has defined science as the study of nature and natural phenomena.

The bodies of knowledge that fall within this definition are dynamic both in nature and size. One major way of classifying them is to look at the class of  objects or phenomena they deal with. Using this parameter, the following broad categories can be identified:- agricultural sciences, biological sciences, earth sciences,environmental sciences, medical sciences, physical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, and veterinary sciences. However, in institutions of higher learning, distinction is normally made between the pure and applied sciences and other sciences, thereby excluding such disciplines as library and information sciences and the social sciences. Thus, science is used in this work to refer to all the disciplines of study and research in institutions of higher learning which are concerned with the real world-the inherent properties of space, matter, energy and their interactions.

This definition is adapted from Akaneme (2001:2) and Sherwood and Maynard (2002: 185). Science generally is characterized by the possibility of making
precise statements that are susceptible to check and proof. Once proved,such statements become laws or theories that govern scientific behaviour under particular conditions. If disproved, even when previously held as law(s), such statements are rejected and replaced by new knowledge. The resultant knowledge is applied under particular conditions to address particular human issues or remedy particular human problems. It is this application of scientific knowledge in designing solutions to human problems that is referred to as technology. Sherwood and Maynard (2002:185) have defined technology as  “systematic knowledge and action, usually of industrial processes but applicable to any recurrent activity”.

The basic goal of technology is to utilize available scientific knowledge in the design of tools and procedures for dealing with man’s numerous problems.
Science and technology have been a part of human history (Awachie, 2001:26). Man has always sought proper understanding of the real world around him. Such knowledge has often been utilized in fashioning tools and techniques, no matter how crude, for dealing with the challenges of man’s environment.
Science and technology are the driving forces for much of the transformation of human society. Through the application of science and technology, the resources of nature have been transformed into goods and services for better quality of life.

Thus, in spite of the tremendous growth of world population, science and technology have been applied to agriculture to sustain the world population (Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, 1986:3). Science and technology have been responsible for human progress in such areas as communication, energy, health, leisure, transport and even war. According to Mernier (1980:91), “Scientific and technological progress opens up unprecedented opportunities for the transformation of nature, the creation of tremendous material wealth and the multiplication of the creative abilities of man.The adoption of science and technology in national life is the yardstick for measuring development or underdevelopment. Even though national development indices are primarily a function of economic status, they invariably reflect the state of scientific and technological development. Accordingly, the world is divided into two — the developed and the developing nations.

The developed world has attained technological sophistication by exploiting science and technology to create wealth, enhance standard of living, save human energy, and provide technical services. The developing nations, on the other hand, are yet to adequately utilize science and technology to exploit their natural resources and are hence largely dependent on goods and services from the developed nations. The benefits of science and technology and the adverse effects of dependence are the reasons behind the quest for scientific and technological development by all nations of the world. The quest became so intense in the 20th century that it was christened the century of science. (Bunge, 2002). Even the 21st century, which is called the ‘information
age’, derives its name from tremendous advancements in information and communications technology, a product of science and technology.

Advancements in science and technology are possible only through research. Research has been identified as the springboard for science and technology (Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, 1986:5). Best and Kahn, as cited in Aina (2002:1) defined research as “the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles and theories resulting in prediction and ultimate control of many events that may be consequences or causes of specific activities”. In this work, scientific and technological research refers to a systematic and guided inquiry into nature and natural phenomena and the various possible applications of the resultant knowledge to the design of  measures for dealing with the challenges of man’s environment.

Even though research is an activity undertaken by all individuals and organizations, it is a major attribute of academic institutions. With particular reference to universities, research is pursued at three basic levels-the undergraduate; postgraduate and faculty levels. However, the postgraduate and faculty levels have stronger research components, and are therefore more research oriented than the undergraduate programme. Generally, universities institutions play a pivotal role in scientific ad technological research, particularly in Africa (Okeke, 2004:75). Through theses and dissertations submitted in partial fulfillment of the various degrees as well as other research works, universities contribute baseline data for the nation’s scientific and technical research. In view of the high rate of obsolescence of knowledge in science and technology, scientists and technologists depend largely on primary sources of information for their research.

The primary sources include the  periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals) and grey literature. While journals were initially recognized as the traditional source of primary literature in science and technology, the difficulties in its publication have led to a shift in focus on grey literature as a reliable complement or sometimes outright alternative to journal literature. This implies that universities libraries should be in position to provide adequate quantity and quality of primary information resources and services in science and technology, especially grey literature.

