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PROJECT TOPIC- TENSE AND ASPECT IN AROCHUKWUDIALECT OF IGBO

PROJECT TOPIC- TENSE AND ASPECT IN AROCHUKWU DIALECT OF IGBO

ABSTRACT

This study is focused on “Tense and aspect in Arochukwu dialect of Igbo. This work finds out how tense and aspect feature in Arochukwu dialect. This fieldwork is designed to get correct translation of the dialect and be able to describe it the way it is. Five informants were given the data to translate with two hundred and eighty-five (285) sentences or expressions which includes the following: tenses, aspects, modals, infinitives, gerunds, noun modifications or colour description, nominal modifiers or adjectives, pronouns, negations and conjunctions. Out of the five informants, three are from Atani village, one from Asaga, and one from Oror village of Arochukwu. From the data collected and analysis made, it was discovered that tenses derive their forms or are marked using the following: Past positive – rv form, past negative – gi/ghi, future positive- ma, future negative-ama, future immediate- na-, while that of aspect is derived using the following. Durative/habitual-na-/naghi, inceptive/ inchoative -….wa/…..we, present continous progressive-….. wala/na-/ghi (negative), past continous progressive-na-/reduplication/ghi (negative), future progressive-mana…../ama na (negative), past perfect—ri/le/la/g(negative), present perfect-lv/ne/begi (negative), future perfect-/v/rv/form, present perfect progressive—je/nabe, past perfect progressive-n’/-be.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

According to Uwalaka (1997) tense is a category of grammar or verb that specifies the time of an action or state relative to the time of speech. It can also be defined as a set of forms of verb that indicate the time or completeness of the action expressed by the verb, according to pocket oxford English Dictionary 9th edition (2002). According to Uwalaka (1997) Aspect gives added information to the duration of an event.

According to Hartmann and Stock (1973:66), dialect is a regional or social variety, differing in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard language which is in it-self a social favored dialect.

It has been claimed that Igbo makes more aspectual distinction than tense distinction. As a result, aspect is marked in Igbo by prefixes, suffixes and auxiliary verbs (uwalaka 1997:83).

Arochukwu is among the Local Governments in Abia State. It comprises of nineteen villages coordinates of 5o23oN 7o55oE. It has the total area of two hundred and two (202) square miles, five hundred and twenty-four (524) population area, 3,000,000 speakers, and its religions are of Christianity and traditional religion.

Arochukwu sometimes is referred to as Arochuku or Aro-Okigbo, pronounced as Arochukwu, is the third largest city in Abia State in Southeastern Nigeria and homeland of the Igbo subgroup, Aro people. Its Nineteen village has an over all leader called Eze Aro. Arochukwu is a principal historic town in Igbo land.

By the mid-18th Century, there were mass migrations of several Aro business families into the Igbo, hinterland and adjacent areas. This migration, with the influence of their god Ibini Ukpabi through priests, and their military power backed up by alliances with several related neighboring Igbo and eastern Cross River militarized states particularly Ohafia, Abam, Abiriba, Afikpo, Ekoi etc quickly established the Aro confederacy as a regional economic power. The kingdom is mostly Igbo with Ibibio and Akpa minorities. The main language in Arochukwu is Igbo while Ibibio is also spoken. Arochukwu belongs to the Cross river group of dialects (CRGD) which includes all versions of the Igbo language spoken in this area. The speech community includes such areas as Umuchiakuma, Amamgbelu, Ndiokpo, Obitoo, Obichienu, Atani, Uburu, umuzomgbo, Okpo, Achara, Mkporo, Abooro, Amaafia, Amaetiti, Amaiyi, Agbo, Umuye, Mgbeli, Obichi.

PROJECT TOPIC- TENSE AND ASPECT IN AROCHUKWU DIALECT OF IGBO

1.2  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

According to Charles – worth (1962), Research arises … when there are problems to solve, peculiarities or puzzles about phenomena or the question of giving meaning to them. To this extent, the main objectives of this study are:

1.    To find out the relevance of Arochukwu dialect to Igbo language.

2.    To find out the similarities between Arochukwu dialect and that of other dialects in Igbo land.

3.    To find out how tenses and aspect are marked in Arochukwu dialect.

4.    The importance of migration on Arochukwu people and its effect on their dialect.

1.3  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK                     

Various categories of linguists and students stand to gain from the findings of this work.

To start with, linguists will understand and know that, they have successors who have it in mind to bring about a better development of this dialect by having a positive attitude and perception about the uniqueness of this dialect.

Secondly, linguistics students will equally see the need to develop positives interests, attitude and perception towards their own dialect even to work on it for sustenance.

Thirdly, this finding will help employers of linguists to ensure that it is only specialists in this field that will be able to handle language analysis.

However, other researchers will see the need of using appropriate, methods and data collection in the analysis and description of the dialect.

Finally, other researcher will have a lot to gain from this finding as it will add to the volume of the work which they have already done on this topic and as a matter of fact serve as a part of reference point for further researches.

1.4  DELIMITATION

This findings will cover only the selected villages of Arochukwu proper in Arochukwu Local Government Area of Abia State. It includes just three villages, namely: Atani, Asaga, and Oror of Arochukwu.

1.5  CONSTRAINTS

We had some challenges that posed a kind of limitation to the quality, quantity and authenticity of the result.

Limited time was one of the challenges we faced. This field work should last for at least three months to be able to adjust to the environment, make friends, even reason with the king, village head or councilor in order to get reasonable information about the dialect from them to help boost our work.

Some informant’s dialect or speech form have been influenced due to their social status, religious involvement and educational background. It really brought about instability of the data collected.

The autonomous community believes so much on migration and as such getting the accurate number in population has in a way proved difficult since they are scattered across Igbo land.

An informant refused the sound of her voice to be recorded and the radio rape recorder used disappointed us by not being able to capture the voice of our informants except if kept one to two centimeters away from the mouth.

Lastly, most of the informants were unable to write by themselves because of poor sight condition and poor academic background.

 

 

1.6  METHODOLOGY          

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The five questionnaires were given out to five persons, but one person was able to write himself while other ones were written by one of us as the informants translates with the help of a cassette in the tape record, recording the discussion, it was kept very close to the mouth. At the end of the responses from the informants which were written as guided by the researchers, the responses were collected in full. None of the questionnaire was lost on course of the administration of the instruments or materials. The informants or respondents filled informant’s background information forms as they were attached to the questionnaires respectively.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The data collected were analyzed and expresses in simple percentage (%). A total of five (5) copies were distributed and all were filled and received indicating a hundred (100%) percentage return.

% = Number of informants X 100%

Sample size                 1

 

N = Number of Informants

S = Sample size of total number.

PROJECT TOPIC- TENSE AND ASPECT IN AROCHUKWU DIALECT OF IGBO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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