 

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GREY LITERATURE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN SOUTH EAST,NIGERIA

 

Statement of the Problem

 

Nigeria, one of the non-industrialized or developing countries, is still grappling with efforts at scientific and technological development. It has, for instance, set up thirty-one (31) research institutes, out of which thirty (30) are science and technology-based. Various levels of science and technical research are also undertaken in thirty-one (31) universities and twenty-five polytechnics (The World of Learning, 2005:1260-1281). The World Bank (2001:311) also reports that nine (9) out of every 1 million Nigerians are scientists and technologists engaged in research and development for the period 1987-1997. For the same period, up to 42% of total tertiary students were in sciences and engineering. Furthermore, 0.09% (approximately 1%) of the nation’s GNI was spent on research and development

However these efforts at scientific and technological development are only realizable given adequate availability and use of scientific and technological literature much of which exists in grey forms. This class of literature has been seen as presenting remarkable advantages over other means of information dissemination in science and technology in terms of quick access, greater flexibility, and the opportunity to go into considerable detail when necessary. Unfortunately, it has been observed that grey literature presents some inherent problems that have in the past affected its availability, access and use in libraries. The result is that this valuable resource may be under-utilized to the detriment of science and technological research in Nigerian universities.

One major hindrance to breaking this barrier is that  not much is studied about grey literature in the country in terms of its availability in the libraries as well as use by the scientific and  technological researchers. If nothing is done in this direction, a huge portion of the nation’s scientific and technological information existing in grey literature may not be discovered and used. In addition to losing much of the local ingredients of scientific and technological research, Nigerian scientists and engineers may be excommunicated scholarly in this era of globalization where all are expected to be common producers and users of information. This will, obviously, not be in the interest of scientific and technological developments in the country. A study like this is therefore necessary to establish the status of availability and use of grey literature for science and technological research.

 

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GREY LITERATURE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN SOUTH EAST,NIGERIA

RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY OF
SMALL-SCALE GROUNDNUT FARMERS IN TARABA
STATE, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated resource productivity and efficiency of small scale groundnut farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria. The focus was on socio-economic attributes of the small scale groundnut farmers and the effects on their efficiency, determination of technical, allocative and economic efficiency of the respondents, profitability of groundnut production, and factors that influence production costs and problems of
groundnut production. A total of 270 small-scale groundnut farmers were selected in 9 local government areas of the State. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used as instruments for data collection.

Types of data collected were those on socio-economic characteristics, production, costs of production, yield and sales and problems of groundnut farmers within the local government areas. Data analysis was achieved by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics; Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), Stochastic Frontier Cost Function, profit (⌅) function and gross margin analysis. The mean scores for literacy level, household size, farming experience and farm size were 9 years, 5 persons, 9 years and 1.60ha, respectively. The Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) result of the stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) for groundnut farmers indicated the presence of inefficiency.

Farm size and other agrochemical were significant at 1% Level of Probability (LOP), seed was significant at 5% LOP and family labour was significant at 10% LOP. In the efficiency effects, farming experience and household size were both significant at 1% LOP; extension contact and literacy level were significant at 5% LOP. The mean Technical Efficiency (TE) was 77%. The MLE of stochastic cost function for groundnut production also indicated the presence of inefficiency.

The cost of seeds, fertilizer, family labour and ploughing were statistically significant at varying degrees of probability implying they
were important determinants of the total cost associated with the production of groundnut. Farming experience, literacy level and household size were significant and positively related to costs efficiency among the sampled farmers. The mean allocative efficiency was 0.695 (70%) indicating that the respondents were not allocatively efficient. Mean economic efficiency was 0.54 (54%) implied that, the sampled groundnut farmers were not economically efficient in the use of productive resources.

The gross margin was N47, 265.16 per hectare and return on investment was N0.29. Cost of seeds, transport, labour (family and hired) and storage significantly (P<0.01) affected profit margin. Major constraints identified included pests and diseases infestation (19.10%), lack of storage facilities (13.57%), inadequate research and extension services (10.86%), low price (10.77%), and inadequate credit facilities (9.50%). Remedial measures such as: loans and other credit facilities be given to farmers at reduced interest rate, farmers be encouraged to form cooperative groups, revitalization and prioritizing funding of

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus) commonly called poor man’s nut (Amiruzzanman and Shahjahan, 2003; Beghin, Diop, Matthey and Sewadah, 2003) is a member of the genus Arachis in the family leguminosae (fabacaea). Other members of this family include (cowpea), (soybean), (pigeon pea) and (melon). Groundnut originated from Latin America and the Portuguese were responsible for its introduction into West Africa from Brazil in the 16th century (Abalu & Etuk, 1986; Hamidu, Kudi & Mohammed, 2006).

The crop is now widely cultivated throughout the tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate areas (Hamidu et al., 2006). According to Ntare, Waliyar, Ramouch, Masters & Ndejunga, (2005), the production of groundnut in Nigeria started around 1912. This was in response to the high world prices, hence, made Nigeria to be prominent among the exporter of groundnut and took the lead as the largest producer and exporter of groundnut in the sixties.

Nigeria reached a peak production of 1.6 million metric tons in 1973, but production fell by almost half of the 1973 figures in less than a decade due to a combination of two important factors (Ntare et al., 2005). First the drought of 1974/75 growing season accompanied by aphid infestation which wiped out more than 750,000 hectares of groundnut fields. Secondly, the coincidence of oil boom in Nigeria about the same time (Ntare et al., 2005).
Groundnut is grown in nearly 100 countries in the world. Major groundnut producers are China, India, Nigeria, USA, Indonesia and Sudan. Developing countries account for 96% (26 million ha) of the global groundnut area with 92% global production (Food and Agricultural Organisation [FAO], 2004). Ashley (1993) revealed that Nigeria unshelled nut is estimated about 2.6 metric tons annually. Rainfall of 500mm-1000mm with temperature range of 250C to 300C will allow for commercial productivity (Weiss, 2000; Department of Agriculture [DOA], 2008). The productivity of groundnut is higher in well drained soils with pH between 6.0 – 6.5 particularly sandy loam soil, as it is light, thus, helps for easy penetration of pegs and their development, hence, their harvesting (Gibbon & Pains, 1985; Simonds, 1976;
Yayock, 1984; Ambrose et al., 1986; Larinde, 1999).

Groundnut is indeed one of the commercial crops in Nigeria which accounted for 70 percent of the total Nigeria’s export earning between 1956 and 1967, but declined between 1968 and 1980’s (National Planning Commission/Raw Material Research Development Council) (NPC/RMRDC, 2002). Despite the availability of abundant land and human resources in Nigeria, yield per hectare from groundnut production has been declining over the years and there is a shortfall of over 90 percent of groundnut requirement by the companies involved in processing as revealed by (RMRDC, 2004). The trend could be as result of either the small-scale groundnut farmers are resource poor or are inefficient in resource (inputs) allocation and utilization, since the output of groundnut in the study area did not commiserate with total hecterages put under cultivation as can be seen in Table 1.1 (Trend in groundnut output in Taraba State, Nigeria between 2002-2012) Taraba Agricultural Development Programme (TADP, 2013).
Table 1.1: Trend in Groundnut Output in Taraba State, Nigeria (2002 – 2012)
Year Area cultivated by small holder farmers in (’000HA) Production in Mt
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
31.92
102.00
107,01
114.80
117.80
115.60
117.70
114.80
117.80
117.70
53.76
178.00
161.50
181.50
182.06
181.80
182.20
181.70
183.20
182.20
Source: Project Monitoring and Evaluation Unit. TADP Jalingo, 2013 Nigeria agriculture is dominated by the small-scale farmers who are low income earners and provide 2/3 (two-thirds) of the total food production in the country (Usman, 2006) but productivity of food crops output remained low (Nweze, 2002). As a result the rural income is lower today than it was two decades ago and agricultural exports are
almost non-existent, also production efficiency techniques have remained rudimentary for the main cropping system despite years of works on technology generation (Federal Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development [FMARD], 2001).

This wide food deficit has been attributed to resource productivity and efficiency (Onyenwaku, 1987; Okuneye, 1988). The aftermath of this trend has always been gross inability to attain self sufficiency in food production as the sector becomes dormant and neglected (Argbokan, 2001). Ntare (2005) stated that  small-scale farmers’ access to new crop varieties has long been recognized as a critical step for increasing agricultural productivity in subsaharan Africa. He opined that, adoption of improved varieties that resist pests, diseases and drought can often vary in yield even when farmers are unable to adopt more costly inputs such as agrochemicals. Freeman et al., (1999) asserted that small-holders groundnut farmers are faced with lack of resources or access to currently available technology, as a result, the authors observed that, low producers’ prices and limited modeling opportunities reduced incentives for small-scale groundnut farmers to invest in productivity enhancing technologies such as improved seeds, fertilizer and pesticides.
Awoke (2003) identified lack of improved capital inputs, collateral and high interest rates as some of the major obstacles to groundnut production efficiency. Effective planning should aim at imparting into farmers certain knowledge to match the technical aspect of production, so that they would minimize the input of scare and expensive resources consistent with obtaining the level of output beyond which no further profit is possible, this would involve the efficient management of productive resources aside from the target crop (Awoke, 2003). The predominant reliance in traditional methods of farming by Nigeria small-scale farmers for substantial part of our agricultural production activities has been partly responsible for present low level production as against our increasing population (Ohikere, 2010). The author said that the need for improved food production stemmed from the fact that, it is, the first way to match conspicuous consumption with conspicuous production in view of the ever increasing population with rising food demand.
Food crops production efficiency is vital to improvement of the agricultural sector productivity if resources available are judiciously used. Many resources are employed by the small-scale farmers at the farm-level with attendant low output. Since increased productivity is directly related to production efficiency. It is therefore important to know how productivity of the small-scale groundnut farmers will be raised
in order to help them reduce inefficiency. Efficiency measurement is very important for monitoring productivity growth. Thus, it ascertains the extent to which if possible to increase productivity using present resource base and available technology and this can help in policy formulation on the reduction of inefficiencies visa-vis groundnut production efficiency.

 

RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY OF
SMALL-SCALE GROUNDNUT FARMERS IN TARABA
STATE, NIGERIA

1.2 Statement of Problem

Groundnut is the 13th most important food crop, 4th in oil seed crop and also 3rd most important of the world source of vegetable protein after soybean, rapeseed and cotton seed (FAO, 2006; Foreign Agricultural Service [FAS], 2010). The seed (kernel) contains 40-50% fats, 20-50% protein and 10-20% carbohydrates (FAO, 2006). About 80% of edible groundnuts are roasted for further processing into snacks food, and peanut butter (GSP NEWS, 2004).

It can be crushed for oil and groundnut cake (animals feeds) (Beghin et al., 2003). Groundnut is also good source of minerals such as phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K), as well as vitamins E, K and B (RMRDC, 2004). Production in Africa has been estimated at about 2.6 metric tons annually from a land area of approximately 2.5 million hectares with Nigeria inclusive. It is estimated also, that, 78 percent of land area sown to groundnut is in various crop association (Okigbo & Greenland, 1976; Nnadi & Haque, 2003). Although food security remains a major concern due to the subsistence nature of the country’s agriculture as asserted by Nwafor (2008), the sector employs more than 70 percent of the labour force, accounts for over 70 percent of the non-oil export and most importantly provides 80 percent of the food needs of the country (Faburso and Agbonlahor, 2007; CNB, 2009).
Nigeria population which grows at about 3.2 percent per annum with food production at about 2.0 percent is not keeping pace with its population (FAO, 2005; NBS, 2011). Food production process requires resources which when used judiciously could lead to high productivity and profitability. These resources could be natural or manmade: man-made resources include: labour, capital or entrepreneurship, which are
supplied and influenced by man (Olayide & Heady, 1982; Oyekele, Bolaji and Olowa, 2009).In order to ameliorate the dwindling and not too impressive performance of agricultural sector in terms of the gap between food supply and demand owing to

RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY OF
SMALL-SCALE GROUNDNUT FARMERS IN TARABA
STATE, NIGERIA

Impact of government expenditure on economic growth of Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study

Over the past decades, the role of government expenditure in developed and developing countries are marked by a difference. The role of government is significantly in harnessing resources for development. Government through its expenditure affects the economy and regulates major’s macro-economic variables such as full employment, price stability inflation balance of payment, equilibrium, economic growth and exchange rate regulation inclusive.

The relationship between government expenditure and economic growth has continued to generate series of debates among scholars such as whether government expansion helps or hinders. Government performs functions, such as social infrastructures, shelter and security functions; it consists of the creation of certain rule of law and enforcement of property, and the nation from external aggression. Under the provisions of public goods such as roads, education, health and power. Some scholars argue that increase in government expenditure on socio-economic and physical infrastructures encourage economic growth.

Deger (1885) opined that the development by the federal government of Nigeria on a yearly basis often allocates fund to the various sectors of the economy. The period 1981-1985 recorded the highest average decline rate. Landau (1986), extends the analysis to include human and physical capital, political, international conditions as well as three year lag on government spending on GDP.

Barro (1991) further notes that for a broad group of 98 countries that grow in real per capital GDP was positively related to initial human capital and negatively related to share of government consumption in GDP. Cashin (1995) incorporates the impact of distortionary taxes on growth through the use of endogenous growth model encompassing public investment and transfers. The positive impact of transfers on growth represents new findings in panel estimations.

Most studies that utilize government consumption as a ratio and a negative correlation with a growth while those that utilize the rate of growth in government spending and a positive correlation with a growth. The research agenda therefore needs to depart from the neoclassical models of Solow (1956) and Swan (1956) that linked long run growth to exogenous technical change. The recent generation of endogenous growth models such Easterly and Rebelo (1993) Barro (1990); Barro and Salamartin (1992) over a convenient framework for the inclusion of fiscal policy. Government capital expenditure rose from N 5,004.60 million in 1980 to N 10, 163.40 million in 1990 and further to N24, 048.60 million. The value of capital expenditure stood at N239, 450.90 million and N759, 323 million year 2000 and 2007 respectively. Furthermore, the various components of capital expenditure (such as Defence, Agriculture, Transport and Communication, Education and Health), also shows a rising between 1977 and 2007.

Other scholars believed that the impact of government expenditure is positive and significant (saacl and kalachi, 2009). Some of the scholars are of the view that public expenditure, notably on physical infrastructure and human capital, can be growth enhance; although the financing of such expenditure can be growth retarding in the short run (Noko, 2012).

According to Nurudeen and Usman (2010), available statistics shows that total government expenditure (Capital and Recurrent expenditure) and its components have continued to rise in last three decades. Nurudeen and Usman (2010) added that in Nigeria, government expenditure has continued to rise from N5, 464.70 million in 1985 to N11, 322.254 million in 2011 due to huge receipts from production and sales of crude oil and the increased demand for public (Utilities) goods such as power, education, communication etc.

Barro (1990) believed that expenditure on investment and productive activities are to contribute positively to economic growth while government consumption spending is expected to be growth retarding. Government controls the economy through the use of public expenditure. These instruments of government control promote economic growth in the sense that public investment contribute to capital accumulation. Other importance of government expenditure includes the provision of those facilities that are not covered by the market economy such as health economic growth.

Besides, there is increasing needs to provide both internal and external security for the people and the nation. Although the Nigeria Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is growing but not with the same percentage as government expenditure. The output of goods and services produced by labour and property increased at an annual rate of 0.1 percent from 2010 to 2013 in the first quarter, the increase in real GDP in (2013) primarily reflected positively in contribution from Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) that was partly offset by negative contributions export, private inventory investment, dentinal fixed investment, residential fixed investment, state and local government spending. Imports which are subtracted in the calculation of GDP, decreased.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Policy makers often argue that government spending provides available “public goods” such as education and infrastructure. They also claimed that increase in government spending can boost economic growth by enhancing people’s living standard and increase their income. Although the primary motive for every government spending is to achieve economic growth and development, and this brought about the improvement in agricultural productivities. Indices have shown that, Nigeria has often failed in the area of regulating the economy especially in fiscal policy. The government embarks on so many unworthy projects, thereby increasing its expenditure reasonably, without corresponding to the increase in economic growth at some proportion.

An analysis of Nigeria government expenditure (capital and recurrent) will reveal this clearly. Take for instance, the total spending of the federal government in (1990) is N24, 048.60 million, it grew to N121, 138.30 million from 2010, N6, 722.634 million to (2013). Nigeria often witness deficit budget due to her reckless spending at times.

Although, the Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is growing but not with the same percentage as government expenditure. From all indications, it is seen that for the past decades, that general government expenditure has been increased steadily, yet the result on Gross Domestic Product GDP has been growing a slow pace. Hence, this study will analyse the trend in public expenditure and its relationship or its impact on economic growth.

1.3 Research Question

The problem as mentioned above generate the following questions

  1. Is there any causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth of Nigeria?
  2. Have government expenditure significantly impact on economic growth of Nigeria?
  3. Does there exist any long run relationship between government and economic growth of Nigeria?

1.4 Objective of the Study

This study aim at achieving the following objective;

  1. To examine the role of government expenditure and its impact on economic growth.
  2. To determine the causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth of Nigeria.
  • To determine the long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth of Nigeria.

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypothesis will be tested in the course of this research work.

H0: Government expenditure does not have any significant impact on the economic growth of Nigeria.

H0: There is no causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth of Nigeria.

H0: There is no long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth of Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work on the impact of government expenditure of economic growth of Nigeria will be of great impact to the public in general. Monetary authorities such as the Ministry of Finance, the Budget Planning Board, Policy Makers, Policy Implementing Executives and anyone who has interest on government finance and how it impact the economic. The work will also be of great impact on economic students and researchers in this field.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This research aim at ascertaining the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria between the periods of 1981 – 2012, an analysis of government expenditure at this periods, and its consequent impact on the economy.

However, the following constitute the constraint faced by the researcher in the course of undertaking this research work. Data constraint, unavailability of data inconsistency of data figure from different source. Time is another constraint to this research work.

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Adult education is the practices of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace, through extension school or school of continuing education. Other learning places include community colleges, folk high schools and lifelong learning centers. The practice is also often referred to as training and development and is often associated with workforce or professional development. It has also been referred to as androgyny. Adult education is different from vocational education, which is mostly workplace based for skill improvement and also from non-formal adult education, including learning skills or learning for personal development.

Community development: Is a broad term applied to the practices and academic disciplines of civic leaders, activist, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of local communities. Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people by providing them with the skills they need to effect change in their communities.

HOW ADULT EDUCATION HELP IN PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN COMMUNITIES

Adult education can help in promoting programmes in communities through community-based health promotion. A comprehension approach to long-term health behaviour change by influencing the community (cultural) norms through education and community organization. Health promotion programmes need make it possible for the community to support healthy behaviours. To do this successfully, the community and its leadership must be mobilized to provide community-based health programs. Community–based health promotion targets the whole community. Changing habits may begin at the individual or family level, but maintaining change relies on reinforcement and approval at the community levels. Program efforts need to focus on the whole community so that it becomes positive and enabling, one in which the family, the media, employers, educators, faith communities, voluntary and professional organizations health care institutions and government all take an active and positive role in changing those factors in the community which continue to place people at risk.

Community-based health promotion requires action at many levels. Well planned and co-ordinated actions from segments of the community are necessary for health behaviour change. Strategies must provide people with health information, develop opportunities for people to make and practice healthful choices, encourage those choices through community support and provide economic and other incentives and policies that promote healthy choices.

Community-based health promotion has many educational component, individual, group and community-wide education initiatives are needed to influence health behaviour change. Community-based health promotion aims at effective public participation. People need to be involved in the decision making process, coming together to determine the appropriate strategies for their communities. Involved all segments of the community in the planning and implementing of programmes, insures co-operation and co-ordination and is a key to the success of health promotion efforts community-based health promotion focus is on basically healthy people.

Health promotion needs to reach people before they are symptomatic, and at a time when changing health behaviours can prevent illness, disability and death. The goal is to encourage people, through lifestyle changes, to improve their overall health and well being.

NO 2

Adult education has helped most people that couldn’t complete their education to do so. It has also help in creating awareness of the importance of education. Through adult education so many people have the awareness of health; it is also a means of relating to people via online.

       Through adult people learn to address the real problems of society like power sharing, wealth creation, gender and health issues. The adult learners are more motivated to learn.

       Adult education helps one to actualize his dream in life.

Through adult education people learn different skills which help to boost their farming products and other vocational engagements.

Through adult education in there is awareness of health programmes that concerns their health problems or issues.

Through adult education life has be reshaped. It has also help to reduce poverty, ignorance, fear, sickness and higher. Through adult education people participate in the social development. There is human capital formation in adult education, there is enhancement of labour productivity.

In Nigeria today one of its major aims and objective is to inculcate good habits in the life’s of people.

Also to eradicate illiteracy, poverty. There is also the tendency to empower people through adult education.

REFERENCES

(1) Wehmeyer, M.L., Agran, M; & Hughes, .C. (1998). Teaching self determination to students with disabilities: Basic skills for successful transition Baltimore: Paul .H. Borokes.

(2) National collaborative on workforce and Disability for youth (2004). Organizational and programmatic component of effective youth programs.

INTRODUCTION

This is an allied matter which is the act of federal Republic of Nigeria to empower the corporate affairs commission (CAC) to register and incorporate companies in Nigerian. However, it is pertinent to understand the legal implications with regards to the various business students that can formed.

        A prior understanding of these may save as from future hassles.

LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY IN NIGERIA

        This limited liability company can be referred as a non corporate business whose owners actively participate in the organization’s management and are protected against personal liability for the organization debts and obligations.

        The limited liability company is a hybrid legal entity that has both the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership. Limited liability company provides its owners with corporate, like protecting against personal liability it is usually treated as a non-corporate business organization for tax purposes.

It is important to know at the CAC is in charge of such task. And this CAC and it functions stands as corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) is the government body responsible for registering business names and companies in Nigeria. Now lets elaborate on how limited liability company in Nigeria can be registered.

Step I: it is advisable that you register your limited liability company through a lawyer. This will save you the legal headaches and help you avoid costly mistakes. It is pertinent to get a legal adviser in issues like this.

Step II: The minimum number of shares that can be registered for a limited liability company is one million shares.

Step III: It can be recognize by this three steps, example is XYX Global Ltd or XYZ Nigeria Ltd. Then a name search will be conducted by the CAC and it one of your chosen names is found suitable and unregistered it will be assigned to you.

Step IV: If your name is chosen, you will have up to 60 days to complete the whole registration by filling and filling the forms.

Step V: After the name search you need to choose your directors. That is after dividing the share ratio among the directors.

It is advisable you demand a CTC from your lawyer which is referred as (certified true copy) and most importantly, you must bear in mind that most price for registering a limited liability company is not static. This is due to the ever changing policy of CAC.

Note that the price you pay to incorporate a business depends on the caliber of the law firm you engage or how much your lawyer charges you for the services rendered.

Historically, this limited liability company is a relatively new business form in the United States, although it has existed in other countries for some time. In 1977, Wyoming became the first state to enact.

At this point states had little incentive to form an limited liability company because it remained unclear whether the internal Revenue service would treat an LLC as a partnership or as a corporation for tax purposes.

FORMATION OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY IN NIGERIA

The state law governs the creation of an LLC. Persons firm an LLC by filling required documents with the appropriate state authority. The state authority usually requires for articles of organization. These are considered public documents and are similar to articles of incorporation, which establish a corporation as a legal entity. The minimum information requires for the articles of organization varies from state to state. Generally, it includes the name of the LLC, the name of the person organizing the LLC, the duration of the LLC, and the name of the LLC’s registered agent.

OPERATING AGREEMENT

Nearly even LLC maintains a separate within or oral operating agreement which is generally defined us the agreement between the members that governs the affairs of LLC. Members of an LLC are free to structure the agreement as they see fit. An LLC can usually amend or repeal provisions of its operating agreement by a vote of its members.

Thus, LLC states specifically provides that members of an LLC are not personally liable for the LLC’s debts and obligations. This limited liability is similar to the liability protection for corporate shareholders, partners in a limited partnership and partners in a limited liability partnership. Under certain circumstances, however, a member may become personally liable for an LLC’s debts.

STRUCTURE

    The owners of an LLC are called members and are similar in some respects to shareholders of a corporation. A member can be a natural person, a corporation, a partnership or another legal association or entity. Unlike corporations which may be formed by only one shareholder, LLC’s in most states are formed and managed by two or more members. LLCs are therefore unavailable to sole proprietors, in addition, unlike some closely held, or 5 corporations, which allowed a limited number of shareholders, LLCs may have any number of member beyond one.

There are legal structure of the business. They exist on number of different structures that differ in several important aspects. Some of the common business structure are:

  • Sole proprietorship
  • General partnership
  • Limited partnership
  • Limited liability partnership
  • Corporation (including s corporations)
  • Professional associations
  • Limited liability companies
  • Business trusts
  • Professional corporations.

This sole proprietorship of business legal structure is viewed as being one and the same as its owner. The sole proprietors in cause little expenses in setting up this form of business and it is the most common structure among small business.

In nutshell the above mentioned structure this is regarded as the various business structure.

General partnership is a collaboration between two or more people in business seeking a profit. General partnerships have pass through taxation and the owners are personally liable for the debt of the business. Thus, partnership can be formed with little formality, but because more than one person is involved.

– Limited partnership: It comprises both general partnership who run the business and are exposed to personal liability, and limited partners who invest in the business and have only their invested capital at risk.

– Limited liability partnership: Is equal to that of limited partnership except that all partners in an LLP enjoy limited liability.

– Corporation: This is the most common form of business entity among larger companies, unlike sole proprietorships and partnerships corporations are separate and distinct from their owners in the eyes of the law. It involves limited liability, easy transferability of shares and perpetual existence.

– Limited liability Company: It flows through taxation associated with LLC’s however, in many cases an LLC’s 13 better than 5 corporations for taxes because there are fewer hurdles and income can be allocated more flexibility.

        In a nutshell the above mentioned structures are regarded as the various business structures and there classification in Nigeria.

CONCLUSION

        Thus, on the other hand, the article of association, which forms the second part of the same document, specifies internal organization and relationship of members. It covers the conditions for transfer of shares as private company, the voting powers of the shareholders and proceedings at general meetings, the borrowing powers and duties of directors and the duties of the key functionaries. It also specifies among other things the use of the company seal and carries indemnity clause for the directors managers and other officers of the company Melcome Nig. Plc is a public limited liability company involved in both domestic and international business.

REFERENCES

Ahmed Abdulai (2001), Legality of Universal Banking. Business   times April 9 15.

 Bisi Oladipo (2001), Universal Banking. Banks, the Insurance       Operators and Policy Holders. Business Times February 26 March 4.

 Whynott, Philop P. 1999. The Limited Liability Company.      Costa Mesa, Calif: James.

 Callison, J. William, and Maureen A. Sullivan. 1994. Limited         Liability.

According to Taiwo (1980:75) for sense of national unity, a country where people are different races and each race tries to emphasize it own importance and there are social or tribal jealousies, one race fears the domination of another race, it is always very difficult to make for national system of education. This study is of a critique of the five main objective of the philosophy of Nigeria education in the contemporary socio-economic and political trends in Nigeria. The first part of this article is the introduction, which deals with the background information to the study. After the introduction the said objectives are critically examined one after the other.

 INTRODUCTION

       According to Osokoya (1987:19) the findings of different educational commission in Nigeria, together with the contributions of a number of Nigeria academics and educationists highlighted the weaknesses of the old educational system as being too academic, theoretical, inadequate and unsuitable for providing an overall development of Nigerians. Hence, there was agitation for a re-evaluation of the old system and a desire order need for a natural policy on education.

It was an attempt to meet the demand and the 1979 constitution which brought presidential systems of government that gave birth to 1981 revised edition of the national polices on education.

       We also have five main objectives of the philosophy of Nigeria Education as state in the policy document (1981:7) revised edition are the building of.

  • A free and democratic society
  • A just and egalitarian society
  • A united strong and self reliant nation.
  • A great and dynamic economy
  • A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.

The above objectives seem to have symbiotic relationship in the light of contemporary socio-economic and political trends in Nigeria. It us have a critical examination of these objectives one by one.

A FREE AND DEMOCRTAIC SOCIETY

It is clear that this first objective of philosophy of Nigeria education means that there would be free press, free assembly, free publication, free religion, free education, to name but a few. It is disheartening to note that the reserse is the case. Free this and free only exists on paper, and not in practice.

       As Akande (2003:4) rightly observes Nigeria got her independence in (1960) and in about 43 years of existence had had 29 years of military rule. This could be attributed to the desire of a section of the country to continue to exploit the resources of other section speaking in the same vein Nwuchukwu (1990) a council in Imo State remarked in (1990) that:

       It does not say well of us as a nation if after 30 years of independence on civilian from the southern part of this vast country has ever been head of government News watch, October 8, 1990, vol. 12, No. 15 some years back, 2 decreases 2 and 4 were introduced by the military to silence the ruled. A number of pressmen and social critics were either thrown into Jaaial without trial or mained.

 A JUST AND EGALITARIAN SOCIETY

This objectives means that Nigeria is a free society when everyone is equal and should have equal rights the richor poor. Everybody should get what he deserves. It is however very disheartening that the reserse is the cas in a just and egalitarian society’. Equality before the law is not practiced per see. How man people have the Economic power to pursue and maintain the human right in Nigeria? The are a number of hurdles on the way. for instance, The polities of the federal character and quota system are evolved as a sandly approach at rationalizing and justifying injustices. According to Adeyinka (1994:75) one of the most disturbing issues in Nigeria education today is the obnoxious quota system which tends to favour the weak against the strong,

       Nigeria are being treated like aliens in their own fatherland. Fafunwa, a leading e4ducationist and one time minister 8,1990:58 once sai9d, in a federal such as ours, you have to bring up such a system (quota system) So that no section is left behind.

       In certain parts of the country, people from other parts of the nation are being employed on contract basis. Every appointment by the government is scrutinized to ascertain wether the appointe is mushlim or a christen, a northerner or a southern mushim.It is not enough that the appointees are Nigerians and are competent to hold those position(news watch) October 8, vol 12, No15,

A UNITED STRONG AND SELF-RELIANCE NATION

       At 43, Nigeria still depends to a large extent on foreign countries in order to exist the country is neither united nor strong self reliance because of one factor or another. We do not have enough man power to build the economy. It is not exaggeration to say that at 43, Nigeria is more or her a “toddber”. Let us have a brief look at the health sector for instances, we do not have enough specialists in our hospital, even teaching hospitals. A significant number of the few that we have traveled out of the country and more are still traveling out. With the rate at which our doctors nurses and other paramedical staff are leaving our shares in search of greener pastures, a good number of the teaching hospitals designated as “centers of excellence” cannot boast of more than a handful of specialists, personnel in various medical fields. This probably explains how and why our leaders spend huge amounts of public find in the name of medical treatment overseas. Health, they say is wealth. How can unhealthy nation be strong and wealthy?

       It is also pertinent to not that government always turns deaf ear to the contributions of man of honour and integrity who are not only prepared to stand above the fog and trapping of high office, but also ready to risk their positions, nay their necks, in defense of what they conceive as the truth alone can lead us away from the path of destruction. Nigeria has suffered a lot of setbacks in the light of political and socio-economic instability. Every new government wants to be recognized with one policy or the other (eg) operation feed the nation, Green Revolution, war against indiscipline.

A GREAT AND DYNAMIC ECONOMY

       Building a great and dynamic economy means that our economy  would be changed for the better. At present. Nigeria economy is complex and things are very expensive that many people especially young ones are taking to aimed robbery in order to survive the hard period, arm robbers are so daring that they are visiting not only the ndi or the middle class, but the seat of government and government lodges. Even police station is not left out.

       Since it is difficult for the young to max both ends meet, they try to set the end against the middle. The economy is consistently recording negative growth rates. Unemployment level in the economy is consistently at high increase.

The transportation system in the country is nothing to write home about. A lot of people, even government can hardly buy new vehicles. Thanks to Tokumbo, (used vechiles) important to the country. Nigeria has become a dumping ground for all sorts of used vehicles.

A land of Bright and full opportunities for all citizens:

       This is to say that every national of Nigeria would enjoy equal opportunity anywhere and anytime not media his or her geographical places of birth in Nigeria.

REFERENCES

A bacha .S. (1984) Announcements by the new military        government in Reverse order. Sunday Concord       Lagos: January, 1984.

Ademoyeya, A. (1985) Why we struck: The story of the        first Nigeria coup. Ibadan: Evanst Brothers (Nigeria        publishers) Ltd.

Adesima .S. et al (1985). Foundation studies in      education. Ibadan university press limited.

Adeyinka, A.A. (ed) (1994) Popular topics in    Comparative education of Nigeria tertiary education      students Lagos: Royal communication Ltd.

Akande, B. (2003) Restructuring Nigeria approach to     True federalism. Ibadan: FASCOM